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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Tommy D. Andersson, Don Getz and Henrik Jutbring

This study aims to advance both theory and praxis for event portfolio management in cities and destinations. An experiment has been conducted with professional event

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to advance both theory and praxis for event portfolio management in cities and destinations. An experiment has been conducted with professional event practitioners in a city to determine their opinions and strategies for balancing value and risk within their event portfolio. The first objective is to rank 14 of the city's recurring events in terms of both value and risk. Second, the events are plotted in a two-dimensional chart of value versus risk with the objective to differentiate between the 14 events. The third objective is to describe the event characteristics that event professionals associate with value and risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Results derive from an experiment involving the forced Q-sort procedure and professional event managers from a city renowned as an “event capital”. Empirical evidence is analysed by the constant comparative method of how events are being evaluated by ten professionals working for a DMO.

Findings

Economic impact and image effects are characteristics of high-value events as is an opportunity to create relations with event owners for future collaboration. Local community involvement is important for all events. The issue of portfolio fit was a common argument for weak-value events.

Research limitations/implications

Results are based on the opinions of ten DMO employees in one large city. Conclusions help build event portfolio theory.

Practical implications

The results and methods are useful for event strategists and evaluators. In particular, the management of event portfolios and policies covering events in cities and destinations can benefit from the documented method for explicitly balancing risks with perceived value.

Social implications

A portfolio perspective is also suggested as an approach to analyse the total tourist attractions portfolio of a destination.

Originality/value

Opinions regarding public value and risk by civil servants who work with events have not been studied before. The constant comparative method produces results that can be applied to policies governing events. In terms of theory development, concepts from financial portfolio management, product portfolio management and risk management are used to develop event portfolio design and management, and insights are gained on trade-offs in the process. The plot of the events in a two-dimensional chart of value versus risk clearly differentiated the 14 events and is an original contribution.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Tommy Daniel Andersson, Don Getz, David Gration and Maria M. Raciti

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to…

Abstract

Purpose

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to event portfolios. The first approach is extrinsic and rooted in economic impact analysis where events need to demonstrate a financial return on investment. In the second approach events are valued ally, with every event having inherent value and the entire portfolio being valued for its synergistic effects and contribution to social and cultural goals. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from visitors to four events in the Sunshine Coast region of Australia are analyzed to illustrate key points, including the notion of “efficient frontier.”

Findings

Conceptual development includes an examination of extrinsic and intrinsic perspectives on portfolios, ways to define and measure value, returns, risk, and portfolio management strategies. In the conclusions a number of research questions are raised, and it is argued that the two approaches to value event portfolios can be combined.

Research limitations/implications

Only four events were studied, in one Australian local authority. The sample of residents who responded to a questionnaire was biased in terms of age, education and gender.

Social implications

Authorities funding events and developing event portfolios for multiple reasons can benefit from more rigorous analysis of the value created.

Originality/value

This analysis and conceptual development advances the discourse on portfolio theory applied to event management and event tourism.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

Natasa Slak Valek and Anestis Fotiadis

The purpose of this paper is to consider the self-determination theory (SDT) to examine the perceived impact of events on happiness based on event organizers’ opinions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the self-determination theory (SDT) to examine the perceived impact of events on happiness based on event organizers’ opinions. Moreover, it explores whether event organizers in Abu Dhabi consider promoting happiness and well-being as a value of their event and examines how organizers define a successful event.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was inspired by Abu Dhabi’s governmental initiative to promote happiness at all stages, with the aim of becoming one of the happiest countries in the world. A qualitative approach was used, and seven event organizers from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates were interviewed.

Findings

Attributes of an event were analyzed, and the results indicated that happiness as a value of events is not an idea that occurs to organizers by recalling values; yet, after reminding them of “happiness,” they all agreed that this value is what they do promote with their events.

Practical implications

Thus, actions must be considered to implement happiness with the potential to become a “first-on-mind” value of events organized in Abu Dhabi (UAE).

Originality/value

Specifically, the authors researched if event organizers consider promoting happiness and well-being as a value of their event, as well as to determine what they considered to be a successful event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Annamarie D. Sisson and Elizabeth A. Whalen

The value of the events industry is increasing worldwide. An essential component for successful events is creating a unique experience by offering gamification. A…

Abstract

Purpose

The value of the events industry is increasing worldwide. An essential component for successful events is creating a unique experience by offering gamification. A conceptual model is proposed, exploring pre-event game communication and its effect on attendees' value perceptions, willingness to participate, word of mouth intentions and emotional commitment during gameplay at conference events.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of variance and structural equation modeling were employed to test the model using data collected from 177 attendees recruited from hospitality and tourism association network listservs and online research company.

