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Article

James Reardon, Chip Miller, Irena Vida and Irina Kim

The aim of this research was to investigate how ethnocentrism and economic development within transitional economies affects the formation of brand attitudes and attitude…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research was to investigate how ethnocentrism and economic development within transitional economies affects the formation of brand attitudes and attitude toward the ad.

Design/methodology/approach

Kazakhstan and Slovenia were chosen as representative transitional economies – Kazakhstan in the early stages and Slovenia highly advanced. A random sample of adults was surveyed in both countries and in the USA, which served as a control group. Questionnaires were distributed that contained measures of ethnocentricity (CETSCALE), attitude toward the brand (Ab) and attitude towards the ad (Aad). Expectations based on theory and previous studies suggested the following: ethnocentricity leads to negative Aad and Ab for foreign products and ethnocentricity will have a greater effect on Aad and Ab in new transitioning economies. All hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (LISREL).

Findings

Ethnocentricity did result in negative Aad, but only for Kazakhstan, not Slovenia. The effect of ethnocentrism on Aad was stronger in the newly transitioning economy. Ethnocentricity affected Ab formation only indirectly through Aad, not directly as predicted by previous research. There was limited support for the idea that the effect of ethnocentrism on Ab was stronger in newly transitioning economies.

Practical implications

Because ethnocentric attitudes transfer directly to negative Aad, it indicates that developing a superior brand in newly transitioning economies is preferable to relying on mass advertising to make one's case. The brand will develop its reputation based on quality and status, which are not directly affected by ethnocentricity. A further protection from ethnocentric attitudes would be to form a joint venture with a local firm or set up a foreign subsidiary. In more advanced transitioning economies, a shift to mass communication of product benefits will work more readily.

Originality/value

International marketers have better decision‐making information now available. The relationships of economic development and ethnocentricity are more clearly laid out as they relate to attitude formation for foreign products. Researchers in this field have more advanced theory to work from, as the path by which ethnocentricity affects attitude formation has been delineated more clearly.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article

Göran Svensson, Terje Slåtten and Bård Tronvoll

The objective is to describe the “ethnocentricity” (i.e. geographical affiliation of editor(s), editorial board(s), editorial review board(s) and author(s)) of selected…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective is to describe the “ethnocentricity” (i.e. geographical affiliation of editor(s), editorial board(s), editorial review board(s) and author(s)) of selected journals in services management.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is restricted to the examination and comparison of five top journals in services management during a six‐year period. In total, the content analysis consisted of 1,189 articles.

Findings

The authors contend that there is in part a troublesome and challenging “ethnocentricity” in some of the examined journals.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of “ethnocentricity” is underestimated in the examinations of academic journals in the field of services management. It is an important issue that needs to be raised and discussed in literature, due to the paradigmatic influences that it may have on the journal and its characteristics – in extension, the journal ranking and the journal quality.

Practical implications

The authors provide some suggestions, all of which are troublesome to implement. If done, it has to be done progressively and it will take time to not lose the current editorial scope and success of the journal.

Originality/value

This paper fills a knowledge gap in the literature by examining specific aspects of the “ethnocentricity” of “top” journals in the particular area of services management.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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Article

Gurvinder S. Shergill, Yuli Rosmala and Andrew G. Parsons

The purpose of this paper is to investigate young New Zealand shoppers' ethnocentricity and brand perceptions by extending the research of O'Cass and Lim. The paper does…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate young New Zealand shoppers' ethnocentricity and brand perceptions by extending the research of O'Cass and Lim. The paper does this by looking at the relationship between ethnocentrism and brand choices, and by investigating whether young New Zealand shoppers have different price and brand‐user image congruency perceptions for local and foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of six hypotheses were tested using data gathered from a mall intercept survey of 208 respondents aged between 16 and 25 years. The shoppers were measured through a series of Likert‐scale questions from the O'Cass and Lim study, the Shimp and Sharma CETSCALE items, and a range of demographic characteristic items.

Findings

Young New Zealand shoppers are about mid‐level internationally in terms of ethnocentrism, and ethnocentricity does not have an influence on their perceptions of brands. Price perceptions and self/brand user congruency perceptions are important to young New Zealand shoppers, and these are different for local versus foreign brands.

