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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2013

Bryan G. Cook, Melody Tankersley and Timothy J. Landrum

The gap between research and practice in special education places an artificial ceiling on the achievement of students with learning and behavioral disabilities. Evidence

Abstract

The gap between research and practice in special education places an artificial ceiling on the achievement of students with learning and behavioral disabilities. Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional practices shown by bodies of sound research to be generally effective. They represent a possible means to address the research-to-practice gap by identifying, and subsequently implementing, the most effective instructional practices on the basis of reliable, scientific research. In this chapter, we provide a context for the subsequent chapters in this volume by (a) defining and describing EBPs, (b) recognizing some of important limitations to EBPs, (c) introducing a number of ongoing issues related to EBPs in the field of learning and behavioral disabilities that are addressed by chapter authors in this volume, and (d) briefly considering a few emerging issues related to EBPs that we believe will become increasingly prominent in the near future.

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Evidence-Based Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-429-9

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2015

Joseph Calvin Gagnon and Brian R. Barber

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve…

Abstract

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve youth with complicated and often serious academic and behavioral needs. The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practices with Best Available Evidence are necessary to increase the likelihood of long-term success for these youth. In this chapter, we define three primary categories of AES and review what we know about the characteristics of youth in these schools. Next, we discuss the current emphasis on identifying and implementing EBPs with regard to both academic interventions (i.e., reading and mathematics) and interventions addressing student behavior. In particular, we consider implementation in AES, where there are often high percentages of youth requiring special education services and who have a significant need for EBPs to succeed academically, behaviorally, and in their transition to adulthood. We focus our discussion on: (a) examining approaches to identifying EBPs; (b) providing a brief review of EBPs and Best Available Evidence in the areas of mathematics, reading, and interventions addressing student behavior for youth in AES; (c) delineating key implementation challenges in AES; and (d) providing recommendations for how to facilitate the use of EBPs in AES.

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Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

John F. Hulpke and Michael P. Fronmueller

A topic currently receiving significant academic and practitioner attention is called evidence-based management. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that this approach…

Abstract

Purpose

A topic currently receiving significant academic and practitioner attention is called evidence-based management. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that this approach is sometimes over-sold and may be a fad. Additionally, evidence-based management fails to fully recognize the importance of tacit knowledge, what Kahneman calls system 1. Evidence-based management does provide tools to better use what Kahneman calls system 2, rationality. Decision-makers need to take advantage of both rational and beyond rational processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an essay, it is not a report of a study. At this point in time, this paper needs thinking, reflection, pondering, more than a data-based study.

Findings

Advocates promote evidence-based management in part to help avoid fads, yet evidence-based management itself has many of the characteristics of a fad. Evidence-based management is based on an objective rational view of the world and suggests highly rational methods of decision-making. However, a rational fact-based might not give sufficient credit to instinct and feelings. Decision-makers should take into account facts, evidence, when making decisions, but not ignore intuition, hunches and feelings. This study is learning that decisions use a galaxy of approaches, with both cognitive and affective flexibility.

Research limitations/implications

As with any opinion-based paper, this lacks empirical support. Proponents ask us to believe in evidence-based management. Neither we, the authors of this paper, nor the proponents of evidence-based management can empirically support the ideas offered. An additional limitation is that the paper is written in one language, English. Translation into another language might yield different meanings.

Practical implications

There are advantages for scholars and practitioners to look at the best available evidence. There can be disadvantages in overlooking non-quantifiable factors.

Social implications

Those who use evidence-based management should also take into account feelings, ethics, aesthetics, creativity, for the betterment of society. To solve wicked problems one needs more than facts and rational analysis.

Originality/value

The overwhelming majority of those writing about evidence-based management are supporters. This study offers a different view. This paper brings new ideas and new thinking to both the extensive fad literature and the huge evidence-based management literature. Evidence-based management is discussed widely. Google Scholar lists more than two million papers in 2019, 2020 and 2021 on evidence-based management. Readers of this journal should critically evaluate this popular set of ideas.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2009

Nancy Cartwright, Andrew Goldfinch and Jeremy Howick

This article critically analyses the concept of evidence in evidencebased policy, arguing that there is a key problem: there is no existing practicable theory of evidence

Abstract

This article critically analyses the concept of evidence in evidencebased policy, arguing that there is a key problem: there is no existing practicable theory of evidence, one which is philosophically‐grounded and yet applicable for evidencebased policy. The article critically considers both philosophical accounts of evidence and practical treatments of evidence in evidencebased policy. It argues that both fail in different ways to provide a theory of evidence that is adequate for evidencebased policy. The article contributes to the debate about how evidence can and should be used to reduce contingency in science and in policy based on science.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2009

Nick Midgley

Ambiguities in the term ‘evidencebased practice’ (EBP) are often used to hide some of the tensions within the idea itself. This article seeks to clarify what EBP means…

Abstract

Ambiguities in the term ‘evidencebased practice’ (EBP) are often used to hide some of the tensions within the idea itself. This article seeks to clarify what EBP means and how evidence and knowledge can contribute to the development of children's services. It acknowledges the ‘implementation gap’ between evidencebased practice and evidencebased practitioners, and discusses two contrasting perspectives on the problem and its solution. For ‘disseminators’ the primary issue is better translation of findings into practice, illustrated here by the work of the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). ‘Revisionists’ look beyond obstacles and drivers to implementation and instead advocate looking again at the relationship between research and practice and propose a number of radical proposals for how this relationship can be re‐envisioned.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Renée J. Mitchell and Stuart Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to argue that police research has reached a level of acceptance such that executive management has an ethical obligation to their communities…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that police research has reached a level of acceptance such that executive management has an ethical obligation to their communities to use evidence-based practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) framework the authors apply an ethical-based decision-making model to policing decisions. EBM does not allow physicians to ignore research when giving guidance to patients. The authors compare the two professional approaches to decision making and argue policing has reached a level of research that if ignored, just like medicine, should be considered unethical. Police interventions can potentially be harmful. Rather than do no harm, the authors argue that police managers should implement practices that are the least harmful based on the current research.

