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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Neno Toric, Rui Rui Sun and Ian W. Burgess

This paper aims to propose a methodology to remove inherent implicit creep from the Eurocode 3 material model for steel and to present a creep-free analysis on simply…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a methodology to remove inherent implicit creep from the Eurocode 3 material model for steel and to present a creep-free analysis on simply supported steel members.

Design/methodology/approach

Most of the available material models of steel are based on transient coupon tests, which inherently include creep strain associated with particular heating rates and load ratios.

Findings

The creep-free analysis aims to reveal the influence of implicit creep by investigating the behaviour of simply supported steel beams and columns exposed to various heating regimes. The paper further evaluates the implicit consideration of creep in the Eurocode 3 steel material model.

Originality/value

A modified Eurocode 3 carbon steel material model for creep-free analysis is proposed for general structural fire engineering analysis.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Andrei Kervalishvili and Ivar Talvik

This paper aims to reliability analysis of axially loaded steel columns at elevated temperatures considering the probabilistic features of fire.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reliability analysis of axially loaded steel columns at elevated temperatures considering the probabilistic features of fire.

Design/methodology/approach

The response function used in the reliability analysis is based on the non-linear FEM calculations. The stochastic variability of temperature is integrated with the procedure similar to the parameters of loading and material properties. Direct Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) are implemented for probabilistic analysis. Computational costs are reduced by polynomial approximation of the response function of the column.

Findings

A design method for practical applications in the common Eurocode format is proposed. The proposed method can be used to estimate the failure probability of a steel column in fire conditions. If standard reliability criteria are applied, the results of the steel column buckling capacity in the fire according to the proposed procedure deviate from the Eurocode results in certain parameter ranges.

Originality/value

The proposed method for design calculations makes use of the advantages of MCS results, while the need for the tedious amount of calculations for the end user are avoided as the predefined factors are implemented in the procedure of Eurocode format. The proposed method allows better differentiation of the fire probability in the capacity assessment compared to the existing design methods.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Donia Salman, Rabab Allouzi and Nasim Shatarat

The main goal is to investigate the effect of size and location of opening and column size on the punching shear strength. Openings are often needed in order to install…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal is to investigate the effect of size and location of opening and column size on the punching shear strength. Openings are often needed in order to install mechanical and electrical services. This process takes away part of the concrete volume which is responsible for resisting the shear forces and any unbalanced moment. Furthermore, the application of rectangular columns in flat slabs is commonly used in practice as they provide lateral stiffness to the building. They are also utilised in garages and multi-storey buildings where these elongated cross-sectional columns reduce the effective span length between adjacent columns.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a numerical-based investigation that is calibrated based on a thirteen previously tested and numerically calibrated slab specimens with no openings. A parametric study is conducted in this study to consider the effect of other parameters, which are the size and location of opening and the rectangularity ratio of column in order to evaluate their effect on the punching shear capacity. A total of 156 models are developed to study these factors. Additionally, the predicted shear carrying capacity of the simulated slabs is calculated using the ACI318–19 and Eurocode (EC2-04) equation.

Findings

The presence of openings reduced the punching shear capacity. The small opening's location and orientation have almost no effect except for one slab. For slabs of large openings, the presence of openings reduced the punching capacity. The punching capacity is higher when the openings are farther from the column. The numerically obtained results of slabs with rectangular columns show lower punching capacity compared to slabs of squared columns with the same length of the punching shear control perimeter. The punching capacity for all slabs is predicted by ACI318–19 and Eurocode (EC2-04) and it is found that Eurocode (EC2-04) provided a closer estimation.

Originality/value

The slabs considered for calibration were reinforced with four different punching shear reinforcement configurations, namely; ordinary closed rectangular stirrups, rectangular spiral stirrups, advanced rectangular spiral stirrups and circular spiral. Generally, there has been limited research on concrete flat slabs with openings in comparison with other subjects related to structural engineering (Guan, 2009) and no research on punching shear with openings of slabs reinforced with these reinforcement schemes. The available research focussed on the effects of openings on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs includes Casadei et al. (2003), Banu et al. (2012) and Elsayed et al. (2009). In addition, experimental tests that examined slabs supported on rectangular columns are very limited.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Maximilian A. Vermorken and Alphons Th. Vermorken

The purpose of this paper is to compare two opposite approaches chosen to regulate an industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare two opposite approaches chosen to regulate an industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is based on studying the two selected regulation systems, Basel III and the Eurocodes and identifies how the one system regulates financial institutions and the other one civil engineering design.

