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Article

Vilma Zydziunaite, Daiva Lepaite, Päivi Åstedt-Kurki and Tarja Suominen

– The purpose of this paper is to characterize issues related to head nurses’ decision making when managing ethical dilemmas.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize issues related to head nurses’ decision making when managing ethical dilemmas.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is qualitative descriptive, in which researchers stay close to the data. The data were collected in the format of unstructured written reflections. Inductive conventional latent qualitative content analysis was applied to the data.

Findings

The issues of head nurses’ management of decision making in ethical dilemmas relate to the following aspects: taking risks in deviating from the formalities, balancing power and humaneness, maintaining the professional hierarchy, managing resistance to change, managing with limited options, and experiencing the decline of nurse’s professional and/or human dignity.

Research limitations/implications

Reflections in written form were preferred to semi-structured interviews and the researchers were unable to contact the participants directly and to ask additional questions. All the reflections were produced in a language other than English.

Practical implications

The issues of head nurses’ management of decision making in ethical dilemmas reveal the gap between societal expectations and the opportunities to improve nursing leadership in health care organizations.

Social implications

The issues of head nurses’ decision making when managing ethical dilemmas are related to contexts that reflect the attitudes of society and health care system toward nursing management.

Originality/value

The study adds to the understanding of issues of the management of decision making in ethical dilemmas. It is an ongoing systematic process that encourages head nurses to learn from practice and manage the quality of care by empowering themselves and nurses to take responsibility for leadership.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article

Neil Cranston, Lisa C. Ehrich and Megan Kimber

The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the research were gathered by semi‐structured in‐depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious affiliations.

Findings

The findings are broadly consistent with the conclusions reached in other Australian and international studies dealing with school leaders which suggest that ethical dilemmas, usually concerning issues to do with staff or students, are so common now that they have become the “bread and butter” of educational leaders' lives. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the struggles school leaders experience when faced with such dilemmas and the forces at play as they seek to resolve them Typically, the dilemmas are not about “right” versus “wrong”, but “right” versus “right” options.

Research limitations/implications

It is clear that the ethical dimensions of the work of school leaders require further investigation as ethical dilemmas are almost a daily occurrence for them as they strive to make complex decisions in the best interests of their school communities.

Practical implications

Professional development in the areas of ethics and ethical decision‐making for school leaders is indicated. Problem‐based learning offers potential in this regard.

Originality/value

The research reported in the paper adds to, and builds on, the growing body of research into ethics in education, particularly how ethical issues emerge when school leaders are required to make complex decisions in contexts where individual, group and organisational interests may be in conflict.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Maria Aluchna and Olga Mikołajczyk

The purpose of this article is to discuss initial results of the research conducted on a group of 244 Warsaw School of Economics students. The research focuses on ethical

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to discuss initial results of the research conducted on a group of 244 Warsaw School of Economics students. The research focuses on ethical dilemmas of students graduating from business, finance and economics.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on the methodology proposed by Eweje and Brunon and focused on examining the existence of ethical dilemmas identified on the basis of 11 case scenarios and analyzed with reference to the selected characteristics of respondents. The characteristics included the participants' gender, age, study year, study program and faculty, the place of birth, professional experience, international experience and financial situation.

Findings

The research obtained on the sample of Polish students confirms the international results stressing the key importance of their gender, age, study faculty and professional experience for identifying ethical dilemmas.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis delivers some initial evidence and does not allow the formulation of strong conclusions. It requires replication and the use of a larger and better balanced sample.

Practical implications

The ethical dilemmas are crucial for soon to be managers since their decisions shape corporate activity and business development. Research results may also play an important role for shaping educational programs.

Originality/value

The paper analyzes the ethical dilemmas of students from one of the top business schools in Central and Eastern Europe, contributing to understanding the ethical issues of soon to be managers and opening a discussion on the role of university education for shaping the conduct of future managers.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article

Charles Lowery

Public interests and concerns often create dilemmas for school principals. As such moral dilemmas are the case for schools as places marked by social, economic, cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

Public interests and concerns often create dilemmas for school principals. As such moral dilemmas are the case for schools as places marked by social, economic, cultural and political diversity. The purpose of this paper is to look at how Appalachian school leaders use moral literacy to make decisions when facing ethical issues?

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study emerged from interviews conducted with ten principals. The principals interviewed represent a purposeful sample of practitioners within the Appalachian region of Southern Ohio, using group characteristic sampling.

Findings

Principals’ responses varied in their depth of familiarity and comfort with moral literacy. The abductive analysis yielded several thematic units, classified using both emergent patterns and a priori codes. The overarching themes that emerged from this analysis concerned what an ethical dilemma is, what it means to be a morally literate leader, moral dimensions of leadership, and the value integration of doing ethics and being ethical.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies strictly on the participants’ personal conceptualization of moral literacy and the ethical paradigms it presupposes. As a qualitative study, the findings are based primarily on the participants’ perception of and the researcher’s interpretation of the complexities and ambiguities in reading ethical dilemmas.

Practical implications

To effectively accomplish the moral work of the principalship requires that school leaders be morally literate, understanding the integrated nature of ethical paradigms.

Originality/value

The findings of this study continue to disclose the manner in which practicing principals define what an ethical dilemma is and moves us closer to understanding how practitioners frame moral literacy within their practice yet outside of exposure to clearly defined theoretical frameworks.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Orly Shapira‐Lishchinsky

This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethical dilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference…

Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethical dilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference to previous studies exploring the mentors' multifaceted roles.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 60 mentors participated in a two‐phase study: the mentors were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study web site, and submissions were then discussed in focus groups. A four‐stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized.

