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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Evaldas Klimas and Mantas Lideika

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the measures implemented under the spatial planning law of the Republic of Lithuania, along with various initiatives, to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the measures implemented under the spatial planning law of the Republic of Lithuania, along with various initiatives, to identify whether Lithuania is following the international trend of greening cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ analysis is based on an evaluation of the urban theory-based approach towards greening cities and adopting urban agriculture in Lithuania and legal regulations introduced by the Lithuanian government. The paper specifically analyses the legal requirements enshrined in Lithuanian law that are intended to encourage green infrastructure and urban agriculture in cities as part of the adoption of the principles of sustainable development. The paper focuses on Vilnius, the capital city of Lithuania, to gauge the extent to which the new regulations encourage urban greening and agriculture.

Findings

The authors’ reveals that Vilnius is lacking initiatives with regard to urban agriculture, while existing areas for urban agriculture are disappearing. This is happening despite the promising spatial planning reform in Lithuania, which introduced the principle of sustainable development into spatial planning regulations. This is a cause for concern and should lead to renewed calls for a coherent and ambitious approach to the greening of Vilnius and other cities in Lithuania. Furthermore, the lack of action shows that the vague wording used by the regulations does not actively encourage urban agriculture and even results in ignorance of its virtues. Therefore, more precise regulations on encouraging urban agriculture and greening of the cities should be introduced.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyse the extent to which the newly adopted principle of sustainable development in spatial planning could affect the greening of Lithuanian cities and encourage urban agriculture. The paper identifies the sequence of opening the meaning of the sustainable development principle in regular legal norms which encouraging the greening and indicates the lack of imperative norms to ensure the due implementation of sustainable development principle.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Evaldas Klimas

The purpose of this paper is to identify the substance of any general duty to co‐operate that might exist in relation to construction contracts. It also explores the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the substance of any general duty to co‐operate that might exist in relation to construction contracts. It also explores the potential impact that a duty to co‐operate might have on ensuring the smooth operation and absence of disputes within construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a number of widely accepted international documents. Reference is also made to an edition of the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs‐Conseils Red Book and to several jurisdictions of common law and continental law systems.

Findings

The duty to co‐operate permeates the law of contract and is related to the principles of good faith and fair dealing. In common law countries, the duty can take the form of implied terms within the contract. A greater level of awareness of this duty by the parties to construction contracts would minimise disputes and better ensure that the parties achieved their shared objectives.

Originality/value

Because different jurisdictions take a variety of approaches towards the areas of law discussed, the paper's use of comparative analysis of the selected documents provides particular insights into the existence of a general duty to co‐operate which will assist the future development of the law in this area.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

Keywords

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