Practical implications

Foreign brands do not suffer from ethnocentricity but they do have a distorted (high) price perception amongst young New Zealand shoppers, suggesting a need for marketing aimed at dispelling this misperception. There is also a lack of congruency with brands, indicating that more active promotions with stronger and more distinct brand images are required.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to examine young New Zealand shoppers in any context, and is the only study to link young New Zealand shoppers with other international studies of ethnocentrism and brand perceptions. While adding to the understanding of brand perceptions it also provides practitioners with insights into young shoppers' perspectives on international brands.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article

Göran Svensson and Greg Wood

This paper aims to examine and compare a set of key characteristics of ethnocentricity that influence the policy of academic marketing journals, and hence the provenance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare a set of key characteristics of ethnocentricity that influence the policy of academic marketing journals, and hence the provenance, authorship and nature of articles in academic marketing journals.

Design/methodology/approach

The “fundamental” characteristics of three major marketing journals, published in the USA, the UK and New Zealand, were examined for the six‐year period from the start of 2000 to the end of 2006. Data were collected from editorials and web homepages. Analysis was conducted of 811 articles, 1,676 authors, three editorial teams and three sets of reviewers.

Findings

There is a challenging academic ethnocentricity in the management and implied policy of the three journals. The extent varies, but the inescapable conclusion is that the world‐wide research community in marketing is not properly represented by leading journals.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was intentionally small, and unrepresentative of any category except “leading quality”. The findings are intended to add momentum to a debate and point ways forward, not to provide generalisable answers.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that: the editorial boards and reviewing teams should be made more representative geographically; editorships should be organized around the concept of a team of geographically differentiated editors; editorial and review teams should be ethnographically representative of individuals who do research and wish to publish it, particularly beyond the English‐speaking world. In general, the world‐wide research community in marketing would benefit from less ethnocentricity in academic journals, and these leading examples should strive to reduce it.

Originality/value

The impact of ethnocentricity is underestimated in this context. The issue needs to be discussed, because of paradigmatic influences that it can have on a journal and the profile of its authors, and hence on journal ranking and perceptions of journal quality.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article

Göran Svensson, Terje Slåtten and Bård Tronvoll

The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” in the “top” journals of logistics management by studying the categories of papers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” in the “top” journals of logistics management by studying the categories of papers published and the geographical affiliations of authors, editorial review boards, and editors in selected journals.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of “top” scholarly journals in logistics management is selected on the basis of previous research, expert opinion, and journal ranking lists. The selection includes the International Journal of Logistics Management (IJLM), the International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management (IJPDLM), and the Journal of Business Logistics (JBL). The study considers all available papers (a total of 657) published in these journals over an eight‐year period from 2000 to 2007. The compiled results are analyzed for patterns that reveal the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” of each of the selected journals.

Findings

There is a range of different categories of papers in the selected journals and there a fairly broad range of geographical affiliations of authors, editorial review boards, and editors. The overall variety of “scientific identities” and “ethnocentricity” among the journals studied here support in part the ongoing scientific exploration of logistics management, though it may be improved in the future.

Research limitations/implications

Further research of the “scientific identity” and “ethnocentricity” of individual research journals is required in other sub‐disciplines of logistics.

Practical implications

Scholars will benefit from insights into the “scientific identities” and “ethnocentricity” of the “top” journals in logistics management. In particular, scholars can note the particular features of individual journals while acknowledging the paradigmatic flexibility and richness of research designs that are present in most of these journals.

Originality/value

This paper updates and extends previous research on methodological approaches in logistics management journals, but it appears to be the first study of the “scientific identity” of “top” logistics management journals in terms of categories of papers published and geographical affiliation of authors, editorial review boards, and editors. This paper provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing in the flourishing research field of logistics management.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Article

Joseph Chwo‐ming Yu, Chin‐Hua Yi, Yu‐Ching Chiao and Yu‐Chen Wei

An investigation into the factors affecting the adaptation of spouses of Taiwan expatriates allowed for their modes of adaptation to be classified into ‘adjustment’…

Abstract

An investigation into the factors affecting the adaptation of spouses of Taiwan expatriates allowed for their modes of adaptation to be classified into ‘adjustment’, ‘reaction’ and ‘withdrawal’. Albeit a sample of 15 spouses were interviewed using a semi‐structured questionnaire, the research findings indicate that if an expatriate’s spouse is characterized as having high cultural flexibility, high social orientation, a high degree of willingness to communicate, a high conflict resolution orientation, low ethnocentricity and a high orientation towards knowledge, the overseas adaptation tends to be of the ‘adjustment’ mode. Research propositions based on case findings and relevant literature are derived here for future more in‐depth study.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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Article

Ozay Mehmet

I. Introduction We live in a world of cultural diversity, a mosaic of cultures. Cultural diversity can be an enriching asset, enhancing tolerance and mutual respect among…

