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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Antonio Nesticò and Gabriella Maselli

The purpose of the paper is to characterize an evaluation protocol of the social discount rate (SDR). This is based on the social rate of time preference (SRTP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to characterize an evaluation protocol of the social discount rate (SDR). This is based on the social rate of time preference (SRTP) principles, according to which the investment selection process must tend to maximize the utility of the community.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical reference of the evaluation protocol is represented by the Ramsey formula. It is widely used in many countries with advanced economics for the SRTP estimation, through the maximization of the Social Welfare Function (SWF).

Findings

The protocol structure and the protocol applications to the Italian and US economies explain how the SDR value is influenced by the socio-economic structure of the single nation.

Research limitations/implications

The strong variability of the results of the SDR according to the theoretical approach of reference and the operating path that follows can lead to judgments decidedly divergent on the acceptability of the public project, hence, the important policy implications for the entire allocation process of public resources.

Practical implications

The applications allow to highlight the important operational problems that must be resolved with regard to the choice of the time intervals of the evaluations, as well as logical-operational tools to be used to express estimates of parameters.

Social implications

They are relevant in relation to the effects of a more equitable allocation of the resources.

Originality/value

The protocol for the SDR estimation is based both on solid disciplinary principles and on objective data of non-complex availability and representative of the economic and socio-demographic context of the country in which the decision-making process is implemented.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Fatos Xhafa, Leonard Barolli, Raul Fernández, Thanasis Daradoumis and Santi Caballé

In any distributed application, the communication between the distributed processes/nodes of the distributed systems is essential for both reliability and efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

In any distributed application, the communication between the distributed processes/nodes of the distributed systems is essential for both reliability and efficiency matters. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue for distributed applications based on JXTA protocols aiming at extending and evaluating the protocols of the JXTA library for reliable P2P computing.

Design/methodology/approach

After a careful examination of the current version of JXTA protocols, the need was observed for improving the original JXTA protocols such as pipe services to ensure reliable communication between nodes of the grid platform and the discovery and presence service to increase the performance of the applications. Using a mixed P2P network based on broker peers and client peers architecture, which served as a basis to extend the JXTA protocols, was the basis of the approach.

Findings

The original JXTA protocols are extented/re‐implemented to support the development of reliable P2P distributed applications.

Practical implications

The proposed approach has been validated in practice by deploying a P2P network using nodes of PlanetLab platform and testing each of the re‐implemented protocols using this real P2P network. The extended JXTA protocols can be used to develop reliable P2P distributed applications.

Originality/value

Is of value by showing how to improve both efficiency reliability of JXTA protocols and services.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

John A. Bourke, Deborah L. Snell, K. Anne Sinnott and Bernadette Cassidy

Disabled people who are the end‐users (EU) of health services have a poor record of inclusion, yet a major stake in the quality of scientific research that informs the…

Abstract

Purpose

Disabled people who are the end‐users (EU) of health services have a poor record of inclusion, yet a major stake in the quality of scientific research that informs the development of health knowledge and interventions. In traditional rehabilitation research it has been the researcher who sets the agenda, including determining the research question, study design and methods, and who controls dissemination of findings. This paper aims to describe the development of an EU research consultation committee and to describe the evaluation protocol used to assess the effectiveness of the committee.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the context and development of an EU research consultation committee (the committee) to promote collaboration between researchers and lay‐EUs within a research organization in New Zealand. It also describes the qualitative evaluation protocol to be used to assess the effectiveness of the committee over the first 12 months of operation in order to refine its process and procedures.

Findings

The paper discusses the issues and challenges involved in achieving collaboration between researchers and EUs in the rehabilitation research space and describes this consultation model as a positive example of making inclusion a reality. Challenges include building research capacity within the EU community and development of real models of collaboration and partnership in rehabilitation research.

Originality/value

It is argued that the integrity and relevance of clinical research is enhanced by the involvement of EUs in all aspects of the research process.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2014

Lisa Germany

Many universities are currently investing significant sums of money into refurbishing existing learning spaces and/or building further infrastructure (including Next…

Abstract

Many universities are currently investing significant sums of money into refurbishing existing learning spaces and/or building further infrastructure (including Next Generation Learning Spaces (NGLS)) to support learning and teaching in the face-to-face context. While this is usually welcome by staff and students, there is often a concern that designs are not informed by input from appropriate stakeholders.

