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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

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Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Krystal Hans and Kylie Parrotta

Purpose: The authors attempt to capture new forensic science students’ pre-conceptions of the field and their assessment of competencies. Methodology: The authors surveyed…

Abstract

Purpose: The authors attempt to capture new forensic science students’ pre-conceptions of the field and their assessment of competencies. Methodology: The authors surveyed students at a Historically Black College and University and a Primarily White Institution on their viewership of crime and forensic TV shows and measured their competencies in a range of forensic science skills at the start and end of the semester, along with having students capture errors and evidence from an episode of CSI Las Vegas. Findings: Students who were viewers of crime series with and without prior forensics coursework over evaluated their level of preparedness at the start of the semester, often ranking themselves as moderately or well prepared in blood spatter analysis, fingerprinting, bodily fluid, and hair/fiber collection. Research limitations: The authors relied on a convenience sample of forensic science courses, and their comparison of student learning was disrupted by COVID-19. Originality: The authors examine student concerns with working at crime scenes and reflections on their abilities to succeed in the field. The authors discuss the need for incorporating media literacy, content warnings, and emotional socialization and professional development into forensic science curricula to better equip and prepare students for careers as crime scene investigators and forensic analysts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

El‐Hussein E. El‐Masry and Kathryn A. Hansen

The purpose of this study is to develop a taxonomy of the major factors that influence auditors' selection and assessment of evidential cues. A discussion of how future…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a taxonomy of the major factors that influence auditors' selection and assessment of evidential cues. A discussion of how future research can help extend the taxonomy is also offered.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of prior research on auditors' utilization of evidential cues is introduced, followed by a summary taxonomy of the variables influencing this decision. Then, an exploration of future research directions is introduced.

Findings

A four‐category taxonomy is designed. Auditors' decision to incorporate a certain piece of evidence is a function of one or more categories of factors: individual, environmental, task related, or related to the nature of the cues. With its emphasis on audit quality, and thus on enhanced evidence gathering, the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act (SOX) has the potential to alter and/or expand the structure of the proposed taxonomy.

Research limitations/implications

The taxonomy is based mainly on prior research in accounting and auditing. Incorporating other research on evidence selection and utilization from human behavior and human psychology may enhance the model.

Originality/value

The paper integrates into a model a large body of research on evidential cue selection and use in auditing. The taxonomy is a convenient starting point for researchers attempting to locate prior research in this area. Additionally, the taxonomy is an important guideline for audit partners and managers when planning an audit for two reasons. First, it sheds the light on many variables audit partners and managers need to consider when assigning audit tasks to audit team members with various levels of expertise. Second, it explores the impact of the SOX on current evidence collection practices in auditing.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

James Markey, Thomas Scott, Crystal Daye and Kevin J. Strom

Sexual assault investigations present uniquely challenging circumstances to detectives, and a small proportion result in arrest. Improving sexual assault investigations…

Abstract

Purpose

Sexual assault investigations present uniquely challenging circumstances to detectives, and a small proportion result in arrest. Improving sexual assault investigations requires expanding the evidence base to improve our understanding of how these investigations unfold and the factors associated with positive case outcomes, including the likelihood that an offender is arrested.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors abstracted data on 491 adult sexual assaults investigated by five large and midsized law enforcement agencies to describe the characteristics of sexual assault investigations and to explain the relationships between these characteristics and the likelihood that a suspect is arrested.

Findings

Overall, detectives move swiftly to investigate sexual assaults but tend to miss investigative opportunities that increase the likelihood of an arrest, like locating and processing the crime scene or pursuing interviews with key witnesses and leads. Sexual assaults typically lack physical evidence that can be used to identify and lead to an arrest of a suspected offender; when this evidence is present, the case is more likely to result in an arrest. Delayed reporting of the crime to law enforcement decreases the likelihood of a suspect being arrested, but the mechanisms are unclear.

Originality/value

Few studies have used a detailed data abstraction process for a large sample of cases from multiple law enforcement agencies to understand sexual assault investigations and their case outcomes. The results can improve practitioners' and researchers' understanding of sexual assault investigations, including those factors that increase the likelihood of a suspect's arrest.

