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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2022

Luri Lee and Donghoon Kim

Although there are at least two important characteristics of targeted promotions—promotion individualization (i.e. whether the offer is personalized for the recipient) and…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there are at least two important characteristics of targeted promotions—promotion individualization (i.e. whether the offer is personalized for the recipient) and notification exclusivity (i.e. how small the number of recipients is)—most previous studies on targeted promotion have conceptualized them synonymously. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of targeted promotion on consumer purchases by conceptualizing these separately and incorporating them in a single model. Also, this study explores how the effects of these differ depending on customer loyalty. We particularly examine the promotional responses of extremely loyal customers, distinguishing them from other loyal customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using actual customer purchase data, we develop a two-stage model of the consumer decision-making process involving decisions of whether and how much to purchase. The two characteristics of targeted promotions—promotion individualization and notification exclusivity—first influence the probability of purchase and then the purchase amount given purchase.

Findings

The results show that customers respond positively to individualization and exclusivity. The effect of individualization is reduced as customer loyalty increases from loyal customers to extremely loyal customers while that of exclusivity remains the same.

Originality/value

By clearly identifying the two characteristics of targeted promotions and developing an empirical model that captures the effects of these separately, this paper provides new academic and managerial insights that were not clearly identified in the current literature.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Xujia Wang, Billy Sung and Ian Phau

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether…

1656

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether exclusivity and rarity can function as distinct marketing strategies in today's luxury market environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Online questionnaires were administered by adapting developed scales from prior research. Research stimuli were chosen from three luxury categories including bags, wine and cruise. Confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirmed that exclusivity, natural rarity and virtual rarity were perceived as relatively distinct constructs among our sample. Findings also highlighted that perceived natural rarity (PNR) has consistently emerged as a positive and significant contributor to consumers' perceptions of luxury across all three luxury categories. The influence of perceived exclusivity (PE) on perceptions of luxury has also shown to be significant for two product categories (luxury bag and luxury wine), whereas perceived virtual rarity (PVR) did not show any significant effects across all three categories.

Practical implications

The results indicate that consumers perceive natural rarity, virtual rarity and exclusivity as relatively distinctive marketing strategies. This suggests that luxury businesses can adopt each strategy independently to achieve desired marketing outcomes.

Originality/value

This study offers theoretical support for the proposition that exclusivity and rarity may have different functions in luxury marketing implementations. It provides empirical evidence showing the distinctiveness of perceived exclusivity and perceived rarity, which have not be done in previous research.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Felix Septianto, Yuri Seo, Billy Sung and Fang Zhao

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value…

1972

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value (authenticity vs exclusivity) appeals within advertising messages.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted. Studies 1A and 1B establish the influence of incidental emotions and regulatory focus on consumer preferences for divergent luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) within advertisements. Study 2 shows the match-up effects of congruent emotional and luxury value appeals on advertising effectiveness.

Findings

The authors offer causal evidence that promotion pride increases the preference for exclusivity appeals, whereas prevention pride increases the preference for authenticity appeals in luxury advertising.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a novel perspective into the ways consumers evaluate different value appeals in luxury advertising and establishes the important role played by emotions within such evaluations.

Practical implications

Marketers of luxury products can increase the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns by considering the fit between emotional and luxury value appeals. Specifically, the authors show that the congruent matching of promotion pride with exclusivity appeals and of prevention pride with authenticity appeals within advertising messages can elicit more favorable consumer responses.

Originality/value

The study is the first to illustrate novel “match-up” effects: it shows when and how different luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) and emotions (promotion pride vs prevention pride) influence the effectiveness of luxury advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Jochen Wirtz, Jonas Holmqvist and Martin P. Fritze

The market for luxury is growing rapidly. While there is a significant body of literature on luxury goods, academic research has largely ignored luxury services. The…

4215

Abstract

Purpose

The market for luxury is growing rapidly. While there is a significant body of literature on luxury goods, academic research has largely ignored luxury services. The purpose of this article is to open luxury services as a new field of investigation by developing the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings to build the luxury services literature and show how luxury services differ from both luxury goods and from ordinary (i.e. non-luxury) services.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a conceptual approach drawing upon and synthesizing the luxury goods and services marketing literature.

