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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Priya Ranjan and Jibonayan Raychaudhuri

The purpose of this paper is to study whether exporting firms outperform non‐exporting firms along a number of performance characteristics. It also examines whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study whether exporting firms outperform non‐exporting firms along a number of performance characteristics. It also examines whether the differences in performance characteristics are due to the self‐selection of better firms into exporting or because the firms that start exporting for some unknown reason experience productivity growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset comprised a panel of Indian manufacturing firms for a period of 17 years from 1990 to 2006.

Findings

Exporters were found to systematically outperform non‐exporters over a number of characteristics. Also, evidence was found of “self‐selection”, that is, firms that are more productive enter the export market. There was some evidence of learning, that is exporting firms experience an increase in productivity.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to look at the issue of self‐selection vs learning for exporting firms using a dataset from India.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Cliff Lockyer and Dora Scholarios

This paper considers the nature of “best practice” recruitment and selection in the hotel sector. Data from a sample of Scottish hotels indicate a reliance on informal…

Abstract

This paper considers the nature of “best practice” recruitment and selection in the hotel sector. Data from a sample of Scottish hotels indicate a reliance on informal methods, particularly in smaller hotels. In larger and chain hotels, structured procedures, including references, application forms and panel interviews, are evident, but, here too, these methods seem inadequate for dealing with recruitment and quality problems, especially in meeting temporary staffing needs. Case study evidence contrasts two alternative strategies: a successful holistic strategy based on management of social processes important for selection, and a more conventional bureaucratic strategy. Each strategy depends on a complex interrelationship between business and labour market considerations, the ownership and management structure of the hotel, and the tenure and experience of those responsible for selection. This evidence indicates that, for the hotel industry, the holistic strategy is an alternative to conventional notions

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Julie L. Hotchkiss and Anil Rupasingha

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the importance of individual social capital characteristics in determining wages, both directly through their valuation by…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the importance of individual social capital characteristics in determining wages, both directly through their valuation by employers and indirectly through their impact on individual occupational choice. We find that a person’s level of sociability and care for others works through both channels to explain wage differences between social and nonsocial occupations. Additionally, expected wages in each occupation type are found to be at least as important as a person’s level of social capital in choosing a social occupation. We make use of restricted 2000 Decennial Census and 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey.

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Tyrone M. Carlin and Nigel Finch

This paper aims to provide evidence relating to the potential for and extent of opportunistic exercise of discretion by large Australian and New Zealand reporting entities…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide evidence relating to the potential for and extent of opportunistic exercise of discretion by large Australian and New Zealand reporting entities undertaking goodwill impairment testing pursuant to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The research question is addressed using an empirical archival approach. Independent risk‐adjusted estimates of firm discount rates are calculated for a sample of 124 Australian and New Zealand listed firms, and an analysis of variances between these rates and those adopted by sample firms undertaken for the purposes of ascertaining evidence of potential opportunism in discount rate selection.

Findings

Evidence consistent with opportunism in the selection of discount rates is reported. The results suggest the existence of a bias among Australian and New Zealand firms towards the application of lower than expected discount rates. This is interpreted as evidence of the opportunistic exercise of discretion to avoid unwanted impairment losses.

Practical implications

The results raise doubts as to the efficacy of the IFRS impairment testing process in practice and suggest the need for greater rigour and vigilance on the part of auditors and regulators overseeing entities reporting pursuant to IFRS.

Originality/value

This is one of a limited number of empirical studies into the effect of the IFRS goodwill impairment testing regime in practice in Australia and New Zealand. The paper provides new empirical insights into the operation of the IFRS regime, in particular, the key dimension of discount rate selection by reporting entities.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 36 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2018

Apoorva Gupta, Ila Patnaik and Ajay Shah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direction of causality between firm productivity and export status. The correlation can arise from multiple alternative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direction of causality between firm productivity and export status. The correlation can arise from multiple alternative causal models, and the authors study if more productive firms export, and/or if firms learn to export, and/or if firms learn by exporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate these relationships, harnessing the natural experiments offered by firms which transitioned into exporting, in a dataset of Indian firms from 1989 to 2015. Each firm which made the transition is matched against a control which did not. The transitions take place across many years, thus permitting a matched event study in firm outcomes.

Findings

The authors find there is self-selection of more productive firms into exporting. Firms that make the transition into exporting become bigger, but there is little evidence of learning by exporting, of improvements in productivity right after exporting commences. However, there is evidence of learning to export, that is there is improvement in productivity of export starters in comparison to their productivity a couple of years before they begin to export.

Originality/value

The strength of the paper lies in an opportunity for sound measurement: we observe firms make a transition from domestic market into exporting. The transitions take place across many years, thus permitting a matched event study in firm outcomes. Using this methodology, the authors find that firms become more productive a few years before they export, that is they learn to export. They contribute to the literature by bringing evidence of “learning to export” from a developing country.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Jing Jian Xiao and Chunsheng Tao

The purpose of this literature review paper is to define consumer finance, describe the scope of consumer finance and discuss its future research directions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this literature review paper is to define consumer finance, describe the scope of consumer finance and discuss its future research directions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, consumer finance is used as a synonym of household finance. Consumers refer to individuals and families. After defining the term “consumer finance,” we conducted a critical review of consumer finance as an interdisciplinary research field in terms of money managing, insuring, borrowing and saving/investing. Future research directions are also discussed.

