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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Shea X. Fan and Anne-Wil Harzing

Employing expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees (HCEs) is a widespread expatriate selection strategy. However, little research has compared how…

Abstract

Employing expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees (HCEs) is a widespread expatriate selection strategy. However, little research has compared how expatriates and HCEs perceive this shared ethnicity. Drawing upon an identity perspective, we propose HCEs' ethnic identity confirmation, the level of agreement between how an HCE views the importance of his/her own ethnic identity and how expatriates view the importance of the HCE's ethnic identity, affects HCEs' attitudes toward ethnically similar expatriates. Results of two experiments show that HCEs' ethnic identity confirmation is related to HCEs' perception of expatriates' trustworthiness and knowledge-sharing intention.

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Intercultural Management in Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-827-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2007

Michelle Gacio Harrolle and Galen T. Trail

Sports management and marketing research has failed to study the dimensions of Latino sports consumption behaviour and fan identification. This research examined the…

Abstract

Sports management and marketing research has failed to study the dimensions of Latino sports consumption behaviour and fan identification. This research examined the relationships among ethnic identity, acculturation, identification with sport in general, and identification with specific sports for Latinos living in the United States. Even though the four models used fit the data well, in general, ethnic identity and acculturation had little or no influence on sports identification. Hence sports marketers should not create marketing campaigns solely based on the assumption that Latinos or any ethnic group are necessarily fans of any particular sport (e.g. soccer).

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Barbara Stöttinger and Elfriede Penz

In today’s globalized world, countries are becoming increasingly multiethnic. This raises questions about the different dimensions of consumers’ territorial identities

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s globalized world, countries are becoming increasingly multiethnic. This raises questions about the different dimensions of consumers’ territorial identities, and how these dimensions are differentiated, interrelated and interlinked. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative interviews, this paper investigates how (40) respondents from two different ethnic minorities in a country that is not necessarily considered multiethnic perceive these dimensions of territorial identity (ethnic, regional and national) as a constituent element of their own person and of their behavior.

Findings

The authors highlight that these three dimensions of territorial identity co-exist as independent entities; they are distinct but interrelated and interconnected. Furthermore, idiosyncrasies in the ethnic sub-samples are investigated and described. These are related to the connection to the country of residence (being born there vs having immigrated there). Finally, avenues for future research, such as expanding the concept of territorial identities and its connection to consumer behavior, are suggested.

Originality/value

The authors extend the bipolarity commonly used in territorial identities (global vs local or ethnic vs national) to three conceptually independent dimensions. The authors explore the relationships between these dimensions of territorial identity and show that they may not conflict but, instead, co-exist.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Jae-Pil Ha, Mary A Hums and Chris T Greenwell

This study examines the effect of four acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalisation) on identification with andconsumption of…

Abstract

This study examines the effect of four acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalisation) on identification with and consumption of American football for the Asian population in the United States. Using Berry's (1990, 1997) bi-dimensional model of acculturation as a theoretical framework, significant differences (based on the four acculturation strategies) between football identification and consumption were found. In addition, this study examines the relationships between acculturation, ethnic identity, identification with, and consumption of, the sport among the Asian population. The results indicate that acculturation plays a significant role in explaining participants' identification with, and consumption of, the sport, whereas ethnic identity does not.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2018

Angeline Villanueva Yang, Marilee Bresciani Ludvik, Caren L. Sax, Sylvia Garcia-Navarrete, Wendy Bracken, J. Luke Wood and Charles Iyoho

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether attention, emotion, and cognitive regulation (CR) may be strategies to advance one’s ethnic identity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether attention, emotion, and cognitive regulation (CR) may be strategies to advance one’s ethnic identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is presented in three parts. The first section discusses integrative inquiry (INIQ) (Bresciani Ludvik et al., 2016), a mindfulness methodology and mindful inquiry training program, as a potential pathway to help mitigate stress and enhance healthy development and well-being strategies that combat stressors related to ethnic and racial identity; and increase opportunities for positive ethnic identity development. INIQ was designed to influence areas of the brain associated with attention regulation, emotion regulation, and CR in order to decrease stress and anxiety, and heighten executive functions of undergraduate and graduate students. The second section discusses an exploratory study to see whether INIQ resulted in higher mean scores for participants on their ethnic identity, as assessed by the multigroup ethnic identity measure (Phinney, 1992).

Findings

The results indicated that there was a significant increase in pre-test and post-test scores for mindfulness (p=0.001) as well as the dependent measure for learning exploration (p=0.028) among 30 undergraduate, master’s- and doctoral-seeking students. There was also a non-significant increase for clear understanding (p=0.15) and overall ethnic identity achievement (p=0.387); and non-significant decrease for ethnic belonging (p=0.424).

Originality/value

These findings suggest that INIQ may increase students’ ethnic learning exploration, which is an important process in ethnic identity development (Phinney and Ong, 2007). This study also suggests that INIQ increases mindfulness in participants. The authors conclude with a discussion and recommendations to future INIQ and other diversity centered student support practitioners interested in influencing positive ethnic identity formation.

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Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Mark Christopher McPherson

This paper, which is part of a larger study, aims to discuss from an ethno-cultural perspective, the notion of self-identification and difference pertaining to first and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, which is part of a larger study, aims to discuss from an ethno-cultural perspective, the notion of self-identification and difference pertaining to first and second-generation South Asian male entrepreneurs. In essence, previous studies have not explored this dimension to any sufficient depth. Therefore, evidence is unclear as to how ethno-culture has informed entrepreneurial identity and difference.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a phenomenological research paradigm, 42 semi-structured interviews were conducted with first- and second-generation Sikh and Pakistani Muslim male entrepreneurs in Greater London. A typology of second-generation entrepreneurs is developed and a research agenda proposed.

