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1 – 10 of over 57000
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Steve Brown, Donald Getz, Robert Pettersson and Martin Wallstam

The purpose of this paper is to define event evaluation, develop a conceptual model of its process and elements, review pertinent literature, and draw conclusions…

14448

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define event evaluation, develop a conceptual model of its process and elements, review pertinent literature, and draw conclusions pertaining both to the discourse on evaluation and its praxis.

Design/methodology/approach

General review of literature and development of a conceptual model of the evaluation process.

Findings

The review suggests that impact assessments have dominated, but are only one type of evaluation; research and papers on evaluating the worth of events has been minimal, while those on the evaluation of various management and marketing functions is fragmented.

Research limitations/implications

It is concluded that little has been written about evaluation paradigms and systems, although the discourse on sustainability and triple bottom line accountability has led to a greater emphasis on non-economic considerations.

Originality/value

The conceptual model of the evaluation process and its components offers a systematic approach to shaping evaluation discourse and methods. Conclusions are drawn on how to advance evaluation research and methods applied to events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Monika Bandi Tanner, Adrian Künzi, Therese Lehmann Friedli and Hansruedi Müller

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important…

1422

Abstract

Purpose

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important supply component of tourism destinations. The development of a valuation tool with an event performance index (EPI) as the key output should enable public authorities to develop transparent, systematic and fair subsidization practices in the future. The paper aims discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a theoretical impact model and event evaluation practices, this work develops a new holistic valuation tool for events with key indicators along the dimensions of sustainable development. Basic cost-benefit analysis ideas enrich the approach conceptually. Indicator development was based on a process of elaboration that considered the scientific literature, event stakeholders and municipal representatives.

Findings

The EPI consists of seven core indicators: size, economic value, touristic value and image, innovative strength, value of networking, value of participation and social exchange and relative ecological burden. The application of this tool to a case study revealed that it generates comprehensive and robust indicators of multifaceted and destination-unspecific event values and supports the process of allocating event subsidies using different remuneration schemes. Straightforward and destination-unspecific indicators assure the transferability and adaptability of the valuation tool to different complex and multifaceted contexts of event subsidization.

Originality/value

The EPI seeks to reduce complexity and incentivize event organizers to meet future sustainable development goals. Additionally, this work contributes to future discussions of both the form and process of event subsidization.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Larissa Davies, Richard Coleman and Girish Ramchandani

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of…

Abstract

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of estimating spectator attendance at free-to-view events and the consequences for impact evaluation. Using empirical data from three case studies, the article outlines various approaches to measuring attendance and discusses the key issues and implications for evaluating free-to-view sports events.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Girish Prayag, Mesbahuddin Chowdhury, Daniel Prajogo, Marcello Mariani and Andrea Guizzardi

Based on social exchange theory (SET) and signaling theory (ST), this study aims to evaluate how an event’s perceived environmental certification (PEC) by residents…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on social exchange theory (SET) and signaling theory (ST), this study aims to evaluate how an event’s perceived environmental certification (PEC) by residents, affect their evaluations of environmental impacts and subsequent event support (ES). The moderating role of place attachment (PA) on some of these relationships is also evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

Using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), a theoretical model is tested on a sample of 450 residents who attended the 2015 Milan World Expo.

Findings

PEC positively affects evaluations of positive environmental impacts (PEI) but negatively affects evaluations of negative environmental impacts (NEI). PEC positively affects ES while the relationship between PEC and NEI is moderated by PA.

Research limitations/implications

Items used to measure PEC, PEI and NEI are not exhaustive. SET has its own limitations in explaining residents’ ES, which the authors have attempted to attenuate by using ST.

Practical implications

Using environmental certification as a communication tool must demonstrate to residents how it reduces negative externalities, rather than focusing only on its positive community benefits. Less well-educated residents had the lowest ES, suggesting the need to use social media to increase ES.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understandings of the perceptions of the benefits of event certification by residents, and how this affects their ES. PA moderates the relationship between PEC and NEI.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Emma H. Wood

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events

17116

Abstract

Purpose

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events, which can take up a substantial amount of the tourism, leisure or arts and cultural budget is rarely assessed in a systematic and objective manner. This article describes the importance of measuring the impacts of such events

Design/methodology/approach

The methods for assessing the success of local authority events are trialled through the use of a case study involving two events organised by Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council.

Findings

An evaluation of the methods, after conducting the case study, indicates that the techniques produced robust data that was valuable in planning future events and in securing funding. The relative simplicity of the methods used will help to ensure that similar evaluations can be carried out in‐house for little cost for future public events.

Originality/value

This article sets out practical guidelines for undertaking the measurement and evaluation of some of the major impacts of local authority events. Similar methods can be used by other public sector organisations involved in hosting public events.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Vassilios Ziakas and Donald Getz

This paper aims to examine how various academic disciplines shape the field of event portfolio management. Given the complex nature of portfolios comprising different…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how various academic disciplines shape the field of event portfolio management. Given the complex nature of portfolios comprising different genres that are studied separately from their respective disciplinary realms, the academic event portfolio landscape remains fragmented. This is against the nature of portfolios, which requires inter-disciplinarity and novel integration of genres, stakeholders and perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a scoping literature review, this conceptual paper sets up a common ground for the academic study and industrial development of event portfolio management.

