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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Fidella Tiew, Kirsten Holmes and Nigel de Bussy

The purpose of this paper is to examine external event stakeholders’ strategic actions to advance their interests in tourism events, based on their resource relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine external event stakeholders’ strategic actions to advance their interests in tourism events, based on their resource relationships with the event. It takes the novel approach of examining stakeholder influence strategies from the external stakeholder perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative case study research design, with five government-owned tourism events in Sarawak, involving primary data from 37 interviews with external stakeholders.

Findings

The stakeholders perceived that they were not overly dependent on the events studied due to their short duration. Two types of resource relationships were found: event-dependent stakeholders and event non-dependent stakeholders. Stakeholders were found to be deploying various influence strategies, which were largely subtle, positive and collaborative in nature, regardless of whether they were event-dependent or event non-dependent stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited to the context examined in this study. Going forward, stronger public–private partnerships and formalised resource relationships are needed to ensure continuity of resource supplies and greater event innovation.

Originality/value

The study adds to the knowledge of how event external stakeholders exert their influence in accordance with their interests and resource dependency relationship with government-owned tourism events in the context of Sarawak, Borneo.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Antonella Capriello

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and…

Abstract

This chapter discusses emerging issues in event management with a focus on small-scale events. The author reflects on managerial approaches to stakeholder involvement and engagement, and underlines the complexity of strategy formulation for destination development planning. This contribution also provides advanced conceptual instruments for event marketing as guiding principles that permeate destination-marketing strategies. In addition, the author investigates the role and nature of sponsorship linked to enhancing the value of small-scale events and highlights fundamental issues in developing a marketing management model for place marketing and the key drivers of event management strategies involving sponsors and event participants.

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Sacha Reid

Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with…

Abstract

Purpose

Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with rural life styles. As a result, events provide important social and recreational opportunities for residents. However, rural communities are constrained by limited resources, such as the number of individuals who are willing and able to participate in event organizations; therefore, it is essential for the sustainable organization of events that stakeholders are attracted and retained. This paper aims to apply a stakeholder theoretical approach to the organizing and planning of rural events to identify event stakeholders, monitor satisfaction and ensure stakeholder retention within rural events.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design using a multiple case study approach examined event stakeholders in three rural communities of Southwest Queensland, Australia. In total, 54 in‐depth interviews were undertaken with event stakeholders and analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that rural‐event stakeholders fulfill multiple roles, differentiated by risk, and fraught with competing or conflicting agendas. The paper identifies strategies that event organizers utilize to manage relationships, and that facilitate stakeholder satisfaction and continued involvement.

Originality/value

There is limited understanding of event stakeholders, particularly in rural communities. Involving rural residents in organizing and planning events develops individual skills, knowledge and capacity. Rural communities benefit from an ability to deal with adverse conditions based on improvements in capacity of individuals and the community.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Kirsi Aaltonen, Jaakko Kujala, Päivi Lehtonen and Inkeri Ruuska

While earlier literature has focused on the management tactics of unexpected events, this paper employs an inter‐organizational network perspective to the study of…

Abstract

Purpose

While earlier literature has focused on the management tactics of unexpected events, this paper employs an inter‐organizational network perspective to the study of unexpected events in international projects. The paper aims to illustrate how a focal project's local stakeholder relationships are associated with the emergence and management of unexpected events in the context of international projects.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, multiple case study of three international projects conducted in challenging institutional environments.

Findings

The findings of this paper reveal the different mechanisms through which the local stakeholder relationships affect the emergence and management of unexpected events in international projects. Owing to differences in the amount and quality of local stakeholder relationships, the management, nature and number of unexpected events that are encountered differ from project to project. The findings of this paper reveal a paradox – both the existence of and the lack of local stakeholder relationships with salient actors may generate unexpected events in international projects. Based on the findings, two types of unexpected events related to local stakeholder relationships were identified: unexpected events that were due to misunderstandings, and diverging practices, processes, values and norms of the focal project organization and the local stakeholders; and unexpected events that emerged due to the challenges in the establishment of direct and indirect relationships with salient external local stakeholders. Furthermore, the results demonstrate how local stakeholder relationships can be utilized in dealing with and managing the unexpected events that are encountered.

