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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Dwight M. Hite, Joshua J. Daspit and Xueni Dong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in work ethic across ethnic and generational groups within the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review on work ethic, ethnicity, and transculturation, an analysis of variance based on 873 survey responses is presented. The sample includes undergraduate and graduate students at several public universities within the USA.

Findings

An empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that the variation of work ethic perceptions within the Millennial generation is significantly less than the variation among older generations. The authors find no significant difference in general work ethic perceptions among Millennial ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

While the study is conducted using a convenience sample, the demographics are closely representative of the USA labor force. The results suggest that Millennials, while a more diverse ethnic population, exhibit less variation among work ethic perceptions than earlier generational groups.

Practical implications

Understanding differences in work ethic perceptions across various ethnic groups is valuable for managers interested in designing jobs that appropriately exploit the full value of a multi-generational workforce.

Originality/value

The findings of this study offer new insights into how more recent generations, while more ethnically diverse, exhibit a convergence in perceptions of work ethic.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Thomas Leathem, Christina Hillesheim, Aressa Coley and Shane McGregor

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a unique pedagogical approach intended to address a need of the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) professions for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a unique pedagogical approach intended to address a need of the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) professions for graduates to work in cross-disciplinary collaborative teams. Addressing this industry need has been challenging for higher education programs in the past. The pedagogy evaluated in this study takes a unique approach to addressing the issue and the aim of the study is to capture the effectiveness of the approach.

Design/Methodology/Approach

This paper presents a qualitative research study evaluating perceptions of students and faculty participating in the cross-disciplinary course experience between architecture and construction. The study evaluated perceived vs received learning outcomes and perceived challenges of the cross-disciplinary course approach. Data were collected from open-ended interviews and observations of students and faculty participating in the course, as well as course artifacts.

Findings

Results of the study indicate alignment between perceived and received outcomes. Identified perceptions of challenges to the approach reflect many identified in previous studies. Areas for future study, and practice in collaborative education within the AEC disciplines are also suggested.

Research Limitations/Implications

This research used a qualitative approach to evaluate perspectives of six students and two teachers in a specific pedagogical approach at one university. Given the small sample size and delimitation of one-course approach, findings from this study are not generalizable to a broader population. In addition to providing valuable data for future quantitative studies on a larger population, the study also provides pedagogical options for other schools to consider implementing and studying. The findings support previous research suggestions that collaborative approaches done early and often for longer durations are needed to address collaborative learning challenges.

Originality/Value

The pedagogical approach evaluated in this study takes a unique approach to addressing a well-documented need in the AEC industry. Information included in this paper demonstrates an approach not yet documented in AEC higher education. Further, it provides a glimpse into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that contribute a body of knowledge for others in the discipline to build from. The findings suggest a more in-depth approach may help cross the negative student impressions developed in shorter in-frequent approaches, and begin to develop student understanding of the value and necessity of multi-disciplinary collaboration.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Jyun-Kai Liang and Hsin-Lin Chang

Many people feel a connection to their work that could best be described as a dependency, due to its intensity and importance to their overall self-concept. It is likely…

Abstract

Purpose

Many people feel a connection to their work that could best be described as a dependency, due to its intensity and importance to their overall self-concept. It is likely that psychological and social needs play a profound role in the connection people feel to their work; however, the explanatory power of these factors has been neglected in the literature, particularly with regard to cultural perspectives. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this deficiency, the authors propose a profile multidimensional construct referred to as psycho-social work dependency, drawing on the Mandala model of self (Hwang, 2011b) and the Chinese composite self (Lu, 2003). The authors also developed a psychometrically sound 16-item questionnaire, the psycho-social work dependency scale, to measure this construct. A total of 1,314 valid questionnaires were obtained from employees in Taiwan to verify the reliability and validity of the instrument. Cross-validation was conducted using an independent sample of 278 valid questionnaires.

Findings

The results indicate good reliability and validity. What follows is a discussion of four types of psycho-social work dependency: strong, loose, direct, and indirect. Implications and suggestions for future research are also presented.

Originality/value

A cultural-inclusive construct-psycho-social work dependency was developed to best delineate the connections between Chinese employees and their work. This study expounded the definition, structure, measurement scale, and profile of psycho-social work dependency. These results could help OB researchers and practitioners to know more about the connections between employees and their work, especially for Chinese workers. This new construct may also stir up more studies to investigate the role of psycho-social work dependency in the workplace.