Findings

Results reveal that perceptions of event gamification increase word of mouth intentions, willingness to participate and emotional commitment.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the knowledge of conference events with recommendations for incorporation of game elements for meeting planners to enhance attendee behaviors at the event.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine positive behavioral outcomes of using games at conference events.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Supawat Meeprom and Tongrawee Silanoi

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of perceived special event quality on perceived value and behavioural intentions. Specifically, it was proposed that…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of perceived special event quality on perceived value and behavioural intentions. Specifically, it was proposed that attendees' perceived special event quality has direct and indirect effects on behavioural intentions through the mediating role of social value, economic value and emotional value.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered, onsite survey was deployed to gather the data to formulate the hypothesised relationships in this study. Data collection also included event-intercepted panel surveys, conducted with actual consumers who attended the Agricultural and Cultural Fair. The surveys were distributed and conducted during the afternoon and early evenings at the event area and exit point of the event. In total, 250 questionnaires were distributed to domestic visitors and 176 respondents completed the survey.

Findings

The study found the perceived quality of the special event directly impacted social value, economic value, emotional value and behavioural intentions. The results also indicated that social value and emotional value had significant effects on behavioural intentions. Further, this study found that both social value and emotional value components mediated the relationship between perceived quality of the special event and behavioural intentions. These results confirmed the existence of a perceived-quality-value-behavioural intentions chain.

Research limitations/implications

There are some key limitations including the sample size in this study was relatively small and all the respondents were domestic attendees, providing findings specific to one culture only. In term of implications, the results offer event organisers holistic insights into elements to be adopted as the foundation for special event consumption. It helps event organisers to build upon customer choice behaviour, which can be employed to effectively cultivate more attendees for the special events.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examined the extent to which attendees' perceived quality of a special event influenced their perceived values in Agricultural and Cultural Fair which is a special event held each year in the major city of Khon Kaen in the northeast region in Thailand.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Chris Horbel, Christoph Buck, Sören Diel, Riccardo Reith and Yannic Walter

Smartphones have become ubiquitous devices that enable individuals to integrate digital resources in virtually all value co-creation processes, including visiting sport…

Abstract

Purpose

Smartphones have become ubiquitous devices that enable individuals to integrate digital resources in virtually all value co-creation processes, including visiting sport events. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to understand smartphone-enabled digital resource integration in the context of sport events from an individual intra-perspective. It thereby connects the perspectives of Service Dominant Logic and Experiential Computing.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed and empirically tested utilizing a survey of 707 visitors of eight first and second league soccer, handball and basketball matches in Germany. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that stadium visitors integrate sport event-related and unrelated digital resources to co-create value at sport events. While event-unrelated digital resources generally have more influence on visitors' perceived value, their importance is decreasing with higher team identification. Digital resources in the form of sports betting opportunities are only relevant in some specific contexts. Hence, both individual and contextual characteristics determine digital resource integration.

Originality/value

This study integrates the perspectives of value co-creation at sport events and experiential computing and proposes a conceptual model exploring how sport event visitors enrich their experience through the integration of sport event-related and unrelated smartphone-enabled digital resources. By illuminating the intra-level perspective of sport event visitors' resource integration, it provides the basis for future studies on digital resource integration on higher levels of aggregation including engagement platforms and entire sport event ecosystems.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2014

Tommy D. Andersson and John Armbrecht

– The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model explaining the value of event experiences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model explaining the value of event experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Three versions of the explanatory model are tested by regression analysis of data from a survey of 650 visitors to a sports event.

Findings

The three model versions are significant and explain the value of event experiences with satisfactory R2 values (0.29, 0.46 and 0.68) using the concepts “Extent of visit”, “Experience intensity” and “Expenditure”. The measures of event experiences (Use-Value, Direct Use-Value as well as Indirect Use-Value) meet requirements for reliability and validity.

