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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Ivan K.W. Lai, Dong Lu and Yide Liu

The concept of experience economy states that customers seek experiences whether from products and services. Tourism is at the forefront of the experience economy because…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of experience economy states that customers seek experiences whether from products and services. Tourism is at the forefront of the experience economy because tourists are looking for staged experience encompassing the four realms (entertainment, educational, esthetic and escapism). The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the effects of the experience economy on tourists’ word-of-mouth (WOM) in Chengdu cuisine through satisfaction and memory.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 397 valid data were collected from the tourists who have experienced the ethnic cuisine in Chengdu. A partial least-square structural equation modeling technique was used to examine the research model.

Findings

The empirical results indicated that esthetic is the antecedent of the other three realms of experience economy; esthetic, educational and entertainment experiences influence satisfaction; four realms of experience economy influence memory; and satisfaction and memory ultimately influence WOM.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide practical implications for operators of ethnic restaurants in designing their restaurants and menus, travel agencies in planning the tour itinerary and governments in using ethnic cuisine for destination marketing.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneer in studying the experience economy in the ethnic cuisine. It has identified the relationships between four dimensions of experience economy of ethnic cuisine, tourist satisfaction, memory and WOM toward ethnic cuisine in a tourist destination. It has also integrated the senses of Chinese cuisine (“sight,” “smell” and “taste”) into the measures of esthetic experience for studying experience economy in ethnic cuisine.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Jia Choi, Jong‐Mee Lee and Mi‐Sook Cho

The primary aim of this paper is to reveal the changes in perception of East Asian cuisine (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese) in New York City between 1997…

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1471

Abstract

Purpose

The primary aim of this paper is to reveal the changes in perception of East Asian cuisine (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese) in New York City between 1997 and 2007. Through analysis of data collected from Zagat Survey food reviews, the research seeks to explore trends regarding each cuisine's social status, quality, and also to observe general comparisons between each ethnicity's cuisine. The secondary aim is to evaluate how each cuisine is currently perceived in the city that is not only beaming with culinary delights, but also deemed the “Restaurant capital of the world”.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Zagat Survey New York City 1997 and 2007, quantitative analyses were performed using the scores for comparison purposes. The mean and the standard deviations are calculated in terms of food, decor, service, and price. The t‐test was used to verify whether there have been statistically meaningful changes in each cuisine for the past ten years in the Zagat Survey.

Findings

In terms of popularity, the number of Japanese restaurants has significantly increased in ten years while that of Chinese restaurants decreased about 30 percent. According to the t‐tests, Japanese showed most significant changes in almost all aspects. Thai cuisine also demonstrated remarkable improvements, especially, in decor and service. Korean and Chinese cuisine did not show a noticeable change in food, decor, and service. Only the price showed a little change for these cuisines. Vietnamese cuisine achieved a significant progress in food while no enhancement in other aspects.

Research limitations/implications

Because the scope of the research was “general” restaurants in New York City, the discussion on their price range, quality of food, decor, and service, the type of restaurant under observation was inevitably limited.

Practical implications

The research can help in marketing and development of new restaurants for it provides some insight into the characteristics of each ethnic cuisine and trend changes of restaurants.

Originality/value

The research presented in the paper can be applied both by practitioners and academics in the fields of food service management.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Bharath M. Josiam and Prema A. Monteiro

The USA is culturally and ethnically diverse and becoming more so. This diversity is reflected in the variety of cuisines available both in stores and in restaurants…

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5636

Abstract

The USA is culturally and ethnically diverse and becoming more so. This diversity is reflected in the variety of cuisines available both in stores and in restaurants. Trends show a movement towards trying out new and exotic foods, increasing interest in vegetarian items, as well as a growing use of spices, herbs, and hot peppers. Asian foods are getting more popular with cuisines from China, Thailand, and Japan in the lead. Indian cuisine is hot, spicy, flavored with herbs, and offers many vegetarian options. This study examines the perceptions of White Americans, South Asians, and those of other ethnic origins in their perceptions of the food and service in Indian restaurants in the USA. The findings of this study suggest that there are universal likes/dislikes as well as differential perceptions between ethnic groups. Implications for researchers and operators of Indian restaurants are provided.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Veljko Marinkovic, Vladimir Senic and Predrag Mimovic

With the expansion of dining out, visiting ethnic restaurants is becoming one of dominant trends worldwide. Given the fact that ethnic restaurants involve a number of…

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2000

Abstract

Purpose

With the expansion of dining out, visiting ethnic restaurants is becoming one of dominant trends worldwide. Given the fact that ethnic restaurants involve a number of peculiar elements that are not present when visiting regular “local” restaurants, the purpose of this paper is to identify the key determinants of choosing a particular ethnic-themed restaurant, as well as factors that have an impact on an ethnic restaurant’s perceived image.

