Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Alla Golub, Thomas W. Hertel, Farzad Taheripour and Wallace E. Tyner

Over the past decade, biofuels production in the European Union and the United States has boomed – much of this due to government mandates and subsidies. The United States…

Abstract

Over the past decade, biofuels production in the European Union and the United States has boomed – much of this due to government mandates and subsidies. The United States has now surpassed Brazil as the world's leading producer of ethanol. The economic and environmental impact of these biofuel programs has become an important question of public policy. Due to the complex intersectoral linkages between biofuels and crops, livestock as well as energy activities, CGE modeling has become an important tool for their analysis. This chapter reviews recent developments in this area of economic analysis and suggests directions for future research.

Details

New Developments in Computable General Equilibrium Analysis for Trade Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-142-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Radha Sankararajan, Kirubaveni Savarimuthu, Sudha Murugesan, Kiruthika Ramany, Govindaraj Rajamanickam and Santhosh Narendhiran

The purpose of this paper is to fabricate an ethanol sensor which has bio-friendly and eco-friendly properties compared to the commercially available ethanol sensors.

Downloads
186

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fabricate an ethanol sensor which has bio-friendly and eco-friendly properties compared to the commercially available ethanol sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the construction of a highly sensitive ethanol sensor with low ppm level detection at room temperature by integrating three techniques. The first deals with the formation of organic/inorganic p-n heterojunction. Second, tuning of structural parameters such as length, diameter and density of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructure was achieved through introduction of the Fe dopant into a pure ZnO seed layer. Furthermore, ultra-violet (UV) light photoactivation approach was used for enhancing the sensing performance of the fabricated sensors. Four different sensors were fabricated by combing the above approaches. The structural, morphological, optical and material compositions were characterized using different characterization techniques. Sensing behavior of the fabricated sensors toward ethanol was experimented at room temperature with and without UV illumination combined with stability studies. It was observed that all the fabricated sensors showed enhanced sensing performance for 10 ppm of ethanol. In specific, FNZ (Fe-doped ZnO seeded Ni-doped Zn nanorods) sensor exhibited a higher response at 2.2 and 13.5 s for 5 ppm and 100 ppm of ethanol with UV light illumination at room temperature, respectively. The photoactivated FNZ sensor showed quick response and speedy recovery at 18 and 30 s, respectively, for 100 ppm ethanol.

Findings

In this study, the authors have experimentally analyzed the effect of Fe (in ZnO seed layer and ZnO NRs) and Ni (in ZnO NRs) dopants in the room temperature sensing performance (with and without UV light) of the fabricated ethanol sensors. Important sensing parameters like sensitivity, recovery and response time of all the fabricated sensors are reported.

Originality/value

The Fe doped ZnO seeded Ni doped Zn nanorods (FNZ sample) showed a higher response at 2.2 s and 13.5 s for very low 5 ppm and 10 ppm of ethanol at room temperature under UV light illumination when compared to the other fabricated sensors in this paper. Similarly, this sensor also had quick response (18 s) and speedy recovery (30 s) for 100 ppm ethanol.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ganesh Rupchand Gawale and Naga Srinivasulu G.

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions. This paper aims to investigate the influence of ethanol fraction (ethanol plus gasoline) on dual fuel HCCI engine performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the existing CI engine is modified into dual fuel HCCI engine by attaching the carburetor to the inlet manifold for the supply of ethanol blend (E40/E60/E80/E100). The mixture of ethanol blend and the air is ignited by diesel through a fuel injector into the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. The experiments are conducted for high load conditions on the engine i.e. 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW maximum output power for 1,500 constant rpm.

Findings

It is noticed from the experimental results that, with an increase of ethanol in the blends, ignition delay (ID) increases and the start of combustion is retarded. It is noticed that E100 shows the highest ID and low in-cylinder pressure; however, E40 shows the lowest ID compared to higher fractions of ethanol blends. An increase in ethanol proportion reduces NOX and smoke opacity but, HC and CO emissions increase compared to pure diesel mode engine. E100 plus diesel dual-fuel HCCI engine shows the highest brake thermal efficiency compared to remaining ethanol blends and baseline diesel engine.

Originality/value

This experimental study concluded that E100 plus diesel and E80 plus diesel gave optimum dual fuel HCCI engine performance for 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW rated power, respectively.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Takeyoshi Imasato

By adopting a decolonial critical standpoint, the scope of this paper is to discuss the concept of legitimacy in the international management (IM) field and conduct a…

Abstract

Purpose

By adopting a decolonial critical standpoint, the scope of this paper is to discuss the concept of legitimacy in the international management (IM) field and conduct a critique of its epistemological limitations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the approach to legitimacy most commonly used in the IM field in order to understand its limitations in analyzing the historical development of Brazilian ethanol.

Findings

The historical analysis of the Brazilian case shows that the narrow perspective underpinning the concept of legitimacy in the IM literature overlooks broader political and power relations since the focus of analysis is conducted from the standpoint of multinational corporations operating abroad. Thus, coloniality, international impositions of trends and fashions, illegitimacy and delegitimations, and dominant colonial designs are particular examples of forms of power and politics that are not visible in analysis using legitimacy in IM.