Findings

This article makes three contributions. First, it shows that services are largely missing from the luxury literature, just as the field of luxury is mostly missing from the service literature. Second, it contrasts the key characteristics of services and related consumer behaviors with luxury goods. The service characteristics examined are non-ownership, IHIP (i.e. intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability, and perishability), the three additional Ps of services marketing (i.e. people, processes, and physical facilities) and the three-stage service consumption model. This article derives implications these characteristics have on luxury. For example, non-ownership increases the importance of psychological ownership, reduces the importance of conspicuous consumption and the risk of counterfeiting. Third, this article defines luxury services as extraordinary hedonic experiences that are exclusive whereby exclusivity can be monetary, social and hedonic in nature, and luxuriousness is jointly determined by objective service features and subjective customer perceptions. Together, these characteristics place a service on a continuum ranging from everyday luxury to elite luxury.

Practical implications

This article provides suggestions on how firms can enhance psychological ownership of luxury services, manage conspicuous consumption, and use more effectively luxury services' additional types of exclusivity (i.e. social and hedonic exclusivity).

Originality/value

This is the first paper to define luxury services and their characteristics, to apply and link frameworks from the service literature to luxury, and to derive consumer insights from these for research and practice.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Jonathan Peterson, Loubna Tahssain-Gay and Benraiss-Noailles Laila

This paper examines antecedents to perceived injustice in exclusive talent identification practices.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines antecedents to perceived injustice in exclusive talent identification practices.

Design/methodology/approach

31 in-depth interviews with individuals working in for-profit organizations in France were conducted and analyzed. Interviewees represented a variety of sectors such as transportation, aerospace, energy and telecommunications.

Findings

The use of exclusivity in talent identification influences perceived organizational justice through ambiguous advancement policies, support from hidden networks, lack of diversity in the talent identification process, frequent gender discrimination, and premature labeling of talent. These practices suggest breaches in procedural, distributive and interactional justice by allocating advantages to some employees over others. Exclusivity yielded frustration, jealousy and potential retaliatory behavior against those individuals deemed to be unfairly identified as talent.

Practical implications

The challenge of ensuring fair and equitable talent identification is a growing issue for organizations. For managers, it requires paying close attention to how some forms of exclusivity in talent identification may create unfair treatment of employees.

Originality/value

While organizational justice research focuses on the background and practices that promote justice, our research finds its originality in examining the sentiments of injustice that remain contextual, subjective and comparative.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Christina S. Rodrigue and Abhijit Biswas

This paper examines the effects of resource dependency and contract exclusivity on the attitudes and intentions of consumers in brand alliances. Findings indicate that…

6012

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of resource dependency and contract exclusivity on the attitudes and intentions of consumers in brand alliances. Findings indicate that attitudes of the brands before the alliance (pre‐attitudes) have a positive effect on the attitude toward the alliance, which has a positive effect on perceived quality of the alliance, willingness to pay a premium price and purchase intention. Further, attitudes toward the brands after the alliance (post‐attitudes) reveal a positive spillover effect for both the host and ally brands. Interestingly, the moderating effects of dependency and exclusivity differ based on whether the brand serves as the host or the ally brand in the alliance. Analyses conducted after controlling for the effects of familiarity of the ally brands revealed consistent results.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Isaac Cheah, Anwar Sadat Shimul and Min Teah

This paper aims to examine consumers’ evaluation of and reaction to the coexistence of brand misconduct and sustainability claims through a series of studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine consumers’ evaluation of and reaction to the coexistence of brand misconduct and sustainability claims through a series of studies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions are examined across three studies. Consumer’s scepticism of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is considered the driver of brand distance. Brand hypocrisy is postulated to mediate the relationship between scepticism to CSR and brand distance. Furthermore, brand trust and desire for exclusivity are tested as moderators of brand hypocrisy and brand distance.

