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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Janet R. Stanley

Purpose — This chapter explores the concept of social exclusion, the evolution of the term, how it is defined and understood, the place in policy formation and its…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter explores the concept of social exclusion, the evolution of the term, how it is defined and understood, the place in policy formation and its association with the need for mobility. The association between social exclusion and mobility is overviewed.

Methodology — The concept of social exclusion grew from an understanding that some people are not able to fully participate in mainstream society. Ideas around this were first discussed under the framework of income poverty, moved to ideas of multiple disadvantage and then has clustered around social exclusion. Although many factors have been subsumed under the concept, the ability to be mobile and how this is associated with social exclusion has not been fully explored.

Findings — It is argued that while social exclusion has brought ideas of non-participation in society more firmly into the political agenda, the changing definitions and understandings and failure to build knowledge systematically has hampered the effectiveness of the concept. Social exclusion is viewed in the research reported in this chapter as an issue of social justice defining the critical dimensions needed for a person to be included. Institutional and personal factors, and broad societal trends influence the extent of inclusion/exclusion a person experiences. It is likely that many of these impacts will be influenced by mobility, thus the importance of this research in elucidating what is meant by social exclusion and the key drivers that impact on a person’s ability to participate and maximise their well-being.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Alexa Delbosc and Graham Currie

Purpose — This chapter describes the process used to empirically link the concepts of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. It fills three important…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter describes the process used to empirically link the concepts of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. It fills three important gaps in the research literature: (1) the empirical limitations in measuring the relationship between transport disadvantage and social exclusion, (2) the somewhat homogenous groups used in most studies of social exclusion and (3) the lack of integration with measures of well-being.

Methodology — Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a statistical methodology that examines the underlying structural relationship between variables and displays these relationships pictorially. The methods used to define and measure transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being are described. SEM uses principal component analyses to isolate underlying ‘latent’ variables (e.g. social exclusion) using measurable ‘observed’ variables (e.g. income, being employed or not). Regression techniques are then used to examine the structural relationships between these three variables.

Findings — Modelling of the hypothesised relationships between the three variables showed a good statistical fit. The link between transport disadvantage and social exclusions was of a medium–small size (0.28) and statistically significant. Social exclusion had a larger and statistically significant negative impact on well-being (−0.73). Transport disadvantage also had a small but direct negative impact on well-being (−0.15).

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Karen Lucas and Julia Markovich

Purpose — This chapter reviews the key findings of the reported research in this volume using the wider international literatures on transport and social exclusion as its…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter reviews the key findings of the reported research in this volume using the wider international literatures on transport and social exclusion as its conceptual framework. It begins by briefly summarising the research and policy context in which the study is set. It then provides an overview of major conceptual, theoretical and methodological advancements relevant to this area over the last 10 years in order to evaluate the study’s contribution to research, policy and practice internationally.

Methodology — The conceptual framework for this chapter is based on a comprehensive review of the international literatures on transport and social exclusion. After a brief introduction to these, it outlines key conceptual, theoretical and methodological advancements as they pertain to transport-related social exclusion. In addition, it evaluates the scope and implications of the methodological approach with particular reference to contemporary scholarly debates in this area. The chapter subsequently explores the applicability of the research in policy and practice, both inside and outside the Australian context.

Findings — The chapter concludes that the research has made a significant contribution to conceptual, theoretical and methodological developments within the area of transport-related exclusion, and has helped move forward related debates within policy circles. Opportunities for further research are also identified.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Rosalyn D. Lee, Xiangming Fang and Feijun Luo

Research suggests social exclusion is linked to violence. To expand what is known about risk factors for violence, this study investigates links between having a parent…

