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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Evan Yacoub, Michael Dowd, Leigh McCann and Lydia Burke

Despite being largely supportive of their sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some siblings without ASD also feel the effects of the disorder particularly in…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite being largely supportive of their sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some siblings without ASD also feel the effects of the disorder particularly in relation to challenging behaviour and lack of empathy. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences adults who have a sibling with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) with challenging behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 11 capacitous adult siblings of service users who have ASD and ID as well as a history of challenging behaviour. A modified version of the autism Parenting Stress Index was used to assess the impact on those siblings. thematic analysis was utilised to analyse their responses.

Findings

Four main themes emerged from the interviews, which highlighted that challenging behaviour can cause emotional losses and can impact upbringing and the sibling relationship. Despite the siblings making adjustments, they continue to have concerns for the future.

Originality/value

Chronic challenging behaviour can impact on siblings, and it is important to support entire families, and not exclusively parents.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 12 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Gautam Gulati, Stephen Quigley, Valerie Elizabeth Murphy, Evan Yacoub, John Bogue, Anthony Kearns, Conor O’Neill, Mary Kelly, Aideen Morrison, Gerard Griffin, Mary Blewitt, Elizabeth Fistein, David Meagher and Colum P. Dunne

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) form a significant minority in the Irish prison population and worldwide prison populations. There is growing recognition…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) form a significant minority in the Irish prison population and worldwide prison populations. There is growing recognition that specialist services for such individuals are in need of development. The purpose of this paper is to propose a care pathway for the management of individuals with an ID who present in prison, based on expert elicitation and consensus.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of professionals with a special interest in forensic intellectual disabilities was invited to participate in a Delphi exercise. In total, 12 agreed to participation and 10 subsequently completed the study (83.3 per cent). Expert views were elicited using a semi-structured questionnaire. Content analysis was completed using NVivo 11 software. A care pathway was subsequently proposed, based on the outcomes of the analysis, and circulated to participants for debate and consensus. A consensus was reached on management considerations.

Findings

Ten experts across a range of disciplines with a combined experience of 187 years participated in the study. Current provision of care was seen as limited and geographically variable. The vulnerability of prisoners with ID was highlighted. The need for equivalence of care with the community through multidisciplinary input and development of specialist secure and residential placements to facilitate diversion was identified. Consensus was achieved on a proposed care pathway.

Originality/value

This study proposes a care pathway for the assessment and management of prisoners with an ID and is, therefore, potentially relevant to those interested in this topic internationally who may similarly struggle with the current lack of decision-making tools for this setting. Although written from an Irish perspective, it outlines key considerations for psychiatrists in keeping with international guidance and, therefore, may be generalisable to other jurisdictions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Evan Yacoub and Richard Latham

The purpose of this paper is to make recommendations for practitioners on risk assessment in relation to people with intellectual disability.

583

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make recommendations for practitioners on risk assessment in relation to people with intellectual disability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors summarise research in the area of risk assessment in order to recommend a practical approach for practitioners working in the field of intellectual disability psychiatry.

Findings

Risk assessment for the purpose of predicting risk in an individual is not likely to be of value in clinical settings. The use of structured clinical judgement does however provide a comprehensive structure for considering relevant risk factors, developing an overall formulation relating to a specific risk and devising a risk management plan.

Research limitations/implications

Much of the evidence is extrapolated from research with people without an intellectual disability.

Practical implications

The use of structured clinical judgement is advocated as a useful tool for developing a risk management plan for practitioners working with people with intellectual disability in secure and community settings. The issues of training and the interface between community and security settings are explored.

Originality/value

The paper provides more clarity about the use of such tools in this population.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Ian Hall and Evan Yacoub

The article reviews the policy, legislation and literature on sex and relationships for people with learning disability, through a search of electronic databases, journals…

382

Abstract

The article reviews the policy, legislation and literature on sex and relationships for people with learning disability, through a search of electronic databases, journals and other resources. It reviews the rights of people with learning disabilities to a sexual life and their views of service responses, sexual offences legislation and the link between sexual knowledge and practice. It also explores sexual orientation and preference among people with learning disabilities, differences between the genders and sexual offending, including consideration of ‘victimless’ offences. It concludes that the balance between empowering and protecting people with learning disabilities is challenging but important. Interventions to promote safer, healthier sexual behaviour need to address more than improving knowledge. We need to find out more about what people with learning disabilities think about their sexual experiences and how they are supported in this area.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2010

