The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review of the research published on financial inclusion (FI) and financial exclusion (FE) in developed…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review of the research published on financial inclusion (FI) and financial exclusion (FE) in developed countries using key terms and strict inclusion and exclusion criteria.
In total, 52 papers were deemed to be relevant to the analysis. These works were critiqued using a framework that addressed geographical contexts, topics, methodologies and theoretical frameworks.
This review highlights the uneven level of development of the academic debate between North America, the UK and continental Europe, and identifies the different theoretical frameworks that construe the body of literature in each region. In addition, the findings show the scant offer of work on the impact that the digital economy has on FE, as well as the reduced number of studies which have focused on certain vulnerable groups and the access to some financial services.
The studies reviewed have not analyzed the specific needs of vulnerable groups while considering the different contexts and pathways to exclusion. The evaluation of solutions and strategies to achieve inclusion is one of the least addressed aspects in the literature.
The paper synthesizes the main contributions of the top literature on the redefinition of FI/FE in developed countries, the role of fringe services and new determinants of exclusion. The proliferation of studies regarding FI in low- and middle-income countries has generated a great amount of meta-analysis and systematized reviews of asymmetric results. However, no systematized literature review on the broad scope of FI/FE in developed countries has been published in the last decade. This work sheds light over poorly analyzed areas of research that refer to notable social problems.
This research paper aims to model the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management styles and organisational culture, in order to develop a better…
This research paper aims to model the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management styles and organisational culture, in order to develop a better understanding of the causal linkages between these three areas.
The related literature on performance measurement, management control systems and management information systems, in the context of organisational culture, is examined and a framework for mapping the interplay of the three areas is developed. The research is based around five case studies where performance measurement systems were implemented in action research programmes, using identical implementation methods, by the same research team. The use of the performance measurement systems was then observed over a period of time in relation to the implementation lifecycle, changes to management style and organisational structure over time. The dynamic relationships were then mapped using the framework developed. Patterns were observed, which led to new insights.
Organisational culture and management style seem to be interdependent throughout the lifecycle of the performance measurement system. That is, management styles need to evolve as the maturity of the performance measurement system and the organisational culture evolve. A successfully implemented and used performance measurement system, through cultural change, leads to a more participative and consultative management style. Similarly, the correct use of performance measurement systems can encourage an achievement culture to emerge. All five cases suggested that an authoritative management style was essential at the start but this would change with the emerging culture.
The research results are limited to five socially constructed case studies. Whilst these findings remain valid, they cannot be used for universal generalisations. In terms of modelling the organisational culture, the research focuses on the organisation as a whole and does not take into account the possible existence of sub‐cultures within the organisation.
A better understanding of management styles and organisational culture will allow practitioners to better assess the organisations' readiness to implement performance measurement systems. Similarly, the results provide guidance towards the management styles that would be appropriate when implementing performance measurement systems in different cultural settings.
The framework for modelling the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management style and organisational culture, together with the findings, should provide useful insights and methods for future researchers in this area.