Abstract

I. Introduction We live in a world of cultural diversity, a mosaic of cultures. Cultural diversity can be an enriching asset, enhancing tolerance and mutual respect among different peoples; or it can be a source of bitter inter‐ethnic conflict. In this paper the focus of attention is on the second, i.e. inter‐ethnic conflict resulting from ethnocentricity. The overall purpose of the paper is to explore ethnocentricity in inter‐ethnic conflict as a basis for teaching human rights courses in education.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

B. Zafer Erdogan and Cevahir Uzkurt

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and product attitudes, including country of origin, and to investigate whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and product attitudes, including country of origin, and to investigate whether ethnocentric tendencies and product attitudes vary by demographic variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the study were collected through a face‐to‐face survey of consumers in Turkey. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 283 were accepted as usable for the study. Consumer ethnocentrism was measured by CETSCALE.

Findings

The findings show that shoppers with high levels of ethnocentricity are more likely to be less educated and to earn lower monthly income than those with low levels of ethnocentric tendency. As expected, those with low‐ethnocentricity levels perceive foreign products more favorably than their high‐ethnocentricity counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The study has two limitations. First, the research sample was located in only one Turkish city which is a clear constraint on the generalizibility of the results. Second, consumers were asked to evaluate the attributes of foreign‐origin products without reference to a specific product group.

Practical implications

These findings provide useful market intelligence for marketing strategists targeting Turkey, but must be generalized with caution.

Originality/value

This paper both supports and contributes to the existing literature by examining consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin together.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article

Ashish Malik, Liem Viet Ngo and Russel P.J. Kingshott

This exploratory study aims to analyse the influence of organisational resources and capabilities on relationship quality and firm performance in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to analyse the influence of organisational resources and capabilities on relationship quality and firm performance in the context of high-technology offshore outsourcing service vendors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative case study design, data from four offshore business process and information technology outsourcing firms were analysed.

Findings

Findings highlight that resource dependence, cultural orientation and the vendor’s resources and capabilities strengthen relationship quality and affect firm performance.

Originality/value

The distinctive contribution of this study lies in identifying key organisational mechanisms that improve relationship quality and firm performance, as well as help to understand the adverse effects of ethnocentricity and power faced by vendors and subsidiaries within diverse intercultural contexts. Study limitations and future research directions, along with implications for theory and practice, are also discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article

Anna V. John and Malcolm P. Brady

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to validate the consumer ethnocentrism tendencies (CET) scale in Mozambique and to describe the profile of CET in that country; to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to validate the consumer ethnocentrism tendencies (CET) scale in Mozambique and to describe the profile of CET in that country; to describe the effects of consumer ethnocentrism through the moderator of product type; and to discuss implications of Mozambican consumer ethnocentrism and its effects and make recommendations for practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire‐based survey was carried out to collect data from 448 consumers in Southern Mozambique. The data were analyzed by using exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modelling.

Findings

The CET scale has satisfactory psychometric qualities and can be used as a two‐dimensional construct in Mozambique. Mozambican consumers were found to be moderately ethnocentric. Their ethnocentric tendencies underpinned negative attitudes toward South African consumables. The study demonstrates the moderating role of product type and concludes that importers of South African agricultural consumables into Mozambique are more susceptible to the effects of consumer ethnocentrism than are importers of processed goods.

Research limitations/implications

The results cannot be generalized to countries and products which were not included into this study. The conclusions about the CET effects are valid only for the southern part of the country where the survey took place.

Practical implications

The authors suggest that South African marketing managers should pay closer attention to the competitiveness of agricultural consumables in Mozambique. By contrast, processed consumables from South Africa represent a lower risk. As the employment issue plays a central role in Mozambican consumer ethnocentric tendencies, the national policy makers might incorporate it into the messages of buy‐local campaigns. In addition, the buy local campaigns should position growing national industry as a future large employer in the country. The national suppliers of agricultural consumables are at less risk. On the contrary, national producers of processed consumables are at a disadvantage because ethnocentricity does not result in strong support of these products. Advertising messages with patriotic appeals may be ineffective. Thus, instead of country of origin, other extrinsic cues (e.g. brand, package and price) may be used to enhance competitiveness on the national market.

Social implications

Mozambican consumers are moderately ethnocentric. Consumer ethnocentricity and its effects in Mozambique are shaped by pragmatic motives originating from socio‐economic pressures such as the under‐development of the national production sector and high unemployment in the country.

Originality/value

The paper will be of interest to practitioners, e.g. foreign companies, exporters and Mozambican policy makers and producers. The findings suggest that foreign companies should not be overly cautious about selling their products in Mozambique because, being moderately ethnocentric, Mozambican consumers are open to purchasing foreign imports where there is good reason, for example, when locally made products are unavailable.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

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