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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Junaidah Hashim

Training evaluation is an elusive concept, especially when it comes to practice. The practice of evaluation in training has received a lot of criticism. This criticism is…

Abstract

Training evaluation is an elusive concept, especially when it comes to practice. The practice of evaluation in training has received a lot of criticism. This criticism is largely explained by the unsystematic, informal, and ad hoc evaluation that has been conducted by training institutions. In Malaysia, training activities are monitored by the government. Organisations are required to obtain training services from approved training providers registered with the government. Examines the clients’ demand toward evaluation, the commitment given by training providers, and the overall practice of evaluation by the training providers in Malaysia. Finds that the government, client and economic situations have influenced the evaluation practice in a positive direction.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2002

Ahmad Al‐Athari and Mohamed Zairi

This paper is based on a study which examined the current training evaluation activity and challenges that face Kuwaiti organisations. The study sample was five UK…

Abstract

This paper is based on a study which examined the current training evaluation activity and challenges that face Kuwaiti organisations. The study sample was five UK organisations (recognised as best practice organisations in their T&D activities) and 77 Kuwaiti organisations (40 government and 37 private). Interviews and questionnaires were used. The study reveals that the majority of respondents, both in government and in private sectors, only evaluate their training programme occasionally. The most popular evaluation tools and technique used by government and private sectors were questionnaires. The most common model used by Kuwaiti organisations is the Kirkpatrick model, while the most common level of evaluation for both government and private sector is reaction type.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Tom Short

This paper presents research‐based insight on the challenges of evaluating training activities in today's complex organizational settings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents research‐based insight on the challenges of evaluating training activities in today's complex organizational settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is taken from three case studies conducted in the New Zealand manufacturing sector, as well as sources of relevant literature. The commentary takes a critical‐realist perspective and challenges learning and development professionals to address the poor reputation of training evaluation.

Findings

Human resource practitioners recognise the importance of gaining feedback from learning events, but research reports question the thoroughness of evaluation processes, claiming they rarely happen to the satisfaction of management. Consequently, training budgets become an easy target during periods of rationalization. The problem centres on overcoming the complexity of defining a meaningful cause/effect relationship between the training and resultant benefit. This research discovered the presence of an “evaluation vacuum” and nine thematic areas requiring close attention. The paper offers reasons why the evaluation of training is becoming increasingly difficult.

Research limitations

The findings are contextual and may not fit all settings, but they offer a comparative account of training evaluation in both straightforward and complex learning environments.

Practical implications

The paper has real and practical implications for human resource professionals. Evaluation of training is not a trivial issue and organizations need to get much better at explaining the beneficial outcomes derived from investments in training.

Originality/value

This paper will be of value to human resource professionals and managers, assisting them to think differently about evaluating training. Innovative concepts such as the “evaluation vacuum” and the term “learning bleed” clarify priorities and contribute to a new perspective on evaluation.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Alfonso J. Gil, Mara Mataveli and Jorge L. Garcia-Alcaraz

The transfer of training has been identified with the effectiveness of training. The purpose of this work is to analyse the impact of training stages (training needs…

Abstract

Purpose

The transfer of training has been identified with the effectiveness of training. The purpose of this work is to analyse the impact of training stages (training needs analysis, application and evaluation) as they relate to training transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

The study participants correspond to a sample of 116 teachers with managerial responsibilities (management teams and department heads) from 17 secondary schools in Spain. This work hypothesises five significant relationships: needs analysis and application of training, application and transfer of training, evaluation and analysis of training needs, evaluation and application of training and evaluation and transfer of training. The hypotheses were tested using structural equations, namely, the partial least squares–structural equation modelling technique and SmartPLS version 3.2.9.

Findings

The relationships between application and transfer of training, between evaluation of training and needs analysis, application and transfer of training are positively contrasted. The relationship between the analysis and application of training is not contrasted.

Originality/value

This work analyses the relationship between the training process’s different phases (analysis, application and evaluation) in the training output (training transfer) and emphasises the role of evaluation in the training process.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

David R. Glerum and Timothy A. Judge

This paper aims to apply training evaluation to employability development, providing a systematic process to assess employability development programs' effectiveness under…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to apply training evaluation to employability development, providing a systematic process to assess employability development programs' effectiveness under the framework of employability capital resources (Peeters et al., 2019).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors demonstrate the training evaluation process within an employability development program for US secondary school students. This process included providing validation evidence for measures of evaluation criteria across multiple samples of secondary school students and testing the effectiveness of the program utilizing a quasi-experimental design.

Findings

The authors systematically found support for the intervention's effects on training criteria (i.e. reactions, learning, behavior, results) and demonstrated the utility for training evaluation's application to employability development. The findings illustrate how a training evaluation approach can provide holistic evidence that an employability development program achieved its intended outcomes.