Abstract

Research suggests social exclusion is linked to violence. To expand what is known about risk factors for violence, this study investigates links between having a parent with a history of incarceration and experiencing social exclusion. Data from waves 1 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to conduct regression analyses to assess associations between parental incarceration and social exclusion adjusting for child, parent, and family factors. Results indicate that compared to individuals whose parents had never been incarcerated, those who reported a parent had been incarcerated were at greater risk of experiencing material exclusion, incarceration, and multiple forms of exclusion. When assessing differences by parent gender, results indicate that those who reported their mother had been incarcerated compared to those who reported their father had been incarcerated had higher risk of being incarcerated themselves and experiencing multiple forms of exclusion. Since research suggests social exclusion increases violence risk, studies are needed (1) to identify mechanisms linking parental incarceration to offspring social exclusion and (2) to increase understanding around differential impact by parent gender. Such studies can inform development of interventions to promote better outcomes in this vulnerable sub-population of children.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Ambra Poggi

Social exclusion can be defined as a process leading to a state of multiple functioning deprivations. Cross-sectional headcount ratios of social exclusion may overstate…

Abstract

Social exclusion can be defined as a process leading to a state of multiple functioning deprivations. Cross-sectional headcount ratios of social exclusion may overstate the extent of the problem if most individuals do not remain in the same state in successive years. To address this issue, we need to focus on mobility. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the individual levels of social exclusion focusing on the extent to which individuals change place in social exclusion distribution. We find that social exclusion is partially transitory and, therefore, we suggest a more restrictive definition of social exclusion.

Details

Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2022

Sylvia C. Ng, Hui Yin Chuah and Melati Nungsari

This paper aims to provide an in-depth conceptualization of service exclusion by drawing on our exploratory research as well as thick and rich insights from the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an in-depth conceptualization of service exclusion by drawing on our exploratory research as well as thick and rich insights from the authors’ qualitative data.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research was used to explore service exclusion practices against customers experiencing vulnerabilities. A total of 28 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with refugees residing within Malaysia. The Gioia methodology was used for the authors’ data analysis and the findings were validated by an independent moderator.

Findings

The authors’ empirical findings challenge how service exclusion is currently understood, by adding substantial depth and complexity beyond simply describing “the lack of access to services”. The authors also offer rich empirical findings describing 29 forms of exclusion, which were further reduced to seven types of service exclusion practices: discrimination, restriction, cost barriers, language and technology barriers, poor servicing, non-accountability and non-inclusivity.

Originality/value

This study conceptualizes service exclusion from a process perspective, that is, “how” customers experiencing vulnerabilities are being excluded, rather than “what” is excluded.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Rengin B. Firat

This chapter seeks to investigate the ways individualistic versus collectivistic values moderate neural responses to social exclusion among African American and White…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter seeks to investigate the ways individualistic versus collectivistic values moderate neural responses to social exclusion among African American and White respondents. The author hypothesized that the vmPFC – a key brain region for emotion regulation – would correspond to collectivistic value moderation and the dlPFC – the cognitive control center of the brain – would be associated with individualistic value moderation.

Methodology/Approach

This study used a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball), where 17 African American and 11 White participants were excluded or included with ball tosses, while inside an fMRI scanner. Before the start of each round the participants were primed with individualism, collectivism or a comparison condition.

Findings

Results showed that (1) African Americans showed stronger neural responses to exclusion and (2) offered support for the hypothesis that the dlPFC showed greater activation in African Americans (compared to Whites) when they were primed with individualism values during exclusion. There was no support for the collectivism hypothesis.

Research limitations/Implications

Research limitations included a relatively small sample size (N = 28), a comparison of only two racial groups and that the partners in the game were virtual (pre-programmed by the experimenter).

Practical Implications

This research offers an empirical framework for sociologists seeking to apply social theories into neurological studies.

Social Implications

Identifying effective coping strategies for historically oppressed racial groups.