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Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Baris Cayli, Charlotte Hargreaves and Philip Hodgson

This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal areas: positive perceptions, negative perceptions and evidence-focussed perceptions. In doing so, the purpose of this paper is to shed new light on the democratising process in the habitus of policing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a novel data set that evaluates the introduction of BWC to police officers in the East Midlands area of England. The authors conducted an extensive survey to explore the perceptions of 162 police officers about the BWCs. The authors examined the empirical data using Stata within the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the concept of habitus.

Findings

The authors have found that most police officers perceive that BWCs have a positive impact on policing practices and evidence collection. The positive perceptions and evidence-focussed perceptions increase the importance of BWCs; however, there are also negative perceptions regarding effective policing, administrative functionality and establishing a better relationship with the community. The authors argued that all three areas: positive perceptions, negative perceptions and evidence-focussed perceptions play a stimulating role to democratise the habitus of policing. On the other hand, BWCs do not guarantee the consolidation of democratic principles in the habitus of policing because of the authority of police to decide when, where and how to use BWCs.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to the perceptions of 162 police officers in East Midlands before they actually started using it. A future study to analyse their real-life experiences after using the BWCs may help us to compare their perceptions before using it with real-life experiences after BWCs are used. In addition, a comparative approach between countries in future research will help to explain the role of technological applications in different social geographies and legal systems.

Originality/value

This study offers new insights about the perceptions of police on BWCs before they started using them. The authors introduce the democratic habitus of policing as an innovative concept and explored power dynamics in the habitus of policing through BWCs. The findings provide a strong empirical contribution to determine the conditions of democratic habitus of policing. In doing so, this study develops our theoretical knowledge about the habitus concept in sociology by employing BWCs in policing activities.

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Louisa Rosenheck, Grace C. Lin, Rashi Nigam, Prasanth Nori and Yoon Jeon Kim

When using embedded, student-centered assessment tools for maker education, understanding the characteristics of a body of evidence can help teachers guide the assessment…

Abstract

Purpose

When using embedded, student-centered assessment tools for maker education, understanding the characteristics of a body of evidence can help teachers guide the assessment process. This study aims to examine assessment artifacts from a makerspace program and present a set of qualities that emerged, which researchers and maker educators can use to evaluate the quality of evidence before interpreting it and making claims about student learning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the interpretive analysis approach to identify salient qualities in a body of evidence of maker learning. Data sources included student assessment artifacts, researchers’ analytic memos, notes on the coding and analysis process, background stories and field observations.

Findings

The study found that the assessment artifacts generated by students aligned with the maker-related target skills. A set of qualities was produced that can be used to describe the strength of a body of evidence and help determine whether it is appropriate to be used in the meaning making phase.

Practical implications

The qualities identified in this study can be directly incorporated into the embedded assessment toolkit to provide feedback on the strength of evidence for learning in makerspaces.

Originality/value

Assessment methods for maker education are nascent, and ways to describe the quality of a student-generated body of evidence have not yet been established. This study applies existing knowledge of embedded assessment and reflective practice toward the creation of a new way of assessing skills that are difficult to measure.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 122 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

André M. Carvalho, Paulo Sampaio, Eric Rebentisch, João Álvaro Carvalho and Pedro Saraiva

This article offers a novel approach that brings together management, engineering and organizational behavior. It focuses on the understanding of organizational dynamics…

Abstract

Purpose

This article offers a novel approach that brings together management, engineering and organizational behavior. It focuses on the understanding of organizational dynamics in an era of technological change, upholding the importance of organizational agility and of the cultural paradigm in the management of organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the authors present the conclusions from a set of studies carried out in organizations operating in technical and technological industries. The authors assessed the capabilities of these organizations in terms of operational excellence maturity and its impact on the organizational culture and organizational agility.

Findings

Results show the importance of operational excellence either in developing or expanding organizational agility capabilities while reinforcing the cruciality of an excellence-oriented culture to sustain these efforts over time.