Findings

The findings were grouped by means of the ATLAS.ti 5.0 into five main categories: discretion, caring, accountability, autonomy, and distributive justice. The findings raise three important issues: first, mentors perceive their role mainly as empowering their mentees and perceive their powerlessness as being due to lack of tools for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Second, most mentors' ethical dilemmas involved conflicts with school principals. Third, a large number of mentor roles and several of the derived ethical guidelines are unique to the mentoring situation.

Practical implications

The findings may promote the design of an educational program for mentors that will relate to the ethical aspects of mentoring. Such programs call for the participation of school principals in program development and meetings to help mentors deal with their ethical dilemmas.

Originality/value

While previous studies in mentoring focused on defining mentoring, describing mentors' roles, and suggesting how to build effective mentoring, no study focused on the ethical aspects of mentoring. This study describes mentors' ethical dilemmas, and the unique ethical guidelines that emerged.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part

Roseanna Bourke

This chapter explores underlying ethical tensions and dilemmas that arise through assessment practices used by teachers, specialist teachers, and other educators in…

Abstract

This chapter explores underlying ethical tensions and dilemmas that arise through assessment practices used by teachers, specialist teachers, and other educators in determining a child’s learning. An ethical dilemma arises when teachers are aware that an assessment is not the narrative that best represents the child, and in doing so, further perpetuates the deficit orientation toward learning. While the policy context may reflect a strong commitment to inclusive classrooms and communities, assessment policies and well-intentioned school practices can marginalize students with high needs, simply because the assessment tools are not suitable. Ethical issues in the day-to-day formal and informal assessment practices used by teachers are explored; practices that serve to reinforce for learners who struggle what they “cannot do” or “do not want to do.” Ethical assessment practices that allow the dignity of the learner to be upheld through a celebration of learning, however incremental, are needed. As outlined in this chapter, some decisions made by teachers are not their own, as pressures from outside their control influence the decisions they make. Policy directions can influence the focus of assessments, and unwittingly create the ethical dilemmas teachers face. When teachers question and challenge assessment policies and practices, they can initiate change for all learners. This might include challenging the status quo and finding other ways to include students, more visibly, in their own assessment. In these ways, ethical dilemmas can be addressed and new understandings of assessment emerge.

Details

Ethics, Equity, and Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-153-7

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Article

Ratna Khanijou and Daniela Pirani

The purpose of this paper is to explore the types of ethical challenges and dilemmas researchers face when engaging in family consumption research.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the types of ethical challenges and dilemmas researchers face when engaging in family consumption research.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the concept of micro-ethics to bridge reflexivity with ethics in practice, the paper provides a reflexive account of the various ethical dilemmas encountered by two family consumption scholars during their fieldwork. Both researchers conducted qualitative research on family meals.

Findings

The paper reveals five types of ethical tensions that can arise when doing research on family consumption. These tensions are addressed as display, positioning, emotional, practical and consent dilemmas, all of which have ethical implications. The findings unpack these dilemmas, showing empirical and reflexive accounts of the researchers as they engage in ethics in practice. Solutions and practical strategies for dealing with these ethical tensions are provided.

Originality/value

Despite the growing interest in interpretive family research, there is less attention on the ethical and emotional challenges researchers face when entering the family consumption scape. As researching families involves entering an intimate area of participants’ lives, the field may be replete with tensions that may affect the researcher. This paper brings the concept of micro-ethics to family marketing literature, showing how researchers can do ethics in practice. The paper draws on reflexive accounts of two researchers’ personal experiences, showing their emotional, practical, positioning and display challenges. It also provides practical strategies for researchers to deal with dilemmas in the field.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Margaret McNeil and Kerry Pedigo

Explores the nature and type of ethical dilemmas experienced by western Australian managers engaged in import/export operations. Highlights the strategies used by these…

Abstract

Explores the nature and type of ethical dilemmas experienced by western Australian managers engaged in import/export operations. Highlights the strategies used by these managers in terms of what can be done to resolve ethical conflicts in subsequent cross‐cultural business activities. Employs a qualitative research method, the critical Incident Technique, to provide a rich and powerful picture of the challenges and strategies found. Generates a matrix which brings together the manager’s recommendations on essential ethical actions and practices with particular ethical problems.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part

Georg von Krogh, Nina Geilinger and Lise Rechsteiner

This chapter seeks to advance the neglected debate on the ethical issues between formal organization and practice arising from innovation in an organization. To that end…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to advance the neglected debate on the ethical issues between formal organization and practice arising from innovation in an organization. To that end, the chapter discusses the sources of possible moral dilemmas for practitioners who belong to a practice with a shared identity, values, and standards of excellence, and who need to conform to new rules of formal organization. While formal organization ideally strives for generalized fairness principles for all organizational members when introducing an innovation, the contextualized nature of practices may lead to particular needs and goals of the practice which can only be recognized as such by practitioners and not by formal management, and to which procedural justice cannot respond. The chapter proposes how practitioners may interpret moral dilemmas, aligned with their practice-based identity and ethical values, and what options for action they may seek. The discussion is illustrated with examples of innovation in the field of information systems design.

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Article

Randi L. Sims

As interest in the field of business ethics grows, so does the need for measures which can be utilized by a wide range of researchers. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

As interest in the field of business ethics grows, so does the need for measures which can be utilized by a wide range of researchers. The purpose of this study is to research ethical business scenarios which are useful in studying ethical decision making, six such dilemmas are presented. The preliminary analysis, utilizing 248 respondents employed in full‐time positions, indicates that overall the dilemmas do not simply measure demographic characteristics of the individual or organization, but instead measure actual differences in ethical decision making.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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