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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Steve Brown, Donald Getz, Robert Pettersson and Martin Wallstam

The purpose of this paper is to define event evaluation, develop a conceptual model of its process and elements, review pertinent literature, and draw conclusions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define event evaluation, develop a conceptual model of its process and elements, review pertinent literature, and draw conclusions pertaining both to the discourse on evaluation and its praxis.

Design/methodology/approach

General review of literature and development of a conceptual model of the evaluation process.

Findings

The review suggests that impact assessments have dominated, but are only one type of evaluation; research and papers on evaluating the worth of events has been minimal, while those on the evaluation of various management and marketing functions is fragmented.

Research limitations/implications

It is concluded that little has been written about evaluation paradigms and systems, although the discourse on sustainability and triple bottom line accountability has led to a greater emphasis on non-economic considerations.

Originality/value

The conceptual model of the evaluation process and its components offers a systematic approach to shaping evaluation discourse and methods. Conclusions are drawn on how to advance evaluation research and methods applied to events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Monika Bandi Tanner, Adrian Künzi, Therese Lehmann Friedli and Hansruedi Müller

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important…

Abstract

Purpose

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important supply component of tourism destinations. The development of a valuation tool with an event performance index (EPI) as the key output should enable public authorities to develop transparent, systematic and fair subsidization practices in the future. The paper aims discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a theoretical impact model and event evaluation practices, this work develops a new holistic valuation tool for events with key indicators along the dimensions of sustainable development. Basic cost-benefit analysis ideas enrich the approach conceptually. Indicator development was based on a process of elaboration that considered the scientific literature, event stakeholders and municipal representatives.

Findings

The EPI consists of seven core indicators: size, economic value, touristic value and image, innovative strength, value of networking, value of participation and social exchange and relative ecological burden. The application of this tool to a case study revealed that it generates comprehensive and robust indicators of multifaceted and destination-unspecific event values and supports the process of allocating event subsidies using different remuneration schemes. Straightforward and destination-unspecific indicators assure the transferability and adaptability of the valuation tool to different complex and multifaceted contexts of event subsidization.

Originality/value

The EPI seeks to reduce complexity and incentivize event organizers to meet future sustainable development goals. Additionally, this work contributes to future discussions of both the form and process of event subsidization.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Emma H. Wood

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events

Abstract

Purpose

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events, which can take up a substantial amount of the tourism, leisure or arts and cultural budget is rarely assessed in a systematic and objective manner. This article describes the importance of measuring the impacts of such events

Design/methodology/approach

The methods for assessing the success of local authority events are trialled through the use of a case study involving two events organised by Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council.

Findings

An evaluation of the methods, after conducting the case study, indicates that the techniques produced robust data that was valuable in planning future events and in securing funding. The relative simplicity of the methods used will help to ensure that similar evaluations can be carried out in‐house for little cost for future public events.

Originality/value

This article sets out practical guidelines for undertaking the measurement and evaluation of some of the major impacts of local authority events. Similar methods can be used by other public sector organisations involved in hosting public events.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Vassilios Ziakas and Donald Getz

This paper aims to examine how various academic disciplines shape the field of event portfolio management. Given the complex nature of portfolios comprising different…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how various academic disciplines shape the field of event portfolio management. Given the complex nature of portfolios comprising different genres that are studied separately from their respective disciplinary realms, the academic event portfolio landscape remains fragmented. This is against the nature of portfolios, which requires inter-disciplinarity and novel integration of genres, stakeholders and perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a scoping literature review, this conceptual paper sets up a common ground for the academic study and industrial development of event portfolio management.

Findings

A comprehensive view of event portfolio literature across disciplines reveals its hypostasis as a compound transdisciplinary field. The authors suggest a set of foundational premises whereby they identify 22 principal thematic areas that comprise this emerging field.

Practical implications

The establishment of event portfolio management as a distinct field will help in the osmosis and diffusion of new ideas, models and best practices to run and leverage portfolios. The portfolio perspective highlights the need for cohesive learning to design comprehensive systems of events, implement joint strategies, solidify social networks, coordinate multiple stakeholders and develop methods of holistic evaluation.

Originality/value

By examining comprehensively event portfolio management as a transdisciplinary field, the authors have been able to identify principal research directions and priorities. This comprehensive analysis provides a synergistic ground, which at this embryonic stage of development, can be used to set out joint trajectories and reciprocal foci across the whole span of scholarship studying planned series of events.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Tommy Daniel Andersson, Don Getz, David Gration and Maria M. Raciti

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to…

Abstract

Purpose

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to event portfolios. The first approach is extrinsic and rooted in economic impact analysis where events need to demonstrate a financial return on investment. In the second approach events are valued ally, with every event having inherent value and the entire portfolio being valued for its synergistic effects and contribution to social and cultural goals. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from visitors to four events in the Sunshine Coast region of Australia are analyzed to illustrate key points, including the notion of “efficient frontier.”