Originality/value

Stakeholders are a significant source of unexpected events. Limited research attention has been directed at how the local stakeholder relationships affect the project's behavior and interior processes. The research advances project stakeholder research and uncertainty management research both theoretically and empirically.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Taeyeon Oh, Jihyeon Oh, Junhee Kim and Kisung Dennis Kwon

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of public and private officers of stakeholder at the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games 2018. This event was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of public and private officers of stakeholder at the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games 2018. This event was selected as the subject of this research as it is the most recent mega-scale international sporting event and, given that the organizing committee (OC) is currently operating, it afforded a unique opportunity to investigate the staff of the organization. To clarify the research questions, this research identified stakeholders of Olympic Games.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions were examined by a stakeholder analysis that measured and compared perceptions conducted according to the stakeholder theory (Freeman, 2010) and previous research (Naraine et al., 2016).

Findings

This study identifies eight stakeholders of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games: the OC, the International Olympics Committee, National Olympic Committee, central government, local government, media, sponsors and non-government organizations. The authors pointed out that public officers are more sensitive to the opinions and movements of community members than private staff. Conversely, the authors found that the private staffs regard the media and influential stakeholders as more important compared with public officers.

Originality/value

Based on the findings from the Olympics committee, this study contributes to the academic literature related to sporting events and their stakeholders by providing the most up-to-date identification of stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Husam AlWaer, Susan Rintoul and Ian Cooper

Design-led events are known under a range of different titles such charrettes, participatory placemaking, co-design and enquiry by design. Rather than being standalone…

Abstract

Purpose

Design-led events are known under a range of different titles such charrettes, participatory placemaking, co-design and enquiry by design. Rather than being standalone, such events form one single step in a multi-stage collaborative planning process. What comes after them has to be acknowledged as important to their effective contribution to collaborative planning. To date, no coherent body of empirical evidence on the aftermath of events has been published demonstrating critical factors that contribute to their success.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s significance resides in identifying an extended framework for the stages in the collaborative planning process and in highlighting critical issues for ensuring that the aspirations and concerns expressed by stakeholders throughout the process are acted on and delivered, namely, subsequent decision-making and delivery; follow-on support, resourcing and funding; the legal status of events and related governance issues; and appropriate monitoring and evaluation practices.

Findings

The paper provides guidance for professional and local stakeholders who are expected to carry the burden of acting on the outputs arising from such events. To be successful, collaborative planning has to be based on longitudinal stakeholder engagement – both long before but also after such events. It is here that the significance of the results reported here lie.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in its attempt to broaden understanding of what happens in collaborative planning following design-led events, drawing on interviews with professional and lay participants in events held across Scotland over the past decade.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2018

Donna M. Kelly and Sheranne Fairley

Event portfolios promote synergies among events and stakeholders within a destination in order to maximise resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Event portfolios promote synergies among events and stakeholders within a destination in order to maximise resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of relationships in the creation and maintenance of an event portfolio using the four stages of Parvatiyar and Sheth’s (2000) process model of relationship marketing: formation, management and governance, performance evaluation, and evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with tourism and government stakeholders involved in the creation and maintenance of an event portfolio within a single destination.

Findings

The destination outlined clear strategic goals through an event strategy. An Events Board was established to bring together key stakeholders from tourism, events, and government to oversee the development of an event portfolio. The Events Board gave advice to relevant tourism and government stakeholders on which events they should provide funding. Developing relationships was not a stated objective, but the Events Board realised the importance of relationships to create and maintain the destination’s event portfolio. Long-term funding contracts were used as a mechanism to establish relationships and were an impetus for interaction. Relationships were also maintained through dedicated staff who managed the relationships between the destination stakeholders and the events.

Practical implications

Understanding factors that contribute to the successful creation and maintenance of event portfolios can inform destination stakeholders who are responsible for generating tourism through events.