This chapter brings together information from a range of sources to provide practical ideas and advice on designing robust, whole-of-lifecycle evaluations for learning space projects. By incorporating pre- and post-occupancy stages, involving a wide array of stakeholders and looking beyond surveys and focus groups as evaluation techniques, universities can ensure that future designs take into consideration the experiences and context of staff and students at the institution as well as lessons learned from previous projects.

Details

The Future of Learning and Teaching in Next Generation Learning Spaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-986-7

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Cheryl L. Holt, Theresa A. Wynn, Ivey Lewis, Mark S. Litaker, Sanford Jeames, Francine Huckaby, Leonardo Stroud, Penny L. Southward, Virgil Simons, Crystal Lee, Louis Ross and Theodies Mitchell

Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African‐American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an…

Abstract

Purpose

Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African‐American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an intervention in which barbers were trained to educate clients about early detection for prostate and CRC.

Design/methodology/approach

Working with an advisory panel of local barbers, cancer survivors and clients, educational materials are developed and pilot tested through use of focus groups and cognitive response interviews.

Findings

The advisory panel, focus groups, and interviews provide key recommendations for core content, intervention structure, and evaluation strategies. The men suggest a variety of things they want to know about prostate cancer, however the perceived need for CRC information is much broader, suggesting a knowledge gap. The men prefer print materials that are brief, use graphics of real African‐American men, and provide a telephone number they can call for additional information.

Research limitations/implications

Community involvement is key in developing a well‐accepted and culturally‐relevant intervention.

Originality/value

The paper usefully describes the process of developing and pilot testing educational materials for use in an intervention in which barbers would be trained as community health advisors, to educate their clients about CRC screening and informed decision making for prostate cancer screening.

Details

Health Education, vol. 109 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2009

Sophie Witter

Objective – The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and…

Abstract

Objective – The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and political economic reasons. In response, many countries have changed their approach in recent years – while maintaining user fees as a necessary source of revenue for facilities, they have been switching to categorical targeting, offering exemptions based on high-priority services or population groups. This chapter aims to examine the impact and conditions for effectiveness of this recent health finance modality.

Methodology/approach – The chapter is based on a literature review and on data from two complex evaluations of national fee exemption policies for delivery care in West Africa (Ghana and Senegal). A conceptual framework for analysing the impact of exemption policies is developed and used. Although the analysis focuses on exemption for deliveries, the framework and findings are likely to be generalisable to other service- or population-based exemptions.

Findings – The chapter presents background information on the nature of delivery exemptions, the drivers for their use, their scale and common modalities in low-income countries. It then looks at evidence of their impact, on utilisation, quality of care and equity and investigates their cost-effectiveness. The final section presents lessons on implementation and implications for policy-makers, including the acceptability and sustainability of exemptions and how they compare to other possible mechanisms.

Implications for policy – The chapter concludes that funded service- or group-based exemptions offer a simple, potentially effective route to mitigating inequity and inefficiency in the health systems of low-income countries. However, there are a number of key constraints. One is the fungibility of resources at health facility level. The second is the difficulty of sustaining a separate funding stream over the medium to long term. The third is the arbitrary basis for selecting high-priority services for exemption. The chapter therefore concludes that this financing mode is unstable and is likely to be transitional.

Details

Innovations in Health System Finance in Developing and Transitional Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-664-5

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Leonard Barolli, Fatos Xhafa, Arjan Durresi and Giuseppe De Marco

Peer‐to‐Peer computing offers many attractive features, such as collaboration, self‐organization, load balancing, availability, fault tolerance and anonymity. However, it…

Abstract

Peer‐to‐Peer computing offers many attractive features, such as collaboration, self‐organization, load balancing, availability, fault tolerance and anonymity. However, it also faces many serious challenges. In our previous work, we implemented a synchronous P2P collaboration platform called TOMSCOP. However, the TOMSCOP was implemented only in Windows XPOS. In this work, we extend our previous work and present a multi‐platform Peer‐to‐Peer system. The proposed system operates very smoothly in UNIX Solaris 9 OS, Linux Suse 9.1 OS, Mac OSX, and Windows XP. In this paper, we present the design of proposed system and four web application tools: info, joint draw pad, shared web browser and subaru avatar.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Rens Brankaert, Elke den Ouden and Aarnout Brombacher

The purpose of this paper is to propose a Living Lab protocol to evaluate interventions for people with dementia in context. The number of people with dementia is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a Living Lab protocol to evaluate interventions for people with dementia in context. The number of people with dementia is continuously growing, resulting in all kinds of societal challenges. As there is no cure for the diseases today, there is a need to look at alternative ways to combat these challenges, like the design of suitable interventions. These can support people with dementia to live more independent, with a higher quality of life. The protocol is developed over three Living Lab cases. In this, the authors focus on how to involve people living with dementia and the Living Lab stakeholder network.