Findings

Conceptual development includes an examination of extrinsic and intrinsic perspectives on portfolios, ways to define and measure value, returns, risk, and portfolio management strategies. In the conclusions a number of research questions are raised, and it is argued that the two approaches to value event portfolios can be combined.

Research limitations/implications

Only four events were studied, in one Australian local authority. The sample of residents who responded to a questionnaire was biased in terms of age, education and gender.

Social implications

Authorities funding events and developing event portfolios for multiple reasons can benefit from more rigorous analysis of the value created.

Originality/value

This analysis and conceptual development advances the discourse on portfolio theory applied to event management and event tourism.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Maria João Ferreira Custódio, Antonio Azevedo and Fernando Pereira Perna

This paper aims to discuss the impacts of sports events, considering these: from the perspectives of residents (in terms of self-esteem, increase of social problems, car…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the impacts of sports events, considering these: from the perspectives of residents (in terms of self-esteem, increase of social problems, car traffic, cultural self-development and entertainment); and for the host territory (in terms of economic development, price level, destination image and environment). The paper analyzes the case study of a hallmark event of the European Rally Championship – the Azores Rally.

Design/methodology/approach

During the Azores Rally of 2014, 669 inhabitants on São Miguel Island answered a survey. The questionnaire assessed 12 items that are ex ante quality of life (QOL) indicators, ten items of event attributes and overall satisfaction with the event and nine items of event impact perceptions.

Findings

The satisfaction with the event is positively influenced by the host destination’s overall QOL, particularly by the entertainment and local gastronomy and is reinforced by the event-management mix. On other hand, the QOL attributes rather than the event performance indicators determine the perceptions of the promotion of image destination and economic development. The event spectacle level has a particular influence on the residents’ self-esteem.

Practical implications

The paper discusses the implications for public decision-makers, tour operators and event managers, focusing on the community as an important driver for placemaking.

Social implications

This type of event has an impact on residents’ self-esteem, thus enhancing their QOL and hospitality.

Originality/value

This study supports the role of a peripheral island’s community as an active stakeholder, which interacts with the event organization’s key success factors.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2003

Arch G. Woodside and Marcia Y. Sakai

A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same…

Abstract

A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same issues. Every performance audit is grounded explicitly or implicitly in one or more theories of program evaluation. A deep understanding of alternative theories of program evaluation is helpful to gain clarity about sound auditing practices. We present a review of several theories of program evaluation.

This study includes a meta-evaluation of seven government audits on the efficiency and effectiveness of tourism departments and programs. The seven tourism-marketing performance audits are program evaluations for: Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, Minnesota, Australia, and two for Hawaii. The majority of these audits are negative performance assessments. Similarly, although these audits are more useful than none at all, the central conclusion of the meta-evaluation is that most of these audit reports are inadequate assessments. These audits are too limited in the issues examined; not sufficiently grounded in relevant evaluation theory and practice; and fail to include recommendations, that if implemented, would result in substantial increases in performance.

Details

Evaluating Marketing Actions and Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-046-3

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

John Nadeau, Norm O'Reilly and Louise A. Heslop

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country…

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images through the evaluations formed of each entity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from 291 Canadian consumers two months after the Beijing Olympics, a SEM model examines the relationships among consumer evaluations of the host country, the country as a destination, the mega‐event itself and sponsors.

Findings

Results support the hypothesized model and present a paradoxical situation for the Olympics hosted by China. While the overall country evaluation was found to have a strong and positive effect on its evaluation as a tourist destination and the destination evaluation has a subsequent positive relationship with Olympic evaluations, a direct and negative relationship between the evaluation of the country and of the Olympic Games was also supported.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine the relationship among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images in other mega‐event and country contexts. In addition, the pattern of these relationships should be assessed longitudinally.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence to show that the Olympic Games image is resilient and can thrive in challenging contexts. Further, sponsors can be assured that they are receiving value from Olympic sponsorships.

Originality/value

These results extend previous literature on sponsorship evaluation into the large, global sponsor context. In addition, this study examines the role of the host country in understanding the influence of the mega‐event on sponsor images.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Larissa Davies, Richard Coleman and Girish Ramchandani

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of…

Abstract

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of estimating spectator attendance at free-to-view events and the consequences for impact evaluation. Using empirical data from three case studies, the article outlines various approaches to measuring attendance and discusses the key issues and implications for evaluating free-to-view sports events.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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