Findings

The findings showed that environmental misconduct leads to perceived brand hypocrisy and brand distancing. When luxury brands take action to remedy their actions, the perceived brand hypocrisy and brand distancing decrease. In addition, brand trust and desire for exclusivity dilute the relationship between brand hypocrisy and brand distance.

Originality/value

The findings show that, standing in a contradictory position, brands can still reduce the consumers’ perceived brand distance by building a strong consumers’ trust toward the brand. At the same time, relating the luxury consumers’ yearning for the exclusive products and services, the findings show that the consumers with a strong desire for exclusivity feel a lower level of brand distance even if the brand gets involved in misconduct.

Propósito

Este artículo examina la evaluación y la reacción de los consumidores ante la coexistencia de la mala conducta de la marca y las alegaciones de sostenibilidad a través de una serie de estudios.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Las preguntas de investigación se examinan a través de tres estudios. El escepticismo de los consumidores respecto a la RSC se considera el motor del distanciamiento de las marcas. Se postula que la hipocresía de la marca media la relación entre el escepticismo hacia la RSE y la distancia de la marca. Además, se comprueba que la confianza en la marca y el deseo de exclusividad son moderadores de la hipocresía y la distancia a la marca.

Conclusiones

Los resultados mostraron que la mala conducta medioambiental conduce a la percepción de hipocresía de la marca y al distanciamiento de la misma. Cuando las marcas de lujo toman medidas para remediar sus acciones, la hipocresía y el distanciamiento de marca percibidos disminuyen. Además, la confianza en la marca y el deseo de exclusividad diluyen la relación entre la hipocresía y el distanciamiento de la marca.

Originalidad

Los resultados demuestran que, situándose en una posición contradictoria, las marcas pueden seguir reduciendo el distanciamiento de marca percibido por los consumidores mediante la creación de una fuerte confianza de los consumidores hacia la marca. Al mismo tiempo, relacionando el anhelo de los consumidores de lujo por los productos y servicios exclusivos, nuestros hallazgos muestran que los consumidores con un fuerte deseo de exclusividad sienten un menor nivel de distancia a marca incluso si la marca se ve involucrada en una mala conducta.

目的

本文通过一系列的研究, 考察了消费者对品牌不当行为和可持续发展主张并存的评价和反应。

设计/方法/途径

研究问题在三项研究中得到了检验。消费者对企业社会责任的怀疑被认为是品牌距离的驱动因素。品牌伪善被假设为介导对企业社会责任的怀疑和品牌距离之间的关系。此外, 品牌信任和对排他性的渴望被测试为品牌伪善和品牌距离的调节因素。

研究结果

研究结果显示, 环境方面的不当行为导致了人们对品牌伪善和品牌距离的感知。当奢侈品牌采取行动补救他们的行为时, 被感知的品牌伪善和品牌距离就会减少。此外, 品牌信任和对排他性的渴望稀释了品牌伪善和品牌距离之间的关系。

原创性/意义

研究结果表明, 站在矛盾的立场上, 品牌仍然可以通过建立消费者对品牌的强烈信任来减少消费者感知的品牌距离。同时, 联系到奢侈品消费者对独家产品和服务的渴望, 我们的研究结果表明, 即使品牌涉及到不正当行为, 对独家性有强烈渴望的消费者也会感到较低的品牌距离。

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Vicente Marin, Cristóbal Barra and Jorge Moyano

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of adding the name of an artist to an art-infused product as a way to improve luxury perceptions. Additionally, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of adding the name of an artist to an art-infused product as a way to improve luxury perceptions. Additionally, the underlying processes are explored through the mediation of perceptions of aesthetics, exclusivity and brand quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies were conducted with two independent samples of students (n = 215) and the general population (n = 291). A between-subjects design (artist name: present versus absent) was used to test the main effect and mediation, and it was replicated in two different conditions: low- and high-quality brands.