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

James P. Hess

The purpose of this study is to examine the latest Millennials, born between 1995 and 2000, to determine any significant impact of gender, employment status and living…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the latest Millennials, born between 1995 and 2000, to determine any significant impact of gender, employment status and living arrangement on Meriac et al.’s (2013) dimensions of work ethic.

Design/methodology/approach

A factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify the main and interaction effects between variables. A one-way ANOVA then revealed any statistical significance between factor combinations to determine the meaningfulness of the interactions.

Findings

Morality/ethics, the centrality of work and hard work were not significantly impacted by any factors, whereas interaction effects between gender and employment status with self-reliance and wasted time were not attributed to any particular factor level. Yet, meaningful interaction resulted in gender and employment status with leisure and delay of gratification. Specifically, women who work 20 h or less per week have less regard for leisure than men, regardless of men’ employment status. Men who work 20 h or less per week have a higher acceptance of delay of gratification than women with the same employment status.

Practical implications

Understanding the youngest Millennials’ unique paradigms about work ethic will benefit managers as they blend them with those of other working cohorts to enhance job-to-employee fit by building and sustaining recruitment, motivation and retention efforts among all workforce members.

Originality/value

This study expands existing literature by focussing on the youngest Millennials so that scholar-practitioners can closely align contemporary leadership and organisation with any unique attitudes towards work ethic and, perhaps, guide leadership transition as the next cohort emerges.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Kelly Pledger Weeks, Matthew Weeks and Nicolas Long

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the trends found in a qualitative study on generational stereotypes, questions on work ethic, work-life balance, and use of technology were administered to 255 participants identified as Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. Hypotheses predicted that with a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism will not be found; however, an in-group bolstering effect will emerge. In the absence of a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism is expected.

Findings

Generally, there was a strong stereotype that Baby Boomers are worse at technology than Generation X and Generation X is worse than Millennials. There was also a strong stereotype that Millennials do not do what it takes to get the job done as much as other generations. In the presence of these stereotypes, traditional in-group favoritism was not found, but in-groups bolstered themselves by rating themselves more favorably than other groups rated them. Although these findings did not hold for every item studied, there was moderate support for all three hypotheses.

Practical implications

As employees become aware of their biases, they can collaborate better with employees who are different than they are. Practical recommendations are suggested.

Originality/value

The paper applies theory of in-group favoritism to the perceptions of generational cohorts.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Ching‐Hsun Chang and Yu‐Shan Chen

This study aims to develop an original framework of green intellectual capital to explore the positive effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on green…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop an original framework of green intellectual capital to explore the positive effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on green intellectual capital through the partial mediator ‐ environmental consciousness.

Design/methodology/approach

This study summarizes the concepts of CSR and green management to develop an integral framework to enhance green intellectual capital. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to verify the research framework.

Findings

This study utilizes SEM to explore the influences of CSR and environmental consciousness on three types of green intellectual capital – green human capital, green structural capital, and green relationship capital. The empirical results of this study demonstrate that CSR and environmental consciousness have positive effects on three types of green intellectual capital. Besides, this study verifies that environmental consciousness is a partial mediator between CSR and three types of green intellectual capital. In addition, this study classifies the Taiwanese manufacturing companies into three groups – highly, medially, and lowly ethic companies. The results show that three types of green intellectual capital of highly ethic companies are the most, and those of medially ethic companies are the next, while those of lowly ethic companies are the least.

Originality/value

This study integrates the theories of CSR and green management to develop an integral conceptual model of green intellectual capital to explore its managerial implications and determinants.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Cynthia Gerstl‐Pepin, Kieran Killeen and Susan Hasazi

The purpose of this article is to report on a six‐year self‐study of a doctoral training program intended to promote social justice leadership via an “ethic of care” framework.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to report on a six‐year self‐study of a doctoral training program intended to promote social justice leadership via an “ethic of care” framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data set utilized was an open‐ended survey completed by doctoral students after finishing core course requirements. Data analysis included a thematic analysis of 110 respondents which examined variation in students' understanding and application of issues associated with equity, justice, and diversity, as well as the ethic of care. As a collaborative self‐study the data analysis involved procedures of open, independent, and collaborative coding, as well as peer debriefing.