Originality/value

Limited research has examined the creation and maintenance of event portfolios. This study provides insight into the central importance of relationships in creating and maintaining an event portfolio.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Jeffrey Faux

The threshold for the disclosure of environmental events in corporate reports is of fundamental importance. Recent government and professional reports (ICAA, 1998; and…

Abstract

The threshold for the disclosure of environmental events in corporate reports is of fundamental importance. Recent government and professional reports (ICAA, 1998; and Victoria Parliament, 1999) have suggested that perhaps environmental events should be disclosed by entities at lower threshold levels than those suggested for the disclosure of economic events. The materiality research reveals that, from the perspective of stakeholders, economic events with thresholds of 5% should be disclosed. In this study the nature of thresholds pertinent to environmental events are considered. Stakeholder groups, shareholders, shareholder/environmentalists and environmentalists, indicate, through stated and revealed research methods, that the threshold level for disclosing an environmental event is significantly less than the regulated threshold for economic events.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Huei-Fu Lu and Huei-Wen Lin

Major sporting events (MSEs) have always contributed to sustainable change. Many owners and organizers of MSEs have gradually institutionalized the governance of sporting…

Abstract

Purpose

Major sporting events (MSEs) have always contributed to sustainable change. Many owners and organizers of MSEs have gradually institutionalized the governance of sporting events legacies. International sports organizations and past studies currently have a vision for sporting event legacies. However, a specific legacy governance system has not been developed. Thus, this study explores stakeholder's perspectives of post-event effects and the legacy governance strategies for Taipei 2017 Universiade (TU).

Design/methodology/approach

The representatives of the various stakeholders of the TU are selected and an in-depth interview approach employed. Archival material, including official organizing documents and information from the TU website, is used to increases the reliability of the results.

Findings

The benefits of MSEs are not always long-lasting. The TU has created a significant breakthrough for Taipei City, and its successful hosting has raised the image of the city and strengthened its infrastructure and national identity. Thus, the TU must leave sustainable legacies to benefit society and urban development.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study has revealed diverse perspectives from the representatives of stakeholder groups and highlighted the uniqueness and future directions of legacy governance that the TU has produced and learned, the findings may not be fully applicable or replicated in other cities or small countries, especially given Taiwan's international political status. For further study, a systematic model can be constructed to more accurately analyze the interconnected relationship to determine the extent to which various MSE legacies are regarded as “successful” governance, and other significant aspects should be incorporated into the model as a basis for comparing traditional legacy assessment.

Practical implications

This study developed a theoretical account of legacies and their relevance to MSEs, thus emphasizing that, in addition to “hard legacies” (concrete infrastructure or athletes' village), hosting the TU has established “soft legacies” (memories enshrined in the public's consciousness). Regarding the Taipei city government, the sustainable strategies of legacy governance after learning from the hosting experience are probably more complex. Nonetheless, hosting MSEs has been regarded as a crucial medium for urban development across the globe. It would be helpful to further this line of inquiry via the TU stakeholder perspectives regarding legacy governance concerns.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by proposing feasible directions of legacy governance for a host city. As Taiwanese are concerned, the political legacy has the most profound influence among all types of the legacies generated by the TU. The followed is the infrastructure legacy, which can be utilized as the core of the sustainable development strategies of the legacy governance, thereby expanding the post-event governance of various legacies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Bill Merrilees, Don Getz and Danny O'Brien

The paper aims to explore a major issue in international marketing: how to build a global brand in a way that makes a strong local connection.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore a major issue in international marketing: how to build a global brand in a way that makes a strong local connection.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative research methods on a single case, the Brisbane Goodwill Games, the processes used in the staging of this major sport event are analyzed. In particular, the stakeholder relations employed by the marketing department of the Goodwill Games Organization are investigated and a process model is developed that explains how a global brand can be built locally.

Findings

A major outcome of the paper is a revision to the four‐step Freeman process to make it more proactive; and three major principles for effective stakeholder management are articulated. The findings demonstrate that stakeholder analysis and management can be used to build more effective event brands. Stakeholder theory is also proposed as an appropriate and possibly stronger method of building inter‐organizational linkages than alternatives such as network theory.

Originality/value

Previous literature has generally dealt with the global brand issue in terms of the standardization versus adaptation debate, and the extent to which the marketing mix should be adapted to meet local needs in foreign countries. This research provides a unique extension to this literature by demonstrating how the brand itself needs to be modified to meet local needs.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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