Ian Hall, Evan Yacoub and Babur Yusufi

Secure inpatient services for people with intellectual disability are provided in a piecemeal way, often without strategic commissioning. We describe how we conducted a…

Abstract

Secure inpatient services for people with intellectual disability are provided in a piecemeal way, often without strategic commissioning. We describe how we conducted a needs assessment that enabled us to develop a new service for men with intellectual disability who often had substantial additional mental health needs. Consulting with all stakeholders was essential, and we found the service user and family perspectives particularly helpful. We had to make special arguments for some aspects of the treatment programme. We found that foundation trusts that are able to develop services at financial risk, before contracts are signed, enabled development to take place at a faster pace. Good relationships with community teams have been essential, as has true integration with mainstream forensic services. Maintaining a relationship with commissioners was a particularly challenging aspect, perhaps because the development was provider‐led. Despite these challenges, many people with intellectual disability with very high needs are being supported much nearer to home.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2010

Evan Yacoub

Low security is a poorly understood concept, particularly in relation to people with an intellectual disability. Characteristics of patients offered an admission to low…

Abstract

Low security is a poorly understood concept, particularly in relation to people with an intellectual disability. Characteristics of patients offered an admission to low secure intellectual disability settings have not been robustly demonstrated. The same applies to staff perceptions of low security. The aims of the study were to ascertain the characteristics of patients referred to a low secure intellectual disability unit which lead to an offer of admission, identify the views of staff working on the unit on the concept of low security, and use both sets of data to discuss low secure provision for people with intellectual disability. A case‐controlled study was carried out for 33 patients referred to the unit over 42 months. The characteristics of 18 patients offered an admission were compared with those of 15 patients not offered an admission, and five of the staff working on the unit were interviewed about the concept of low security. Patients offered an admission were more able than those not offered an admission, posed more risks and were more complex diagnostically. Staff working on the unit agreed that their patients were complex, but felt that they were appropriately placed overall. The challenges of low secure provision were discussed by staff. Patients sampled were complex and heterogeneous, but not necessarily ‘forensic’. Their complexity requires sophisticated care plans and management strategies. This study has implications for referrers, staff, patients and managers, and highlights areas for future research.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2011

Raja Mukherjee, Michael Layton, Evan Yacoub and Jeremy Turk

Associations between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other conditions have been reported, but the links between FAS and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear…

Abstract

Associations between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other conditions have been reported, but the links between FAS and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear. This study explored the relationship between FAS and ASD in individuals attending a specialist diagnostic clinic. Consecutive referrals over 24 months to a specialist neurodevelopmental clinic were evaluated using gold standard methods for FAS diagnosis and ASD. The first 18‐month cohort who met criteria for ASD were compared with controls attending the same clinic but who had not experienced prenatal alcohol exposure (nested data). Data for the whole group were also collected. Twenty‐one fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) individuals were assessed and 16 (72%) met ICD‐10 criteria for childhood autism. Further significant differences between the prenatally exposed and non‐exposed group with ASD were found in the nested study. The research shows an association between heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ASD. As this is a small sample in a specialist clinic, the study suggests that a larger, more population‐based study of those exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol is warranted.

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Ian Hall, Evan Yacoub, Neil Boast, Robert Bates, Rebekah Stamps, Sarah Holder and Matthew Beadman

The purpose of this paper is to complete a thorough needs assessment that would enable the development of a robust pathway of care for adults with a learning disability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to complete a thorough needs assessment that would enable the development of a robust pathway of care for adults with a learning disability requiring secure care, and to assist commissioners to make informed planning decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identified people with a learning disability originating from London who were in secure care, and collected data about them. The paper used reference groups to inform the analysis.

Findings

The paper identified 249 people in secure services and was able to include 136 patients in the analysis. In all, 64 were in NHS provision and 72 in independent sector provision; 109 (80.1 per cent) were male and 27 (19.9 per cent) female; on average, patients were cared for 61.5 miles away from their homes; NHS patients were far closer to home; 69.1 per cent had a mild learning disability; 82.3 per cent had a history of violence; approximately one in six patients could not progress due to a lack of an appropriate ward, facility, resource and/or intervention.

Practical implications

Secure care for this population is a major public health issue. Many are placed a long way from home. Local services should be developed, and there should be sufficiently robust “step down” places for patients to be discharged to.

Originality/value

Systematic identification of the needs of a marginalised group to enable better more appropriate care pathways to be developed in the future.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

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