Findings

This paper discusses similarities and differences among several terms such as consumer finance, household finance, personal finance, family finance and behavioral finance. The paper also reviewed key studies on consumer financial behavior around four key financial functions, namely, money management, insurance, loan and saving/investment and several nontraditional topics such as fintech and financial capability/literacy. The paper also introduced several datasets of consumer finance commonly used in the United States and China.

Originality/value

This paper clarified several similar terms related to consumer finance and sorted out the diverse literature of consumer finance in multiple disciplines such as economics, finance and consumer science, which provide a foundation for generating more fruitful research in consumer finance in the future.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Gregory G. Manley and Juan Benavidez

The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to the issues of validity and subgroup differences of selection devices currently being used in the public sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to the issues of validity and subgroup differences of selection devices currently being used in the public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

An attempt is made to identify unfair hiring practices, particularly important within the public sector, as this area of employment is characterized by a unique set of circumstances. Among them, economic constraints, the social burden to ensure fair treatment among applicants and incumbents, and an increasingly higher expectation of quality service among customers in the public sector. This paper also explores the effectiveness of two strategies for reducing subgroup differences while maintaining or increasing criterion‐related validity.

Findings

The findings of this study are important and answer some central questions. First, g and job knowledge were the best individual predictors of overall performance criteria; second, the g, alternative, and full models all significantly predicted the performance criteria, with the alternative model predicting more variance than the g model; third, the alternative model had more incremental validity over the g model than the g model had over the alternative model; the alternative model also produced less subgroup differences for Black–White comparisons than the g model. The Native American‐White differences were larger for the alternative model compared to the g model, but these differences are considered small effects and were non‐significant in the statistical sense. The Hispanic‐White differences were also somewhat larger for the alternative model when compared to the g model; however, this result is probably unreliable due to a very small Hispanic sample size and is a small effect. Thus, the alternative model will predict performance well for similar public sector samples while producing generally smaller subgroup differences.

Originality/value

There is little extant published research examining the validity and ethnic group score differences of alternate predictors used in the US public sector and the current effort seeks to provide empirical evidence to fill this void.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

V. Kerry Smith, Carol Mansfield and Aaron Strong

This chapter reports estimates of consumers’ preferences for plans to improve food safety.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reports estimates of consumers’ preferences for plans to improve food safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The plans are distinguished based on whether they address the ex ante risk of food borne illness or the ex post effects of the illness. They are also distinguished based on whether they focus on a public good – reducing risk of illness for all consumers or allowing individual households to reduce their private risks of contracting a food borne pathogen.

Findings

Based on a National Survey conducted in 2007 using the Knowledge Network internet panel, our findings indicate consumers favor ex ante risk reductions and are willing to pay approximately $250 annually to reduce the risk of food borne illness. Moreover, they prefer private to public approaches and would not support efforts to reduce the severity of cases of illness over risk reductions.

Originality/value

This study is the first research that allows a comparison of survey respondents’ choices between public and private mechanisms for ex ante risk reductions.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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Book part
Publication date: 5 January 2006

John E. Murray

Prior to widespread social insurance, European governments experimented with a variety of programs to protect workers from income loss due to illness. This paper examines…

Abstract

Prior to widespread social insurance, European governments experimented with a variety of programs to protect workers from income loss due to illness. This paper examines the consequences for worker absenteeism of making sickness insurance coverage voluntary or compulsory. Medical benefits appear to have reduced absenteeism for all workers. The effect of paid sick leave depended on insurance fund membership status. Better-paid workers found it easier to take time off in compulsory than in voluntary funds. Distinctive information problems plagued voluntary systems, and eventually were resolved by rejecting the voluntary ideal and forcing all workers into a single risk pool.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-379-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Peter Johnstone

In England and Wales the Crown Prosecutor is a lawyer who is independent from the investigation and is charged with assessing evidence and evaluating whether a prosecution…

Abstract

In England and Wales the Crown Prosecutor is a lawyer who is independent from the investigation and is charged with assessing evidence and evaluating whether a prosecution should proceed or not. The CPS is intentionally authorised to override the decisions of the police to curb any potentially over‐zealous investigations and evidence gathering that might subsequently tarnish the standards of procedure in the courts when applying the criminal law. The increasingly burdensome rules of disclosure have made demands on the CPS which are akin to the overall requirement on the investigating magistrate of civil law jurisdictions to find the truth by examination of the prosecution and defence evidence. The recent moves to return a limited number of lawyers to police stations is a further indication that the future role of the CPS may include an active rather than solely passive role in evidence gathering. The Serious Fraud Office are directly involved in the investigation and prosecution of complex frauds. This office has statutory and judicial authority to conduct investigations which follow an inquisitorial rather than accusatorial model. The juge d'instruction in France has authority to direct and control police investigations and subsequently to compile a dossier of evidence for presentation before a trial court. This paper points out that there are close parallels emerging in pre‐trial procedures in England and Wales and in France and the criticisms of the role of the investigating magistrate, the ‘sick man’, may hold lessons to be learnt for investigators and prosecutors within this jurisdiction.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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