Design/methodology/approach

Research was done by conducting two separate studies. The first study identified factors that were generally the most significant to respondents when making a choice of an ethnic restaurant in which to dine. For the second study, a new sample of respondents – consisting of those who had just visited such an establishment – was used in order to determine which factors have the most significant impact on creating an image of ethnic restaurants. The research was therefore directed toward those restaurants where the customers can experience a unique atmosphere and ambiance that are synonymous within a given culture.

Findings

The results obtained from the first study show that quality of food and price are the two most significant factors that determine which restaurant will be visited. On the other hand, the interior and exterior ranked as the two least important factors. In addition, the second study revealed that following the visit, the strongest impact on the restaurant’s image was its interior. Following interior, service quality surfaced as the most important antecedent of perceived image, while the impacts of price and exterior were weaker, but still statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

The study itself was done in two stages. In the first stage the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) model was used for ranking factors significant for choosing an ethnic restaurant, while in the second stage, structural equation modeling (SEM) model was used to identify triggers of perceived image after a visit to an ethnic restaurant. Future research should utilize both models to determine antecedents of the variables used. Apart from this, it is recommended to employ new variables that further explore the uniqueness of the ethnic restaurants.

Originality/value

One of the main contributions of this work is related to combining of the AHP and SEM models, with the objective of completing a comparative results analysis, identifying in the process the positive aspects of both models and building a foundation for their coordination in terms of future use. This is significant, given that only a few prior studies have used such synergy.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Hongbo Liu, Hengyun Li, Robin B. DiPietro and Jamie Alexander Levitt

This paper aims to examine the effects of perceived authenticity at an independent, full-service mainstream ethnic restaurant and the moderating effects of diners…

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2270

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of perceived authenticity at an independent, full-service mainstream ethnic restaurant and the moderating effects of diners’ cultural familiarity and cultural motivation on the influence of perceived authenticity on perceived value and behavioral intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 417 self-administered questionnaires were collected from customers of an independent, full-service Italian restaurant in southeastern USA. The data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Restaurant authenticity has a positive influence on perceived value. Respondents who are more familiar with and interested in Italian culture and food tend to attach more value to the restaurant authenticity. Respondents tend to use authenticity to convey quality judgment of the restaurant.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study advances previous literature on dining authenticity by incorporating cultural familiarity and cultural motivation. Second, this study extends the theoretical framework of perceived quality of ethnic restaurants by connecting authenticity perceptions and quality assessment.

Practical implications

Results suggest that the managers at independent, full-service mainstream ethnic restaurants should focus on the restaurants’ environment and atmospheric authenticity, especially for customers who possess cultural familiarity and cultural motivation, while also ensuring the quality of food and service.

Originality/value

This study makes an initial attempt at studying the role of authenticity in a mainstream ethnic restaurant context and adds to the knowledge of restaurant authenticity from the perspectives of cultural familiarity, cultural motivation and perceived quality.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Aise KyoungJin Kim

This chapter addresses the emerging trends in Australia’s food destinations and analyzes different demands for this experience from a Korean tourism market perspective…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the emerging trends in Australia’s food destinations and analyzes different demands for this experience from a Korean tourism market perspective. Tourism Australia’s report on the international market research was analyzed, and the findings indicate that four main food experiences were sought by Koreans. A sense of landscapes plays an important role in enhancing their local food experiences. Multicultural food, health conscious markets, and food shopping are also crucial for developing Australia’s competitive advantage in this area. This chapter suggests marketing implications and directions for future research to explore cross-cultural gaps in food culture and behaviors from the perspectives of Asian tourism markets.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Marcus Aldredge

The purpose of this paper is to explore the negotiation and otherization of the regional representations of southern foodways in public restaurants within a larger urban…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the negotiation and otherization of the regional representations of southern foodways in public restaurants within a larger urban cultural setting often seen as its cultural antithesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The method and approach is multifaceted, including content and historical analysis and participant observation. The literature review lays the foundation for the otherization of the South in the USA. The content analysis explores various media publications relevant to southern food restaurants and the qualitative analysis demonstrates the nuances of southern restaurants in New York City.

Findings

The literature and content analysis demonstrates the socio‐historical grounding for the otherization of the South and southern foodways. The qualitative research demonstrates how southern restaurants are constructed and otherized differently in New York City depending upon their local context and the participants who are primarily involved.

Research limitations/implications

A larger sample of restaurants could provide a potentially more valid and nuanced analysis of the phenomena.