Originality/value

Employability is a new and burgeoning topic – however, employability development varies in how it is conceptualized, evaluated and assessed. By applying training evaluation approaches, employability development can be assessed within a unifying framework and better integrated within the Human Resource Management literature.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Barbara J. Stites

Changes in the format of library materials, increased amounts of information, and the speed at which information is being produced have created an unrelenting need for…

Abstract

Changes in the format of library materials, increased amounts of information, and the speed at which information is being produced have created an unrelenting need for training for library staff members. Additionally, library employees are retiring in greater numbers and their accompanying expertise is being lost. The purpose of this study was to document evaluation practices currently used in library training and continuing education programs for library employees, including metrics used in calculating return-on-investment (ROI). This research project asked 272 library training professionals to identify how they evaluate training, what kind of training evaluation practices are in place, how they select programs to evaluate for ROI, and what criteria are important in determining an effective method for calculating ROI.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-580-2

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Gonçalo Bernardino and Carla Curado

This study aims to investigate the formative evaluations of the training programmes of a Portuguese national railway public company for an entire calendar year. The aim is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the formative evaluations of the training programmes of a Portuguese national railway public company for an entire calendar year. The aim is to uncover alternative configurations for the design of training programmes to create better levels of evaluation. This study is based on the following research question: What are the configurations that lead to the success and or failure of trainers and trainees? Among those, are there any common designs that generate the success and or failure of both trainers and trainees?

Design/methodology/approach

This study used matched data from an entire calendar year to examine the trainers and trainees’ evaluations of 429 training events. This study also used a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to provide configurations that generate the success or failure of trainers and trainees. This methodology offers alternative pathways to the same outcomes and thus gives managers different options to reach similar results.

Findings

The results show that there are more configurations that lead to trainers’ success (five) than to its absence (four). However, the configurations that lead to trainees’ success (three) are less than those that lead to its absence (six). The findings indicate that a single common configuration exists that leads to high evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not address summative evaluations. Regarding data, the study acknowledges the use of self-evaluations for trainees, although they serve as a proxy for a learning evaluation. The generalisation of the results outside the Portuguese railway company’s context is not possible.

Practical implications

The proposed analysis is applicable to other settings without restrictions. Managers may replicate this study’s approach in their organisations to uncover the alternative configurations that lead to the success or failure of trainers and trainees. They may adopt the ones that lead to successful outcomes and avoid the ones that lead to undesired ones.

Originality/value

This study is innovative because it addresses concurrently the success or failure of trainers and trainees that is only possible by using the fsQCA method. This study opted to use this method to provide alternative pathways to extreme outcomes: the most successful or the most unsuccessful. These multiple pathways are better results compared to traditional quantitative statistical methods that only provide a single estimated solution to the presence of the dependent variable; for example, a regression analysis or structural equation modelling.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 44 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

W. Mark Hearn

A five‐stage process model of training is presented which integrates research concerning the transfer, evaluation and institutionalisation of training. The model is…

Abstract

A five‐stage process model of training is presented which integrates research concerning the transfer, evaluation and institutionalisation of training. The model is designed to enhance the on‐the‐job evaluations of training effectiveness by following up on negative reactions, using additional training, and providing feedback to rectify breakdowns in earlier stages of training use.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Sandi Mann

Training initiatives are widely acknowledged to be a salient feature of the competitive organization’s corporate strategy. Contends that, despite the heavy investment in…

Abstract

Training initiatives are widely acknowledged to be a salient feature of the competitive organization’s corporate strategy. Contends that, despite the heavy investment in training, organizations frequently fail to evaluate adequately the value or success of their training programmes. Those companies which do evaluate often use measures considered ineffective by many researchers. Part of the reason for companies’ reluctance to evaluate their training may be confusion as to how and what to evaluate. Reviews some of the barriers to effective training evaluation and outlines the benefits that organizations which do evaluate can invite. Describes the results and implications for organizations of a study undertaken in Europe to answer the question: “What should training evaluations evaluate?” Concludes that neither reactions to training nor immediate post‐training knowledge are predictors of subsequent self‐efficacy (an established indicator of actual performance).

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 20 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

May M.L. Wong

Hong Kong has experienced an economic transformation from a manufacturing‐based to a service‐based economy which has impacted on the demand for manual labour. In 1992, the…

Abstract

Hong Kong has experienced an economic transformation from a manufacturing‐based to a service‐based economy which has impacted on the demand for manual labour. In 1992, the Employee Retraining Board was set up to provide employees’ retraining programmes (ERP) for unemployed manual workers. It aims to help unemployed manual workers to acquire and develop knowledge, skills and abilities so that they can re‐enter the labour market. This study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of ERP from the perspectives of training providers designated by Employee Retraining Board to fulfil the above objective. The evaluation of the ERP is based on how the various ERP courses can meet the training objectives, assessment of training needs, design of the ERP, course evaluation, and follow‐up services conducted by the selected training bodies. The overall effectiveness of ERP is found to be low. The indicators participation rate and job placement rate used by the training bodies tend to provide misleading evaluation results to the ERP.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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