Findings

First-generation respondents regard the UK as home and do not suffer from shifts in identity. These particular respondents identify themselves as Sikh or Pakistani Muslim or a Businessman. However, the second-generation identify themselves via three distinct labels. Here respondents stress their ethnicity by using Hyphenated British identities or hide their ethnicity behind the term a Normal Businessman, or appear opportunists by using ethnicity as a resource to espouse a true entrepreneurial identity.

Research limitations/implications

The research environment within the Greater London area where the respondents are located may not be as generalisable when compared with other parts of the UK.

Originality/value

This paper offers a unique insight into self-prescribed identity and difference noted among London’s ethnic entrepreneurs.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Michel Laroche, Chankon Kim and Marc A. Tomiuk

Ethnic identity or the retention or loss of the attitudes, values and behaviours of one’s culture of origin is presented as a multidimensional construct. It is further…

Abstract

Ethnic identity or the retention or loss of the attitudes, values and behaviours of one’s culture of origin is presented as a multidimensional construct. It is further suggested that acculturation or the acquisition of traits of the dominant/host culture constitutes a separate yet correlated process. Initial exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on responses from Italian‐Canadians to various items designed to tap Italian ethnic identity. These analyses revealed that ethnic identity did indeed constitute a multidimensional process. Specifically, three dimensions were identified: Italian Social Interaction and Participation, Italian Language Use with Family Members, and Catholicism. A final CFA model incorporated the three ethnic identity dimensions and two dimensions of acculturation. Consistent with previous findings, LISREL VIII estimation resulted in significant negative correlations between some ethnic identity and acculturation dimensions. The discriminant validity of ethnic identity was also more thoroughly established vis‐à‐vis acculturation by computing 95 per cent confidence intervals for the parameter estimates. Finally, subsequent stepwise regression analyses showed that the three ethnic identity dimensions along with the two acculturation dimensions and three socioeconomic factors had differential impacts on the consumption of various convenience and traditional foods. A hypothesis holding that ethnic identity was negatively related to the consumption of convenience foods was partly confirmed. Another holding that it was positively related to the consumption of traditional Italian foods was better established.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Tara Christopher Crane, Jean A. Hamilton and Laurel E. Wilson

This research focuses on the ways in which individuals play out their Scottish ethnic feelings and on the role of dress in this process. Using the grounded theory…

Abstract

This research focuses on the ways in which individuals play out their Scottish ethnic feelings and on the role of dress in this process. Using the grounded theory approach, participants defining themselves as ethnically Scottish were interviewed for this study. The findings indicate that respondents vary greatly in the emphasis they place on Scottish ethnicity when defining their self‐identities. Additionally, respondents differ in the degree to which they feel complete in their Scottish identity. Those who find their Scottish ethnicity to be salient to their definition of self put more effort into the construction of that identity. Oftentimes, ethnic dress symbols play a prominent role in this construction process – the importance of dress diminishes as feelings of identity completeness increases.

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Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Rodrigo Romo and José M. Gil

Focussing on Latin American immigrants in Barcelona, the objective of this paper is twofold: to measure their degree of ethnical identity; and to analyse the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Focussing on Latin American immigrants in Barcelona, the objective of this paper is twofold: to measure their degree of ethnical identity; and to analyse the relationship between food habits and their ethnical identity.

Design/methodology/approach

Face‐to‐face interviews with a representative sample of Latin American immigrants in the Metropolitan area of Barcelona are undertaken. Ethnic identity is measured using the MEIM scale, which combines aspects from the social identity and personal development theories. Finally, a Multinomial Logit Model is used to identify the relationship between food habits and ethnical identity.

Findings

Results indicate that the higher the level of ethnic identity and feeling of belonging of immigrants in Catalonia, the greater the persistence of dietary habits from the country of origin. Contrasting with results from other studies, no correlation is found between the persistence of dietary habits and either the length of time spent in Spain or the level of integration into the Catalan culture (measured through use of the Catalan language).

Research limitations/implications

Findings should logically be interpreted within the context of the population and sample studied. Further research should be addressed to analyze other immigrant groups such as Muslims, Asians and Eastern Europeans.

Originality/value

This study explores the strength of traditional food habits of immigrants living in a foreign cultural environment and the role of ethnic identity in contributing to this strength. While past literature focussing on this topic is based on atheoretical and partial indicators to measure ethnic identity, this study provides evidence on the usefulness of using a theory‐based and multidimensional measure. The behaviour of Latin American immigrants in Spain is used as a case study.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2016

Jae-Pil Ha, Mary Hums and T. Christopher Greenwell

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management literature compared to African-Americans and Hispanics. In addition, sport management scholars have paid limited attention to two important cultural factors: ethnic identity and acculturation. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempted to examine a comprehensive sport consumption model for Asians by testing theoretical relationships between these two cultural factors (ethnic identity and acculturation), fan identification, and sport consumption behavior.

Findings

The structural equation modeling results indicated that ethnic identity indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a native country, e.g. ethnic player popular sports in a native country through identification with the sport products. In contrast acculturation indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a host country, e.g. popular sports in a host country.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide implications on how sport marketers should effectively design sport products based on the Asians’ levels of acculturation and ethnic identity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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