Originality/Value of Paper

The chapter is original for demonstrating the moderating effects of values on neural responses to exclusion for the first time and by offering a novel neurosociological framework.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-153-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Jing Wang and Zunli Liu

Unprecedented environmental crises threaten the world, and most environmental problems are closely associated with human behaviour. At the same time, social exclusion and…

Abstract

Purpose

Unprecedented environmental crises threaten the world, and most environmental problems are closely associated with human behaviour. At the same time, social exclusion and loneliness occur widely, influencing consumers' product preferences and choices. Hence, this study aimed to explore the impact of social exclusion on green consumption and its underlying mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an empirical study with different research designs and green consumption measures. This pilot study investigated the relationship between social exclusion and green consumption by examining the frequency of green consumption behaviours in the past. Study 1 established a causal link between these two variables by manipulating social exclusion in a controlled experiment and assessed green product preferences. Study 2 further generalised the results of the secondary data analysis from the World Values Survey (WVS).

Findings

Overall, the research study provides convergent evidence that chronically or transiently excluded consumers are less likely to implement green consumption than their counterparts who do not feel socially excluded; this effect is partially mediated by a reduced sense of control and willingness to sacrifice for society after social exclusion.

Originality/value

Based on social exclusion theory and considering the unique characteristics of green consumption, this study enriches research in the fields of social exclusion and green consumption, revealing the negative effect of social exclusion on green consumption and the dual mediators in this relationship.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Sungyong Chun and Devon S. Johnson

Consumers who experience social exclusion often prefer high-risk financial products over low-risk financial products. The aim of this study is to examine how this effect…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers who experience social exclusion often prefer high-risk financial products over low-risk financial products. The aim of this study is to examine how this effect can be attenuated by applying the theories of mental budgeting and pain of payment. The authors’ aim in pursuing this research is to improve the effectiveness of financial professionals and others in educating consumers on healthy financial practices. Understanding how social exclusion experiences influence financial decision-making is essential for continued progress in consumer financial education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the effect of consumers experiencing social exclusion on preference for high-risk financial products using an experimental design involving the manipulation of social exclusion/inclusion experiences. Data were collected from 148 consumers of mutual fund investment services via Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Findings

The study found that consumers experiencing social exclusion are more likely to make high risk investments. It also found that this effect is moderated by consumers' level of mental budgeting such that at high levels of mental budgeting the effect of social exclusion on investment choice is attenuated. The study further finds that the moderating effect of mental budgeting is mediated by pain of payment.

Social implications

The findings of this study suggest that policymakers can reduce unduly risky personal investment behavior by triggering mental budgeting thoughts using methods such as advertising and explicit mention of transaction fees.

Originality/value

The present study builds on existing research demonstrating the adverse behavioral consequences of social exclusion but refines our understanding by demonstrating the attenuating effect of mental budgeting and the mediating effect of pain of payment on high risk financial purchases.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Ziteng Fan and Nan Zhang

This article explores how digital exclusion measured by citizens' occasional social media use and their skeptical social media attitude may affect their satisfaction with…

Abstract

Purpose

This article explores how digital exclusion measured by citizens' occasional social media use and their skeptical social media attitude may affect their satisfaction with democracy (SWD), which is critical for public engagement and democratic stability in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs multilevel regression to test the hypotheses proposed in the context of Europe and uses cross-level data sources. Individual-level data, including social media use frequency and attitude and SWD, come from the 2012, 2014 and 2016 Eurobarometer surveys. Country-level data are derived from multiple pre-existing datasets.

Findings

The empirical results suggest that digital exclusion measured by occasional use and skeptical attitude are negatively associated with the likelihood of SWD. Additionally, the negative effect of a skeptical attitude increases in importance over time. Finally, although government transparency can mitigate the negative effect of a skeptical attitude, its role in mitigating the negative effect of occasional use is effective only in countries with moderate or low transparency levels.

Originality/value

This study preliminarily explores the direct, changing and conditional impacts of digital exclusion in social media on SWD. It also deepens our understanding of digital exclusion by differentiating between its physical and motivational aspects, which relate to public engagement and equity and then comparing their relative importance.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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