Originality/value

Increasingly unstable business environments have led to a growing interest in how to develop and maintain operational excellence in the face of continued and disruptive change. However, this interest has, so far, been advanced with little empirical evidence to support the corresponding predictions. This work offers the first practical evidence that continued focus and optimization of operations, with the right cultural alignment, helps organizations survive and thrive in increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environments.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Stephen Town

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the implementation and use of the Value Scorecard in a university library. The Value Scorecard seeks to articulate…

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2072

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the implementation and use of the Value Scorecard in a university library. The Value Scorecard seeks to articulate the full value of a library through a four dimensional matrix populated with data, evidence and narrative.

Design/methodology/approach

The study covers two years of collection of data and evidence to populate the Value Scorecard at the University of York, UK. This is action research and development.

Findings

The paper describes the success of the implementation of the framework across a broad university service including library, archives and IT services. The reporting template is outlined and the availability of relevant measures for populating each dimension are discussed, together with developments in the concepts of each dimension since the original paper on the scorecard. The paper reflects on the advances in the understanding and practice of performance measurement and assessment in libraries that the Value Scorecard offers. The strengths and omissions of other pre-existing frameworks, including the Balanced Scorecard, are discussed and absorbed into the value framework. The application of the Value Scorecard offers a practical and successful framework for library performance measurement and advocacy in a dynamic and changing landscape.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the research are those generally applying to a single case experience.

Practical implications

Nothing arises from the study to suggest that other libraries could not apply this framework, as it encompasses other previous frameworks and allows for local variations and circumstances. Some elements of the framework lack full measurement methods, and this is discussed.

Originality/value

The originality and value of the paper is that it provides a unique framework for measurement of all dimensions of activity and value in an academic research library, and one that can be tailored to local requirements.

Details

Performance Measurement and Metrics, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-8047

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Anthony McMullan and Stephen Dann

This paper aims to present a new model of marketing analysis that is capable of using the embedded knowledge that sits untapped in the history of marketing thought to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new model of marketing analysis that is capable of using the embedded knowledge that sits untapped in the history of marketing thought to solve contemporary marketing problems – the conceptual-historical analytical research model (CHARM).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper outlines the evolution of historical analysis methods (HAM), along with critiques and enhancements of the prior processes offered by Savitt (1980), Nevett (1991) and Golder (2000). From these foundations, the paper outlines the components of the model of historical analysis, detailing the development of the analytical template design. It also details the four-step process of engaging structured revisits of past knowledge for contemporary problem-solving.

Findings

The CHARM for problem-solving in marketing is a knowledge-gathering system that informs marketing decisions addressing contemporary problems. This is achieved through the use of embedded knowledge from a corpus of historical texts.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides a method for future researchers to apply for replicable examination of historical texts and to assist intercoder reliability for multi-author history projects through the application of structured templates.

Practical implications

The CHARM for problem-solving in marketing is a knowledge-gathering system that informs marketing decisions addressing contemporary problems. This is achieved through the use of embedded knowledge from a corpus of historical texts.

Originality/value

The CHARM process applies a systematic protocol for engaging qualitative sources for historical analysis through preset data collection templates, structured analysis frameworks and definitional understanding templates for improved replicability. This paper presents a new model of approaching historical analysis through a problem-solving lens, whereby historical sources become the foundations for the solution to a problem, rather than just the literature review that identifies the presence of gap.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

S. Rowley and P. Fisher

This article discusses the future of property valuation data provision by examining a new data initiative designed to increase valuation data availability known as a…

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1157

Abstract

This article discusses the future of property valuation data provision by examining a new data initiative designed to increase valuation data availability known as a National Valuation Evidence Database (NVED). This NVED will be an on‐line source of comparable evidence which, when combined with the National Land Information System, will provide valuers with a single source of on‐line valuation evidence. It is argued that the future of valuation data provision will revolve around these two initiatives and that it is up to property professionals to take the lead in encouraging these initiatives, to indicate to their clients a progressive attitude towards property service provision.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

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