Originality/value

The paper reveals that explanatory models are basic but novel in a sports event context and provide a basis for further research. Furthermore, the definition of Indirect Use-Value has been clarified and adapted for higher relevance to destination managers focusing on event tourism.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Guido Ellert, Guido Schafmeister, David Wawrzinek and Heike Gassner

The purpose of this paper is to analyse event management by using three value creation logics, value chain, value network and value shop. In event management, value is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse event management by using three value creation logics, value chain, value network and value shop. In event management, value is generated through intermediation where the dominant creation logic is a value network. However, the complexity of events and danger of unexpected problems is increasing, which, in the worst case, leads to event failure. This fact makes it necessary to change the general attitude towards this topic from risk management to uncertainty management and use the value shop in order to solve problems efficiently.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the methodology of phenomenological hermeneutics which analyzes the object of study by interpreting the facticity and provides basics to generate a conceptual model.

Findings

The dominant value creation logic must be changed to prevent the value network from failure in generating value, since only the value shop provides high quality problem solving. Trust not only in planning but also in the own problem-solving competence and available tools is a major part of the value shop. As a practical example of high quality problem solving, the performance of high reliability organisations can be used by event managers.

Research limitations/implications

Using these hermeneutical gained logic, additional empirical research projects in event management, leadership and problem-solving competence of top managers, are promptly intended. Additionally, studies concerning competences and structures of the uncertainty management team have to be determined and developed as well as education and coaching has to be generated in order to achieve best results in problem solving.

Practical implications

Practical implications of this paper are: considering the value shop as the dominant value creation logic in uncertainty management; establishing a specially trained Complex Problem-Solving Team; and considering trust to be an essential element of the value shop.

Social implications

The basic job requirements a successful value net (event-) manager has to provide in such a complex system are: acting as integrator, mediator and problem solver simultaneously. Additionally event managers need to be trained to rethink the value creation logic and use the value shop within the value net to stay flexible and work successfully during their events.

Originality/value

Derived from this new perspective the necessity of enhancing the implemented value creation logic according to uncertainties allows event managers to solve unexpected problems faster and more efficiently.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Chiara Orefice

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the paradigm shift towards event design predominant research by presenting an analysis of how the concept of event design has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the paradigm shift towards event design predominant research by presenting an analysis of how the concept of event design has developed in the events literature and by exploring a new perspective based on its contribution to value co-creation.

Design/methodology/approach

Theory from design management and service design is discussed to provide insights on the role of event design as contributing to the creation of value in social systems.

Findings

A new framework for categorising the role of event design is proposed, called the Event Design Ladder. Event design is no longer considered as a problem solving activity, but as a contributor to value creation and an ongoing pursuit carried out over time and space. Stakeholders become co-designers of value systems.

Research limitations/implications

Service design and design management literature offer interesting potential for event researchers to advance the conceptualisation of event design. Considering events as platforms for long-term stakeholder engagement implies that the concept of design becomes strategic. Design as strategy is identified as a new area of event research.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new perspective on events considered as catalysts of value systems, where the role of design is not only to orchestrate meaningful experiences but to facilitate collaboration across projects, integrating resources and building on stakeholders’ skills and knowledge. Theories of practice are explored as a way to theorise and carry out research on how value is co-created by actors.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Johannes Hogg, Kim Werner and Kai-Michael Griese

Value co-destruction has received little attention in an event-related context. This appears surprising, given that the interactions among actors at an event may also…

Abstract

Purpose

Value co-destruction has received little attention in an event-related context. This appears surprising, given that the interactions among actors at an event may also reduce the value for other participants, stakeholders and that of the entire event or the event's service ecosystem. This paper first aims to conceptualise value co-destruction and to provide an overview of related research in an event context. Second, a future research agenda for value co-destruction processes in an event context is developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Journals of the “Scimago Journal and Country Rank” were systematically reviewed for the keywords “value co-destruction”, “value destruction” and “negative value co-creation”. A second literature review specifically aimed at the events context extended the search scope to non-Scimago journals, Google Scholar and Google Web using the same keywords. All identified articles were qualitatively analysed concerning (1) the conceptualisation of value co-destruction and (2) reasons for value co-destruction.

Findings

The review of previous research highlights a limited scope of analysis, a focus on value co-destruction as an outcome and on interactions at the meso-level. Based on these findings, a holistic definition of value co-destruction is proposed. The paper identifies two major directions for future studies on value co-destruction at events and suggests specific examples.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a more holistic understanding of value co-creation and co-destruction in an event setting. For example, a clearer understanding of the interactions that reduce the overall value of an event may assist to better design valuable events in the future.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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