Findings

The paper shows that the financial regulation uses a cause‐based approach to regulation, in which the causes of a crisis are found and controlled. The Eurocodes in civil engineering make no specific attempt to understand the specific causes of a failure; however, they provide a framework, which transfers full responsibility onto the designer if the designer decides not to adhere to a set of codes of practice. It is the trade‐off between less regulation and increased responsibility.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new way of understanding the impact and use of regulation by comparing it to a system which has the same purpose but uses opposite means. It shows how financial regulation in reality has limitations which are its inherent weakness.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Thomas Gernay and Mohamed Salah Dimia

The paper aims to give an insight into the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns during and after the cooling phase of a fire. The study is based on numerical…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to give an insight into the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns during and after the cooling phase of a fire. The study is based on numerical simulations as these tools are frequently used in structural engineering. As the reliability of numerical analysis largely depends on the validity of the constitutive models, the development of a concrete model suitable for natural fire analysis is addressed in the study.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes theoretical considerations supported by numerical examples to discuss the capabilities and limitations of different classes of concrete models and eventually to develop a new concrete model that meets the requirements in case of natural fire analysis. Then, the study performs numerical simulations of concrete columns subjected to natural fire using the new concrete model. A parametric analysis allows for determining the main factors that affect the structural behaviour in cooling.

Findings

Failure of concrete columns during and after the cooling phase of a fire is a possible event. The most critical situations with respect to delayed failure arise for short fires and for columns with low slenderness or massive sections. The concrete model used in the simulations is of prime importance and the use of the Eurocode model would lead to unsafe results.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the assessment of the fire resistance of concrete elements in a performance‐based environment.

Originality/value

The paper provides original information about the risk of structural collapse during cooling.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Flávio Arrais, Nuno Lopes and Paulo Vila Real

Steel beams composed of cold-formed sections are common in buildings because of their lightness and ability to support large spans. However, the instability phenomena…

Abstract

Purpose

Steel beams composed of cold-formed sections are common in buildings because of their lightness and ability to support large spans. However, the instability phenomena associated to these members are not completely understood in fire situation. Thus, the purpose of this study is to analyse the behaviour of beams composed of cold-formed lipped channel sections at elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical analysis is made, applying the finite element program SAFIR, on the behaviour of simply supported cold formed steel beams at elevated temperatures. A parametric study, considering several cross-sections with different slenderness’s values, steel grades and bending diagrams, is presented. The obtained numerical results are compared with the design bending resistances determined from Eurocode 3 Part 1-2 and its French National Annex (FN Annex).

Findings

The current design expressions revealed to be too conservative when compared with the obtained numerical results. It was possible to observe that the FN Annex is less conservative than the Annex E, the first having a better agreement with the numerical results.

Originality/value

Following the previous comparisons, new fire design formulae are tested. This new methodology, which introduces minimum changes in the existing formulae, provides safety and accuracy at the same time when compared to the numerical results, considering the occurrence of local, distortional and lateral torsional buckling phenomena in these members at elevated temperatures.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Kristi L. Selden and Amit H. Varma

The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling (FEM) technique using the commercially available program ABAQUS to predict the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling (FEM) technique using the commercially available program ABAQUS to predict the thermal and structural behavior of composite beams under fire loading.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was benchmarked using experimental test data, and it accounts for temperature-dependent material properties, force-slip-temperature relationship for the shear studs and concrete cracking.

Findings

It was determined that composite beams can be modeled with this sequentially coupled thermal-structural 3D FEM to predict the displacement versus bottom flange temperature response and associated composite beam failure modes, including compression failure in the concrete slab, runaway deflection because of yielding of the steel beam or fracture of the shear studs.