Originality/value

IM has rarely used legitimacy in contrast with other areas of knowledge that work with the notion of international content. The paper generates insights that can foster other interpretations and uses for the concept of legitimacy and illegitimacy in IM.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Jaclyn Kropp and Janet G. Peckham

In recent years, prices for prime farmland have increased substantially, begging the question is the dramatic increase the result of a speculative bubble or consistent…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, prices for prime farmland have increased substantially, begging the question is the dramatic increase the result of a speculative bubble or consistent with market fundamentals with increases driven by increased global demand, low interest rates, and recent changes to US agricultural and energy policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of recent agricultural support policies and ethanol policies on farmland values and rental rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Farm-level Agricultural Resource Management Survey data collected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) between 1998 and 2008 as well as county-level data collected by the USDA, US Census Bureau, and Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to determine the impacts of recent agricultural support policies and ethanol policies on farmland values and rental rates, while controlling for parcel characteristics and urban pressure. Specifically, weighted ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares are used to investigate the impact of various governmental agricultural support policies, corn ethanol facilities location, and local corn ethanol production capacity on farmland values and rental rates.

Findings

The results indicate that government payments, urban pressure, and the proximity of the parcel to an ethanol facility have a positive impact on both farmland values and rental rates. More specifically, parcels located in the same county as at least one corn ethanol facility are more valuable and command higher rental rates. In addition, county-level ethanol production capacity is positively associated with farmland values and rental rates. An inverse relationship between distance of the parcels from an ethanol facility and farmland values is also found; a similar result is found for rental rates.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that agricultural support payments and ethanol policies are capitalized into farmland values. These findings have important implications for the formulation of future farm policy. A limitation of the analyses is that farmland values are estimated by landowners; future research could utilize farmland transaction data to overcome potential biases generated by using landowner estimates. In addition, while our study period covers 11 years, future research could expand the time period further to analyze the effect of more recent agricultural and ethanol policies.

Originality/value

This paper extends prior research pertaining to factors influencing farmland values and rental rates by also examining the proximity of the parcel to an operating ethanol facility using a unique data set.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 75 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Yoshio Kobayashi, Tetsuya Ayame, Kyosuke Shibuya, Tomohiko Nakagawa, Yohsuke Kubota, Kohsuke Gonda and Noriaki Ohuchi

This paper aims to propose a simple method for stabilizing silica-coated silver iodide (AgI/SiO2) core-shell particles, of which a colloid solution functions as an X-ray…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a simple method for stabilizing silica-coated silver iodide (AgI/SiO2) core-shell particles, of which a colloid solution functions as an X-ray contrast agent.

Design/methodology/approach

A colloid solution of AgI nanoparticles was prepared by mixing silver perchlorate and potassium iodide in water. The AgI/SiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by a sol-gel method using NaOH, H2O and tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol in the presence of AgI nanoparticles surface-modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane.

Findings

The silica shells of AgI/SiO2 particles were dissolved near the AgI nanoparticle surface, when they were washed by a process composed of centrifugation, removal of supernatant with decantation, addition of water as a washing solution and a shake with a vortex mixer. In contrast, the shells were not damaged by using ethanol as the washing solution, i.e. ethanol-washing. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum of the silica was changed after the ethanol-washing, which indicated that the ethanol-washing had an effect on the chemical bonds in silica. The effect also acted on the silica shells of AgI/SiO2 particles, which did not damage the core-shell structure, i.e. controlled the dissolution of shell.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that the ethanol-washing is quite useful for stabilizing the core-shell structure composed of the silica shells.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Jason Henderson and Brent A. Gloy

Corn ethanol plants consume large amounts of corn and their location has the potential to alter local crop prices and surrounding agricultural land values. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Corn ethanol plants consume large amounts of corn and their location has the potential to alter local crop prices and surrounding agricultural land values. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the local economic impact of ethanol plant locations on farmland values.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between ethanol plant location and agricultural land prices is examined using data obtained from the Agricultural Credit Survey administered by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.

Findings

The findings indicate that ethanol plant location has had an impact on land values. The portion of land price changes attributable to location is consistent with previous estimates of basis changes associated with ethanol plant location.

Originality/value

The paper finds that land markets appear to be rationally adjusting to the location of ethanol plants.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate applicability of the pervaporation technique for separation ethanol/water mixtures.

Downloads
1139

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate applicability of the pervaporation technique for separation ethanol/water mixtures.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano‐sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out. Degrees of swelling were calculated at different liquid feed mixture compositions for separating an azeotrope forming mixture, ethanol/water by pervaporation.

Findings

Zeolite 13X filled CA membrane may have the better pervaporation performance than zeolite 4A filled CA membrane. From the sorption tests it is concluded that ethanol/water azeotropy can be achieved by pervaporation.

Practical implications

Application of CA membranes in industrial scale pervaporation units may be feasible for separation of ethanol/water mixtures. Specially ethanol/water azeotropy will be achieved by pervaporation. Using distillation and pervaporation hybrid systems, bioethanol can be produced economically.

Orginality/value

The paper illustrates the success of pervaporation techniques in separating ethanol/water mixtures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing
Publication date: 20 July 2015

The outlook for the ethanol sector.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB201029

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Luís A.B. Cortez, Michael W. Griffin, José A. Scaramucci, Mirna I.G. Scandiffio and Oscar A. Braunbeck

The use of ethanol from biomass as a gasoline substitute in cars and light trucks is possibly one of the most attractive and feasible alternatives to deal with global…

Downloads
2775

Abstract

The use of ethanol from biomass as a gasoline substitute in cars and light trucks is possibly one of the most attractive and feasible alternatives to deal with global warming. As environmental concern grows, many countries are increasing their efforts to consolidate bioethanol processes and supply. The sustainable production of bioethanol requires well planned and reasoned development programs to assure that the many environmental, social and economic concerns related to its use are addressed adequately. The key for making ethanol competitive as an alternative fuel is the ability to produce it from low‐cost biomass. Many countries around the world are working extensively to develop new technologies for ethanol production from biomass, from which the lignocellulosic materials conversion seem to be the most promising one. This paper aims at providing some information about the status of bioethanol production and use around the world.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000