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FOR some time, many public librarians have become very sensitive to issues of library provision for multi‐cultural minorities. Many library authorities have recognised that they had a clear duty to meet multi‐cultural needs. Library services in foreign languages are not new for British public librarians and small collections of material in the main European languages were often seen. On a national scale, a central collection in Polish was also formed to meet the particular needs of people who had settled here during and after World War Two. Since the 1960s with people coming from the Indian sub‐continent, demands for Asian books began to appear, and some efforts were made to satisfy these demands. The year 1974 has a significant importance in the history of multi‐cultural library services. From that time the words ‘ethnic minorities’ were mainly directed towards Asian Communities, though the ethnic minorities were invariably called Indians, Pakistanis or Asians, Afro‐Caribbeans, Coloured, Blacks and sometimes even Disadvantaged. The term ‘ethnic minorities’ was rejected by Gundara, J and Warwick, R saying that the terms ethnic minorities and multi‐cultural are by no means interchangeable. The term ‘ethnic’ pertains only to ethnicity, whereas the word multi‐cultural focuses on cultures, surpassing the crude and often meaningless ethnic distinctions. (Gundara and Warwick, 1981, 67.)
This paper investigates the influence of ethnologically based cultural factors on the motives and occasions for wine consumption both in Australia and overseas. As the…
This paper investigates the influence of ethnologically based cultural factors on the motives and occasions for wine consumption both in Australia and overseas. As the international market for wine expands, global marketers have begun searching for new ways to define trans‐national segments. In particular, the success of Australian wines in the UK has provided a strong base for expansion into the competitive European market One key decision must involve what degree of differentiation the marketing program for each country will contain. Because many marketing theorists see ethnic or cultural background as one of the major underlying determinants of consumer behaviour this decision becomes quite critical. Others argue that consumption of wine is not culturally dependent but based on either a common set of motivations or is determined solely by the occasion in which wine will be consumed. To study this hypothesis a questionnaire was administered to approximately 500 respondents from a variety of Australian and European backgrounds. A single cross‐sectional design was employed. Respondents were primarily selected using a random sampling procedure with quotas boosted for some cultural groups by a convenience sampling process. The four chosen for analysis were Italian, Greek, German and Australian. It was found using an occasion‐based segmentation approach that there were significant differences between wine consumers of different cultural backgrounds. It is concluded that cultural factors do impact on the consumption process of wine and should be considered in any proposals for trans‐national segmentation strategies. However it is also shown that there are some motivational factors that are not culturally dependent. These factors are prime reasons for general wine consumption behaviour and could be used if an undifferentiated global! approach to wine segmentation is the most efficient for the marketer.
Understanding the antecedents to and outcomes of customer satisfaction is a critical issue for both academics and bank marketers. Previous research has identified service…
Understanding the antecedents to and outcomes of customer satisfaction is a critical issue for both academics and bank marketers. Previous research has identified service quality, expectations, disconfirmation, performance, desires, affect and equity as important antecedents of customer satisfaction. The current paper reports findings from a survey which looked into the impact of service quality dimensions and customer expertise on satisfaction. A sample of 167 respondents took part in this study. Findings indicate that both core and relational dimensions of service quality appear to be linked to customer satisfaction. Findings also indicate that expertise is negatively related to satisfaction. The paper discusses implications for bank managers.
While few college students are majoring in history today, perhaps the field is not as close to extinction as some people fear. Professional historians continue to delve…
While few college students are majoring in history today, perhaps the field is not as close to extinction as some people fear. Professional historians continue to delve into various historical nooks and crannies and are busy planning future endeavors. A collection of articles in two 1981 issues of the Journal of Interdisciplinary History explores a variety of recent historiographical developments. These state‐of‐the‐art essays cover economic, intellectual and population history, the history of science, political history, family history, biography, and quantification. They are must reading for anyone interested in knowing where historical studies are headed during the remaining two decades of the 20th century.
Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and…
Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and communicating positive brand information to children(28,31,32). Research on tobacco sponsorship effects on children is as yet inconclusive, but growing evidence suggests that sponsorship is an effective medium for building cigarette brand awareness and image among under‐aged youth. Research in this area has been inconclusive in part because it lacks a unified framework in which the various contributions of sponsorship to brand knowledge and use can be analysed holistically. This paper proposes that the brand equity concept(1,2,18) provides such a framework. The paper reviews previous research on tobacco sponsorship and children, and presents findings from a study that assessed the relative contribution of sponsorship to brand awareness among fourteen year‐olds (n=366) in Dunedin, New Zealand. The value of sponsorship‐derived cigarette brand knowledge among youth is expressed in terms of Keller's(18) concept of customer‐based brand equity. The study found that children's awareness of tobacco brands and tobacco sponsorships varied according to their smoking experience, sports interests and gender. Cigarette brands with the strongest event associations were those that sponsored events that had a high appeal for the youth in the study. The brands with the highest unaided recall levels were those that were prominently shown in point of purchase displays in stores frequented by the youth, and included those with the highest sponsorship profiles. The research demonstrates that tobacco companies can achieve significant brand recall among children through sport sponsorship, as well as interest‐based (lifestyle) segmentation and targeting benefits, and brand positioning (personality) benefits. The findings have implications for public policy and industry practice. In policy terms, if the goal of tobacco advertising prohibitions is to denormalise smoking by restricting the positive promotional imagery of cigarettes, then sport sponsorship and point of purchase displays need to be incorporated into advertising legislation. In terms of industry practice, the fact that tobacco sponsorship reaches and influences under‐aged youth stands to be a matter of concern for any entity that does not want this social burden. It is recommended that corporations considering involvement in a tobacco‐sponsored event should evaluate the reach of the event and the potential effects of its promotions on youth. Where a youth‐interest connection has been demonstrated for the event, corporations should weigh the social risks and costs of the sponsorship. For non‐tobacco related entities these costs include the potential negative impacts of tobacco‐linked event cross‐promotions on their own brands and corporate image.
The United States has experienced a dramatic increase in the Hispanic population. This study is designed to discover the extent to which Hispanics have acculturated into…
The United States has experienced a dramatic increase in the Hispanic population. This study is designed to discover the extent to which Hispanics have acculturated into American socieity. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between Euro‐Americans and Hispanic Americans in terms of ethnic identity. It seems that Hispanics have not fully acculturated into American culture. Implications for management are suggested regarding relevant organizational issues that are unique to Hispanics in the workforce.
Business school accreditation is currently striving to provide minimum guidelines that all schools must meet, while at the same time allowing for diversity,since schools…
Business school accreditation is currently striving to provide minimum guidelines that all schools must meet, while at the same time allowing for diversity,since schools are not homogeneous in their goals andmissions. The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), the long established accrediting body has been criticized for being monolithic in its development and implementation of standards for achieving accreditation. This issue has led to the development of a second accrediting body for business education. The Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP) was formed in 1988 in part as a reaction to concerns that the standards set by AACSBdid not recognize diversity within the missions of its member schools. The mission issue concerns primarily the role of research and terminal degrees as standards for accreditation. Critics contend that emphasis on research and terminal degree coverage favors the research oriented schools and has limited the number of AACSB member schools that can achieve accreditation. Approximately 280 out of 700 member schools are accredited (Sanford).
The Disadvantaged Schools Program (D.S.P.) has been an important and integral part of education for many students in Australia for over a decade. The original goals and…
The Disadvantaged Schools Program (D.S.P.) has been an important and integral part of education for many students in Australia for over a decade. The original goals and philosophy of the program still hold true today. However, we suggest that perhaps it is time to build on the foundation which has been developed by adding a much stronger academic strand as part of the overall D.S.P. mission. Recent school effectiveness findings offer a powerful and compatible opportunity for the D.S.P. to provide a more complete education for their students. The adoption of the school effectiveness characteristics by D.S.P. schools would not interfere with, but rather would enhance an already valuable program. The eight most important school effectiveness variables are reviewed in this article. We then argue that by combining the current focus of the D.S.P. with the focus of effective schools research, the overall quality of education received by students in Program schools can be enhanced. We argue that critical elements of the effective schools movement, such as emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills, can help create D.S.P. projects that produce a wider array of important student outcomes. By making effective school variables an important aspect of the D.S.P., we believe that both equity and quality will be emphasized to a greater extent than they are currently.