Originality/value

The Eurocode stress-strain-temperature (σ-ε-T) material model for structural steel and concrete conservatively predict the composite beam deflections at temperatures above 500°C. Models that use the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) stress-strain-temperature (σ-ε-T) material model more closely match the measured deflection response, as compared to the results using the Eurocode model. However, in some cases, the NIST model underestimates the composite beam deflections at temperatures above 500°C.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Osama A.B. Hassan and Christopher Johansson

This paper aims to compare glued laminated timber and steel beams with respect to structural design, manufacturing and assembly costs and the amount of greenhouse gas emissions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare glued laminated timber and steel beams with respect to structural design, manufacturing and assembly costs and the amount of greenhouse gas emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents structural design requirements in conformance with EN 1993: Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 3. With the help of these standards, expressions are derived to evaluate the design criteria of the beams. Based on the results of life-cycle analysis, the economic properties and environmental impact of the two types of beam are investigated. In this paper, the effect of beam span on the design values, costs and carbon dioxide emissions is analysed when investigating aspects of the structural design, economy and environmental impact. Different cross-sections are chosen for this purpose.

Findings

The study shows that the glued laminated (abbreviated as “glulam”) beams have a smaller tendency to lateral torsional buckling than the steel beams, and that they can be cheaper. From an environmental point of view, glulam beams are the more environmentally friendly option of the two beam materials. Furthermore, glulam beams may have a direct positive effect on the environment, considering the carbon storage capacity of the wood. The disadvantage of glued wood is that larger dimensions are sometimes required.

Research limitations/implications

Wind load and the effect of second-order effects have not been considered when analysing the static design. Only straight beams have been studied. Furthermore, the dynamic design of the beams has not been investigated, and the bearing pressure capacity of the supports has not been analyzed. We have investigated timber beams with a rectangular cross-section, and steel beams of rolled I-sections, known as “HEA profiles”. The cost analysis is based mainly on the manufacturing and assembly costs prevalent on the Swedish market. The only environmental impact investigated has been the emission of greenhouse gases. The design calculations are based on the European standards Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 3.

Practical implications

To achieve sustainability in construction engineering, it is important to study the environmental and economic consequences of the building elements. By combining these two effects with the technical design of buildings made of steel and/or timber, the concept of sustainable development can be achieved in the long run.

Social implications

The study concerns sustainability of building structures, which is an important of the sustainable development of the society.

Originality/value

The paper contains new information and will be useful to researchers and civil engineers.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Cristiane Oliveira Viana, Hermes Carvalho, José Correia, Pedro Aires Montenegro, Raphael Pedrosa Heleno, Guilherme Santana Alencar, Abilio M.P. de Jesus and Rui Calçada

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue process through the dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling in a critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue process through the dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling in a critical detail using the hot-spot stress approach. The detail was studied in three different positions at the “Alcácer do Sal” access viaduct, and the methodologies from the IIW and Eurocode EN 1993-1-9 were compared.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the fatigue life process based on the hot-spot stress approach was evaluated using a global dynamic analysis and a local sub-modelling based on a static analysis of welded connections in the “Alcácer do Sal” railway structure, Portugal, taking into consideration the recommendations from IIW and Eurocode EN 1993-1-9. The hot-spot stresses were calculated through the static analysis of the sub-model of the welded connection for each vibration mode with the aim to obtain the temporal stresses using the modal coordinates and modal stresses of the extrapolation points. The Ansys® and Matlab® softwares were used for the numerical analysis and the hot-spot stress calculations, respectively.

Findings

The proposed methodology/approach to obtain fatigue assessment is based on the modal analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling. The modal analysis was used to extract the boundary conditions to be used in the local model to determine the temporal stresses of the extrapolation points. Based on the modal superposition method, the stresses as function of time were obtained for fatigue life evaluation of a critical detail by the hot-spot stress approach. The detail was studied in three different positions.

Originality/value

In the present study, a global-local fatigue methodology based on dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling of the critical detail using the hot-spot stress approach is proposed. Herein, the modal analysis of the global structural model supported by the modal superposition method was used to obtain the matrix of modal coordinates. The static analysis of the local sub-model for each mode from the modal analysis of global structural model was done to estimate the hot-spot stresses. The fatigue damage calculation was based on S-N curve of the critical detail and rainflow method. The IIW recommendation proved to be more conservative compared to the proposed rules in the Eurocode EN 1993-1-9. The global-local modelling based on dynamic analysis is an important and effective tool for fatigue evaluation in welded joints.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Abstract

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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