Design/methodology/approach

Over three Living Lab cases, 26 people with dementia, and their caregivers, participated. In these cases, the authors focussed on three different interventions, namely: a reminder system, a daylight lamp and a mobile interface. Yet, a similar protocol was implemented that was built upon insights from its previous case. Hereby, the authors gathered hands-on insights concerning the design and implementation of a Living Lab protocol. Finally, the authors propose a protocol for those interested in pursuing similar goals.

Findings

For the resulting proposal, the authors found that it is important to actively involve the relevant Living Lab stakeholders from the start of the process. Because, first, care stakeholders protect participants as gatekeepers, and have a general interest in the interventions. Second, for industry stakeholders, the in-context Living Lab set-up needs to be aligned with their needs to gather usable insights for their interventions. Finally, the authors propose to keep the users engaged beyond the studies by facilitating a Living Lab community. This leads to a higher user engagement and a wider pool to select from for future Living Lab sessions.

Research limitations/implications

However, the authors have to be careful to base conclusions on this protocol, due to the limited number of participants and, therefore, the authors suggest this is investigated further. Additionally, the authors feel the role of stakeholders, and who is in the lead, should be investigated further.

Practical implications

By reflecting on three Living Lab cases, the authors propose a ready-to-use Living Lab protocol that can be applied by anybody who is interested to design more suitable interventions for impaired users.

Social implications

The building of a community as a basis of a Living Lab provides opportunities for all relevant stakeholders, and could reach beyond the development of interventions.

Originality/value

The paper provides hands-on insights on applying and developing a Living Lab protocol. This is done by structurally involving relevant stakeholders, while continuously adapting to the user’s needs. Only by continuing to do so, the societal challenges can successfully be addressed.

Details

info, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Richard Bell

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the learning from the multi-agency evaluation of the Leeds Dual Diagnosis Care co-ordination protocol undertaken by the Leeds…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the learning from the multi-agency evaluation of the Leeds Dual Diagnosis Care co-ordination protocol undertaken by the Leeds Dual Diagnosis (DD) Project in 2013. The evaluation aimed to identify the prevalence of people with DD accessing network member services, and to identify the standard of care network members provided for people with DD in relation to the Leeds Care Co-ordination Protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation adopted a service evaluation methodology and included features of real world research. Two standardised self-completion questionnaires were administered using Survey Monkey™ software.

Findings

The majority of service could provide prevalence data however the quality of data provided was significantly impacted by the limitations of client management systems. Completion of specific DD training beyond basic awareness was generally low and many participants were confused about the different levels of training available. Standards of care varied, a substantial amount of joint working was taking place via informal pathways which relied on established relationships and trust between practitioners and services. Jointing working was often informal when people were not under the Care Programme Approach.

Research limitations/implications

Due of the methodological choices the evaluation cannot be considered impartial. The prevalence data gathered lacks robustness and does not reflect the number of people who meet clinical threshold for DD as valid screening tools were not used by all services. The standards of care identified only reflect practitioner's personal views and do not provide a definitive answer to the standard of care being delivered. The response rate in relation to standards of care was low with large amounts of missing data negatively impacting the external validity of data gathered.

Practical implications

The completion of this evaluation demonstrates that it is extremely challenging to undertake a multi-agency evaluation with limited resources. It has highlighted key challenges and areas for future development locally in relation to DD. The themes explored are likely to be of interest to commissioners, service managers, DD consultant nurses and anyone involved in the strategic development of DD.

Originality/value

The evaluation has generated information which is of practical significance to local commissioners and Leeds DD Network Members. The knowledge and learning from this evaluation has subsequently been used by the Leeds DD Strategy Group to inform the new action plan for the DD Project, the re-commissioning of substance misuse services and the new mental health framework being developed for Leeds.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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