Findings

A comprehensive view of event portfolio literature across disciplines reveals its hypostasis as a compound transdisciplinary field. The authors suggest a set of foundational premises whereby they identify 22 principal thematic areas that comprise this emerging field.

Practical implications

The establishment of event portfolio management as a distinct field will help in the osmosis and diffusion of new ideas, models and best practices to run and leverage portfolios. The portfolio perspective highlights the need for cohesive learning to design comprehensive systems of events, implement joint strategies, solidify social networks, coordinate multiple stakeholders and develop methods of holistic evaluation.

Originality/value

By examining comprehensively event portfolio management as a transdisciplinary field, the authors have been able to identify principal research directions and priorities. This comprehensive analysis provides a synergistic ground, which at this embryonic stage of development, can be used to set out joint trajectories and reciprocal foci across the whole span of scholarship studying planned series of events.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Tommy Daniel Andersson, Don Getz, David Gration and Maria M. Raciti

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to…

2981

Abstract

Purpose

The research question addressed is whether an event portfolio analysis rooted in financial portfolio theory can yield meaningful insights to complement two approaches to event portfolios. The first approach is extrinsic and rooted in economic impact analysis where events need to demonstrate a financial return on investment. In the second approach events are valued ally, with every event having inherent value and the entire portfolio being valued for its synergistic effects and contribution to social and cultural goals. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from visitors to four events in the Sunshine Coast region of Australia are analyzed to illustrate key points, including the notion of “efficient frontier.”

Findings

Conceptual development includes an examination of extrinsic and intrinsic perspectives on portfolios, ways to define and measure value, returns, risk, and portfolio management strategies. In the conclusions a number of research questions are raised, and it is argued that the two approaches to value event portfolios can be combined.

Research limitations/implications

Only four events were studied, in one Australian local authority. The sample of residents who responded to a questionnaire was biased in terms of age, education and gender.

Social implications

Authorities funding events and developing event portfolios for multiple reasons can benefit from more rigorous analysis of the value created.

Originality/value

This analysis and conceptual development advances the discourse on portfolio theory applied to event management and event tourism.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2010

Donald Getz, Tommy Andersson and J. Carlsen

The purpose of this paper is to develop both a systematic framework and priorities for comparative and cross‐cultural festival management studies, based on literature…

18228

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop both a systematic framework and priorities for comparative and cross‐cultural festival management studies, based on literature review and results of a four‐country study.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on four samples of festivals in Sweden, Norway, UK, and Australia that are systematically compared. The survey is designed to profile the festivals in terms of vision/mandate, ownership, age, size, assets, venues used, decision‐making structure, and programs. Costs and revenues are examined in some detail, including trends in each category. Festivals' use of volunteers and sponsors are specifically addressed. Levels of dependence on a number of types of stakeholders and other strategic management issues are also explored. Respondents are also asked to respond to statements regarding challenges and threats to their festival and organization.

Findings

The empirical research identifies important similarities and differences that exist within the UK, Sweden, Norway, and Australia, by three ownership types, in how festivals are organized, their operations and strategies, stakeholder influences and dependencies, threats, and strategies.

Research limitations/implications

In the recommended framework are five components: antecedents; planning and management; planned event experiences and meanings; outcomes and the impacted and dynamic patterns; and processes. Specific points of comparison are enumerated within each component, foundation theories and concepts are identified, and some research priorities suggested for each.

Originality/value

The framework developed in this paper can help advance both the process and applications of comparative festival studies.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Martin Wallstam

This paper explores event value from the perspective of policy stakeholders and discusses potential implications of this stakeholder group's perceptions of value on event

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores event value from the perspective of policy stakeholders and discusses potential implications of this stakeholder group's perceptions of value on event policy, event evaluation and the public discourse on the value of events.

Design/methodology/approach

A thematic analysis is employed to analyze nine interviews from respondents who were deemed to fit the study criteria in the case of Östersund, Sweden.

Findings

Findings indicate that value is portrayed in largely economic terms or in proxy-economic terms even though the respondents expressed awareness and concern for social aspects of value. Moreover, the article highlights the glaring omission of the relationship between policy stakeholders and the nature of evaluation efforts in the industry and academia.

Originality/value

The article addresses a still somewhat unexplored dynamics between influential policy stakeholders and how events are regarded in terms of their potential contribution to community development. To what degree does the way the events sector and the general public value events emanate from the way events have been instrumentalized in policy throughout history?

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

James Musgrave

This article attempts to provide a concise overview of the approaches towards managing events in a changing market environment and summarises issues of responsibility…

10315

Abstract

Purpose

This article attempts to provide a concise overview of the approaches towards managing events in a changing market environment and summarises issues of responsibility, sustainability and quality management within events organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

In doing so, the paper will reconcile elements of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development within organisations. Whilst within a context of the events industry, the article will synthesise total responsible management and concepts of sustainable events management and provide an introduction towards a premise of responsible events management.

Findings

A mapping of management models found parallels that can be drawn upon to create a responsible event management approach, embedded by an amalgamation of quality management and sustainable principles.

Practical implications

In essence, the combination of approaches enables a business value and ethical led development towards responsible management and one which represents a holistic understanding and strategic intent to reduce event organisation impacts.

Originality/value

This article represents a theoretical introduction to concepts that underpin the development of knowledge towards sustainable management within the events industry and will allow students, academics and practitioners to develop an introductory awareness.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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