Originality/value

Most research on regional, subcultural differences in foodways occurs within the imagined boundaries of that respective region, but this paper explores the historical proliferation of restaurants and the meanings of the production and consumption of southern regional foods in these restaurants within another region.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Hiram Ting, Ernest Cyril de Run, Jun-Hwa Cheah and Francis Chuah

The purpose of this paper is to serve as groundwork to investigate the determinants of ethnic food consumption intention in the context of developing markets. Using the…

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2385

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to serve as groundwork to investigate the determinants of ethnic food consumption intention in the context of developing markets. Using the theory of planned behaviour as the underlying basis, it is aimed to explain the effect of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control on consumption intention towards Dayak food. Since Dayak food is relatively unfamiliar compared to conventional food in Malaysia, food neophobia is incorporated into the model so as to assess its moderation effect on every postulated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach via self-administered questionnaire was adopted. In all, 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to non-Dayak Malaysians, and 211 usable copies were subsequently collected, suggesting that non-response bias was not a major issue. A post hoc Harman single-factor analysis was also performed to ensure the variance in the data was not explained by one single factor, thus addressing the common method bias. Structural equation modelling using partial least squares approach was then utilized to assess the relationships of variables under investigation and the moderation effect of food neophobia.

Findings

After ensuring the data have acceptable reliability and validity, structural model assessment was performed to test the hypotheses. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control all have positive effect on consumption intention of non-Dayak Malaysians towards Dayak food. However, food neophobia is only found to have a moderation effect on the relationship between subjective norm and consumption intention.

Research limitations/implications

First, the sample is largely consisted of college and university students in Malaysia who are believed to be more daring to try new things, including new food. Second and more importantly, the dearth of literature and empirical studies on Dayak food and ethnic food in Malaysia might have actually pointed to the limitation in using only quantitative questionnaire in the study. As salient beliefs are the antecedents in the theory of planned behaviour, knowing consumers’ specific beliefs about Dayak food would have provided a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of consumption intention and the moderating effect of food neophobia.

Practical implications

The moderation effect of food neophobia on the relationship between subjective norm and consumption intention towards Dayak food implies the importance of recommendations and favourable word-of-mouth from the significant ones, such as family members and peers, to make people willing to try and consume it. This corresponds to earlier findings pertaining to the collectivistic culture in Malaysia. Unlike countries with individualistic cultures, Malaysians tend to conform to the consumption choices of significant others. This implies that those whom they hold in high regard, are able to influence them both positively and negatively through their advice or opinions.

Originality/value

The present study has not only extended the use of theory of planned behaviour in the context of Dayak food consumption intention in a developing country, but it has also deepened the theory by incorporating food neophobia as the moderator to provide additional theoretical explanation to ethnic food consumption intention. Given the wealth of Asian culture, and its significant role in the global marketplace, the understanding of ethnic food consumption intention of the local and foreign consumers using the extended theory of planned behaviour would contribute knowledge not only to consumer behaviour, but also to food and service industry and tourism.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Tayo Korede

This chapter seeks to engage with and extend the current debate in the literature of ethnic entrepreneurship. It critiques the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and its…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to engage with and extend the current debate in the literature of ethnic entrepreneurship. It critiques the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and its theoretical underpinnings. It argues that research in ethnic entrepreneurship bears little reflection of the current changes and new realities in the composition of modern societies. Based on qualitative primary data from interviews combined with secondary sources of data, it suggests that the term ‘ethnic entrepreneurship’ is discriminatory and creates a narrative of Othering in the discourse of entrepreneurship, thus, portraying entrepreneurship as a western phenomenon. It argues that it is contradictory to think entrepreneurship is fundamentally contextual, socially and culturally embedded, and then define enterprise with ethnic bias. The concept of ethnic entrepreneurship propagates entrepreneurial Othering and a reductionist view of non-western forms of entrepreneurship. What constitutes ethnic enterprise should not be based on the identity of the owner. The ethnic enterprise is not confined to a geographical boundary; and the ethnic economy and the mainstream economy are not mutually exclusive. In this era of superdiversity and globalisation, researchers are encouraged to rethink the concept of ethnic entrepreneurship and embrace difference without Othering.

Details

Global Migration, Entrepreneurship and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-097-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Katayoun Zafari, Gareth Allison and Catherine Demangeot

– This paper aims to understand the social dynamics surrounding the consumption of non-native, ethnic cuisines in the multicultural context of an Asian city.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the social dynamics surrounding the consumption of non-native, ethnic cuisines in the multicultural context of an Asian city.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via in-depth interviews with 21 culturally diverse residents of Dubai. Data were analysed inductively, leading to the emergence of three themes characterising social dynamics underpinning the consumption of non-native cuisines in an Asian multicultural environment.

Findings

Three types of social dynamics were identified: instrumental uses, expressive uses and conviviality considerations.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that the different types of cultural dynamics at play have different roles; some act as influencing or constraining factors in the everyday practice of multicultural consumption, whereas others are used more proactively as enablers.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the authors’ understanding of how people “practice conviviality” in multicultural marketplaces, providing insights into the complex social dynamics, underpinning the consumption of non-native cuisines in multicultural marketplaces. Although the consumer literature on food and cuisines has acknowledged the social influences surrounding cuisines and food consumption, these have typically been viewed in a single block. This study shows the importance of conviviality considerations in non-native cuisine consumption. Further, the paper shows that the consumption of non-native cuisines is an everyday practice in a multicultural context, which is used with varying degrees of proactiveness for social lubrication and multicultural socialisation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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