Findings

The authors found policing has a substantial amount of research showing what works, what does not, and what looks promising to allow police executives to make decisions based on evidence rather than tradition, culture, or best practice. There is a deep enough fund of knowledge to enable law enforcement leadership to evaluate policies on how well the policies and procedures they enforce prevent crime with a minimum of harm to the communities they are sworn to protect and serve.

Originality/value

Policing has yet to view community interventions as potentially harmful. Realigning police ethics from a lying, cheating, stealing, lens to a “doing the least harm” lens can alter the practitioner’s view of why evidence-based policing is important. Viewing executive decision from an evidence-based ethical platform is the future of evaluating police executive decisions.

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International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Vishwanath V. Baba and Farimah HakemZadeh

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidencebased management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidencebased

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidencebased management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidencebased decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review, the paper takes a conceptual approach toward developing a theory of evidence and a process model of decision making. Formal research propositions amplify both theory and model.

Findings

The paper suggests that decision making is at the heart of management practice. It underscores the importance of both research and experiential evidence for making professionally sound managerial decisions. It argues that the strength of evidence is a function of its rigor and relevance manifested by methodological fit, relevance to the context, transparency of its findings, replicability of the evidence, and the degree of consensus within the decision community. A multi‐stage mixed level model of evidencebased decision making is proposed with suggestions for future research.

Practical implications

An explicit, formal, and systematic collaboration at the global level among the producers of evidence and its users akin to the Cochrane Collaboration will ensure sound evidence, contribute to decision quality, and enable professionalization of management practice.

Originality/value

The unique value contribution of this paper comes from a critical review of the evidencebased management literature, the articulation of a formal theory of evidence, and the development of a model for decision making driven by the theory of evidence.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Andrew Booth

Evidencebased information practice is an important paradigm that is now emerging in mainstream information work from within healthcare information. This paper aims to…

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938

Abstract

Evidencebased information practice is an important paradigm that is now emerging in mainstream information work from within healthcare information. This paper aims to provide an introduction to the concept before considering the imperative for practitioners to use insights from research within their professional practice and day‐to‐day decision making. The importance of a focused question and a systematic approach to critical appraisal are rehearsed and similarities with the domain of information systems are briefly considered. The paper concludes with state‐of‐the‐art observations from a recent conference in Canada and recommendations for further development of the paradigm. The objective is to achieve the eventual extinction of the concept through complete integration as simply another tool for reflective practice.

Details

VINE, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Valerie Naquin, Spero Manson, Charles Curie, Shannon Sommer, Ray Daw, Carole Maraku, Nemu Lallu, Dale Meller, Cristy Willer and Edward Deaux

The demand for evidencebased health practices has created a cultural challenge for Indigenous people around the world. This paper reports on the history and evolution of…

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229

Abstract

The demand for evidencebased health practices has created a cultural challenge for Indigenous people around the world. This paper reports on the history and evolution of evidencebased care into its mainstream status within the behavioural health field. Through the leadership of an Alaska Native tribal organisation, an international forum was convened to address the challenges of evidencebased practice for Indigenous people. Forum participants developed a model for gathering evidence that integrates rigorous research with Indigenous knowledge and values. The model facilitates development of practices and programmes that are culturally congruent for Indigenous people, accepted and validated by the research community, and deemed supportable by private and governmental sponsors.

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International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9886

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Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Susan Albers Mohrman and Michael Kanter

The dynamics of the physician knowledge system in the Southern California Region of Kaiser Permanente are explored. The framing and analysis use concepts from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The dynamics of the physician knowledge system in the Southern California Region of Kaiser Permanente are explored. The framing and analysis use concepts from the knowledge management literature and network theory. The criticality of this issue to the establishment of sustainable healthcare relates to the lynchpin nature of embedding evidence-based knowledge in healthcare practice and the simultaneous challenge of combining this with clinical knowledge that derives from practice.

Methodology/approach

The case study is compiled from longitudinal interviews with over 40 physicians and other stakeholders and an examination of archival information including published articles generated by the learning system.

Findings

The socio-technical approach to building this learning system was critical given the expectations of physicians for autonomy in making clinical decisions with respect to their patients. This robust learning system builds on rich professional and organizational networks, is led by physicians, and builds on and extends the foundation of evidence relating to quality and value. The goals of the physician practice and a robust measurement and feedback system provide focus for the learning system.

Social/practical implications

Accelerating the incorporation of evidence-based practice and increasing the scope and reach of the learning system entails building physician networks, having a robust system for critically examining and extending evidence, and a clear linkage to valued outcomes.

Originality/value of paper

This detailed examination of the dynamics of knowledge absorption extends understanding of the capacity of medical care systems to absorb evidence-based knowledge.

Details

Reconfiguring the Ecosystem for Sustainable Healthcare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-035-3

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