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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Warren K. Bickel and Richard Yi

Conceptual paper purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine a new conceptual model of addiction and interpret the results from delay discounting studies in light…

Abstract

Conceptual paper purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine a new conceptual model of addiction and interpret the results from delay discounting studies in light of this new perspective.

Methodology/approach – To accomplish this we (1) introduce this new conceptual model, (2) briefly review executive function, including evidence for executive dysfunction among the addicted, (3) describe the unique relationship of temporal discounting to the new model and executive dysfunction, and (4) reinterpret the discounting literature in light of this new conceptual model.

Findings – Addicted individuals discount the future more than controls. This is consistent with greater relative activation of the impulsive system and decreased relative activation of the executive system. It also supports the new conceptual model of addiction.

Research implications – The new model provides a model for understanding the observations from the broader area of research in temporal discounting.

Originality/value of chapter – Given the view of executive function as important for the cross-temporal organization of behavior, we think that temporal discounting, the valuing of future commodities, qualifies this process to be included as an executive function.

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Neuroeconomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-304-0

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Isabel Brunton and Tom Hartley

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) programme, prepared for the Joint Prison Probation Service Accreditation Panel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) programme, prepared for the Joint Prison Probation Service Accreditation Panel, might reduce antisocial behaviour if delivered to school‐aged children.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents two studies. In the first, adult offenders' executive function was measured before and after undertaking the ETS course, using a self report form. Change in behaviour following the course was assessed using behaviour checklists completed by prison staff. In the second study, schoolchildren's executive function was measured using a self report form and their behaviour was also assessed using a comparable behaviour checklist.

Findings

The results showed an association between antisocial behaviour and poor executive function in both offenders and schoolchildren. Offenders displayed less antisocial behaviour following the ETS course. Executive function and antisocial behaviour measured before the ETS course predicted reduction in antisocial behaviour following the course.

Research limitations/implications

The studies do not establish a causal role for the ETS programme in reducing antisocial behaviour, and it was not possible to investigate the effect of the programme in schoolchildren. However, the results indicate that further research may be fruitful.

Practical implications

The possibility that an adapted ETS programme might lead to a reduction in antisocial behaviour in schoolchildren should be investigated. Behavior checklists and measures of executive function should guide the selection of individuals joining the ETS programme.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the ETS programme might be effective outside a criminal justice setting, as an early intervention with schoolchildren aimed at preventing later offending.

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The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2020

Zillah Webb, Karen Dodd, Alexandra Livesey, Sanjay Sunak, Chris Marshall, Lee Harrison and Heather Liddiard

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for…

Abstract

Purpose

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and none have population-specific norms. This paper aims to describe the adaptation of the behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome (BADS).

Design/methodology/approach

Adaptations were made to the BADS tests to create the BADS – intellectual disabilities (BADS-ID). Data from three doctoral dissertations were combined to explore the utility, reliability, validity and component structure of the BADS-ID. Properties of the BADS-ID were compared with the Cambridge Executive Functioning Assessment (CEFA).

Findings

The BADS-ID is accessible to IQ range 50–70 and has a two-component structure. It has good inter-rater reliability, but poor internal consistency. It has a good face and content validity but evidence for concurrent and discriminative validity is weak. All properties are comparable to or better than the CEFA.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to improve reliability and validity. The development of an accessible test battery with known reliability and validity for individuals with ID should facilitate research into executive functioning in this population. There is the potential to develop population-specific norms from the data.

Practical implications

An accessible test battery for individuals with ID is helpful in clinical situations.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the adaptation of the BADS for use with individuals with ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

William B. Wolf

Presents the thoughts on decision processes of Chester I. Barnard, one of the century’s greatest management theorists. Includes his classic article, “Mind in everyday…

Abstract

Presents the thoughts on decision processes of Chester I. Barnard, one of the century’s greatest management theorists. Includes his classic article, “Mind in everyday affairs”; his unpublished book, “The Significance of Decisive Behaviour in Social Action”; his correspondence with Herbert Simon, and significant comments found in his personal papers.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

R. Ray Gehani

Chester Barnard’s 1938 book The Functions of the Executive is re‐examined in the context of the emerging knowledge‐based dynamic theory of the firm. The key constructs and…

Abstract

Chester Barnard’s 1938 book The Functions of the Executive is re‐examined in the context of the emerging knowledge‐based dynamic theory of the firm. The key constructs and the underlying principles for Barnard’s functions of the “executive” and organization as a cooperative open‐system are reassessed for the evolving knowledge‐driven firm competing in the twenty‐first century global economy. Surprisingly, after more than six decades, Barnard’s cooperative “executive,” well‐versed in the logical‐rational and the non‐logical‐intuitive decision‐making processes, still seems quite competent to effectively lead the knowledge‐driven e‐business enterprise evolving in the twenty‐first century. The Barnardian “executive,” however, must evolve by acquiring and integrating the newly available knowledge‐related technologies and other adaptive competencies to help develop new drivers of global competitiveness.

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Management Decision, vol. 40 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Catrin Johansson and Ann T. Ottestig

The purpose of this research is to study how communication executives perceive their internal and external legitimacy, how they reflect on recent developments in their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study how communication executives perceive their internal and external legitimacy, how they reflect on recent developments in their work, and which future challenges they perceive as being important.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of in‐depth interviews with communication executives.

Findings

Communication executives have a distinct strategic managerial role within their organizations. The executive role involves three different performances: the organizational leader; the communication leader; and the communication manager. Executives perceived high external legitimacy, whereas internal legitimacy varied between organizations, and status and formal position were both dynamic and subject to negotiation. The communication technology development, termed as a “revolution”, has considerably affected executives' work. Future communication challenges such as globalization and organizational change were discussed.

Research limitations/implications

Recent changes have strengthened the roles of the communication executives. Internal status and legitimacy appear to be dependent on the attitudes of the other executives. These relationships and the emerging executive roles will be an important basis for study in future research.

Practical implications

Internal legitimacy was clearly an issue of negotiation, which is important for practitioners to consider. Acting out the educational role, working with communication support and the coaching of managers, and initiating and pursuing strategic organizational issues may be means by which communication executives are further able to enhance their internal legitimacy.

Originality/value

New insights with regard to the legitimacy, practice and self‐perceptions of communication executives are provided. This is the first study of Swedish communication executives, adding to the knowledge base derived from studies from The Netherlands, UK and USA.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Andrew W. Braunstein

Executive compensation equations are estimated separately for three groups of firms, under the contention that the determinants of executive remuneration may depend upon…

Abstract

Executive compensation equations are estimated separately for three groups of firms, under the contention that the determinants of executive remuneration may depend upon the form of and degree of regulation in an industry. Empirical evidence obtained for three separate years lends support to that notion.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Gerald Vinten and Connie Lee

Explores objectives, functions, roles and contributions of theaudit committee in the context of its relationships with the board ofdirectors, internal auditors and…

Abstract

Explores objectives, functions, roles and contributions of the audit committee in the context of its relationships with the board of directors, internal auditors and external auditors. Suggests that the audit committee is a step forward in the development of corporate control so long as it does not have unrealistic expectations. Concludes that the role of the audit committee should be in an advisory and oversight capacity with independence, but should remain an internal organ of the corporation.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

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