Findings

Suggests that the doctoral program has been effective at creating a caring environment and changing students' understanding of diversity and equity issues. Two programmatic weaknesses were uncovered; a lack of curricular integration and student perceptions of social justice and diversity as discrete concepts. Students reported that diversity discussions and readings were centered in one class, suggesting that this lack of integration may marginalize these issues. These weaknesses are explored using the concepts of “caring” and “colorblind” curriculums.

Research limitations/implications

Reports on a self‐study of one unique program; the findings may not be generalizable to other programs. Additionally, it suggests that leadership preparation programs should attend to how the issue of colorblindness may permeate curricula, structure the classroom environment, and shape interactions with students.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to evaluate the potential for colorblindness in the “ethic of care” as related to supporting social justice leadership in a doctoral preparation program.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Nga Man Lou, Amy Siu Ian So and Yuchin Jerrie Hsieh

This study aims to develop an employee competency model for integrated resorts (IRs) in Macau through insights gleaned from IR professionals and to investigate whether any…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop an employee competency model for integrated resorts (IRs) in Macau through insights gleaned from IR professionals and to investigate whether any differences emerge in competency perception between IR professionals and college and high school students.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method approach was adopted to answer the research questions. The Delphi approach was used, and four IR experts were invited to refine components of the IR competency for the survey questionnaire. Quantitative data were collected from 596 IR professionals and college/high school students. Fisher’s least significant difference test was used to test the competency gaps between groups. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 respondents to gather their comments on the survey results.

Findings

The IR competency model consists of 15 critical competencies. A strong work ethic and customer service orientation were ranked as important attributes of employee competency among the four target groups. A mismatch in IR competency perceptions emerged among IR managers, employees and students.

Practical implications

The IR competencies can serve as a pragmatic reference for IRs in terms of employee recruitment and training. This model can also serve as a guideline to ensure the alignment between IR industry needs and the course offerings in higher education institutions in Macau.

Originality/value

The IR competencies contribute to resolving human capital issue challenging Macau’s IRs and provide insights for Macau’s IR stakeholders to improve the IR workforce development.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Paul T. Begley and Jacqueline Stefkovich

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of moral literacy as it applies to leadership development and the processes for promoting moral literacy through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of moral literacy as it applies to leadership development and the processes for promoting moral literacy through teaching in colleges and universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The ethics of authenticity and moral agency in education settings are proposed as a means for promoting and achieving moral literacy among teachers and students.

Findings

Instructional principles for the integration of values and ethics into post secondary teaching are outlined and several successful techniques are illustrated.

Research limitations/implications

The use of values and ethics frameworks as content is contrasted with their application as process.

Practical implications

Examples of applications are included in the form of teaching activities such as the “value audit”, “personal inventories”, “problem interpretation protocols” and the “use of case studies”.

Originality/value

A theoretically grounded justification for incorporating moral literacy frameworks in university level teaching combined with practical instructional strategies.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Paul T. Begley

The article proposes three prerequisites to authentic leadership by school principals: self‐knowledge, a capacity for moral reasoning, and sensitivity to the orientations…

Abstract

Purpose

The article proposes three prerequisites to authentic leadership by school principals: self‐knowledge, a capacity for moral reasoning, and sensitivity to the orientations of others.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework, based on research on the valuation processes of school principals and their strategic responses to ethical dilemmas, is used as a practice grounded approach to describing authentic leadership and the acquisition of moral literacy by school leaders.

Findings

Four motivational bases for administrative decision making are described: self‐interest/personal preferences, rational consensus, rational consequences, and trans‐rational ethics/principles. The achievement of self‐knowledge, capacity and sensitivity to others can be best achieved in professional settings through strategies of personal reflective practice, and sustained dialogue on moral issues and the ethical dilemmas of educational practice.

Practical implications

Principals need the capacity to discriminate actual intentions, within themselves and among others. This is not moral relativism, nor is it value absolutism. It is critical thinking and moral literacy.

Originality/value

Several resources are provided as tools for principals and scholars to use in support of developing these capacities within themselves and amongst others.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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