Findings

The results indicate that when an artist’s name is added to the description of an art-infused product, luxury perceptions improve significantly. These results are also explained by a significant complementary mediation of aesthetics, exclusivity and product quality.

Originality/value

This paper addresses important issues in the understanding of alternative ways to gain luxury associations through an artification strategy. This paper clearly contributes to expanding the effects of art infusion in branding, considering the use of artists’ names as a luxury perception booster. In addition, this paper provides insight into the underlying processes and guides marketers on how to manage potential artist collaborations in low- or high-quality brand contexts.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Xiang Hui, Bingxiang Li and Mingmin Li

To satisfy the demand of initial investor for above-average capital return and the expectation of entrepreneurial management to establish their own business, this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

To satisfy the demand of initial investor for above-average capital return and the expectation of entrepreneurial management to establish their own business, this paper aims to explore a dynamic equity allocation model in which the shareholding ratio of the technology-based entrepreneurial firm changes with its growth and profit. Based on the dynamic equity allocation model, the authors design a financing structure which not only ensures timely and adequately obtaining the fund but also avoids equity dilution and safeguards the integrity of equity.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper selects high-tech companies listed in China as the sample for empirical research to identify the role of stock incentive and uses model deduction to find the equitable quantized benchmark for entrepreneurial management equity allocation. The study uses capital exclusivity as an entry point to perform theoretical analysis and demonstrates how the equity allocation of a technology-based entrepreneurial firm changes dynamically as the presentation speed of entrepreneurial management’s human capital exclusivity accelerates. The paper then constructs a conceptual model to design the financing structure of the technology-based entrepreneurial firm.

Findings

The study finds that stock incentive upwardly regulates debt financing and downwardly regulates equity financing. Based on characteristics of technology-based entrepreneurial firms, the paper suggests that the immediate surplus capital increment can signify the increasing presentation speed of human capital exclusivity, and it is proposed as an equitable quantized benchmark for equity allocation to entrepreneurial management. Based on the dynamic equity allocation model, the paper designs an internal equity and external debt financing structure.

Originality/Value

The conclusions enrich the theoretical foundation for entrepreneurial management to participate in residual claim and provide practical guidance for equity allocation and financing structure design in the context of mass entrepreneurship and innovation. The paper also sets up a conceptual framework for solving two major issues of the technology-based entrepreneurial firm: timely acquisition of external funding and lasting maintenance of entrepreneurial management stability.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2005

Brett M. Frischmann

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government…

Abstract

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government has made an explicit policy decision to allow funded entities to obtain patents and thereby has encouraged participation in the commercialization of federally funded research. The Bayh-Dole Act enables universities to participate in the commercialization process, but it does not obligate or constrain them to pursue any particular strategy with respect to federally funded research. Universities remain in the driver's seat and must decide carefully the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process.The conventional view of the role of patents in the university research context is that patent-enabled exclusivity improves the supply-side functioning of markets for university research results as well as those markets further downstream for derivative commercial end-products. Both the reward and commercialization theories of patent law take patent-enabled exclusivity as the relevant means for fixing a supply-side problem – essentially, the undersupply of private investment in the production of patentable subject matter or in the development and commercialization of patentable subject matter that would occur in the absence of patent-enabled exclusivity.While the supply-side view of the role of patents in the university research context is important, a view from the demand side is needed to fully appreciate the role of patents in the university research context and to fully inform university decisions about the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process. Introducing patents into the university research system, along with a host of other initiatives aimed at tightening the relationship between universities and industry, is also (if not primarily) about increasing connectivity between university science and technology research systems and the demands of industry for both university research outputs (research results and human capital) and upstream infrastructural capital necessary to produce such outputs.In this chapter, I explore how university science and technology research systems perform economically as infrastructural capital and explain how these systems generate social value. I explain how the availability of patents, coupled with decreased government funding, may lead to a slow and subtle shift in the allocation of infrastructure resources.

Details

University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-359-4

1 – 10 of over 3000