Search results

1 – 10 of over 26000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Awadhesh Pratap Singh and Chandan Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the modern productivity estimation techniques, namely, Levinsohn and Petrin (LP, 2003), Ackerberg Caves and Frazer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the modern productivity estimation techniques, namely, Levinsohn and Petrin (LP, 2003), Ackerberg Caves and Frazer (ACF, 2006), Wooldridge (2009) and Mollisi and Rovigatti (MR, 2017) on unit-level data of 32 Indian industries for the period 2009-2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first analyzes different issues encountered in total factor productivity (TFP) measurement. It then categorizes the productivity estimation techniques into three logical generations, namely, traditional, new and advanced. Next, it selects four contemporary estimation techniques, computes the industrial TFP for Indian states by using them and investigates their empirical outcomes. The paper also performs the robustness check to ascertain, which estimation technique is more robust.

Findings

The result indicates that the TFP growth of Indian industries have differed greatly over this seven-years of period, but the estimates are sensitive to the techniques used. Further results suggest that ACF and Wooldridge yield the consistent outcomes as compared to LP and MR. The robustness test confirms Wooldridge to be the most robust contemporary technique for productivity estimation followed by ACF and LP.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that compares the contemporary productivity estimation techniques. In this backdrop, this paper offers two novelties. First, it uses advanced production estimation techniques to compute TFP of 32 diverse industries of an emerging economy: India. Second, it addresses the fitment of estimation techniques by drawing a comparison and by conducting a robustness test, hence, contributing to the limited literature on comparing contemporary productivity estimation techniques.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Assad Mehmood, Kashif Zia, Arshad Muhammad and Dinesh Kumar Saini

Participatory wireless sensor networks (PWSN) is an emerging paradigm that leverages existing sensing and communication infrastructures for the sensing task. Various…

Abstract

Purpose

Participatory wireless sensor networks (PWSN) is an emerging paradigm that leverages existing sensing and communication infrastructures for the sensing task. Various environmental phenomenon – P monitoring applications dealing with noise pollution, road traffic, requiring spatio-temporal data samples of P (to capture its variations and its profile construction) in the region of interest – can be enabled using PWSN. Because of irregular distribution and uncontrollable mobility of people (with mobile phones), and their willingness to participate, complete spatio-temporal (CST) coverage of P may not be ensured. Therefore, unobserved data values must be estimated for CST profile construction of P and presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the estimation of these missing data samples both in spatial and temporal dimension is being discussed, and the paper shows that non-parametric technique – Kernel Regression – provides better estimation compared to parametric regression techniques in PWSN context for spatial estimation. Furthermore, the preliminary results for estimation in temporal dimension have been provided. The deterministic and stochastic approaches toward estimation in the context of PWSN have also been discussed.

Findings

For the task of spatial profile reconstruction, it is shown that non-parametric estimation technique (kernel regression) gives a better estimation of the unobserved data points. In case of temporal estimation, few preliminary techniques have been studied and have shown that further investigations are required to find out best estimation technique(s) which may approximate the missing observations (temporally) with considerably less error.

Originality/value

This study addresses the environmental informatics issues related to deterministic and stochastic approaches using PWSN.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2017

Ali Mohammed Alashwal and Min Yi Chew

Simulation techniques for cost management are useful for modeling uncertainties, making decisions, and improving the accuracy of cost estimation. Despite their usefulness…

Abstract

Purpose

Simulation techniques for cost management are useful for modeling uncertainties, making decisions, and improving the accuracy of cost estimation. Despite their usefulness, the application of these techniques in construction projects seems to be uncommon in the construction sector in Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to determine the application of simulation techniques for cost estimation and control and to assess their influence on project cost performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 83 government agencies, consultant firms, and contractor firms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Findings

The findings revealed that knowledge of respondents and usage of cost simulation techniques in the Malaysian construction industry is low. In addition, main barriers of implementing cost simulation techniques are identified. Cost performance of construction projects in Malaysia is satisfactory; however, there is no association between this performance and the application of simulation techniques.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to construction management field by highlighting the main simulation techniques for cost management and drawing the attention of construction professionals and contractors to implement these techniques in construction projects.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Michael T. Dugan

The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of elasticity-based techniques for the estimation of the degree of operating leverage (DOL) and the degree of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of elasticity-based techniques for the estimation of the degree of operating leverage (DOL) and the degree of financial leverage (DFL) in empirical corporate finance research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the specific details of the estimation of DOL and DFL coefficients under both of the primary estimation techniques and documents the econometric properties of the estimates derived from each techniques.

Findings

There are tradeoffs between the two techniques, as each technique has both appealing and limiting features.

Originality/value

This paper indicates how each of the two techniques possesses limitations and suggests that future research should attempt to develop estimation techniques that overcome those limitations.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Long Thanh Cung, Nam Hoang Nguyen, Pierre Yves Joubert, Eric Vourch and Pascal Larzabal

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach, which is easy to implement, for estimating the thickness of the air layer that may separate metallic parts in some…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach, which is easy to implement, for estimating the thickness of the air layer that may separate metallic parts in some aeronautical assemblies, by using the eddy current method.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an experimental study of the coupling of a magnetic cup core coil sensor with a metallic layered structure (consisting of first metal layer/air layer/second metal layer), which is confirmed by finite element modelling simulations, an inversion technique relying on a polynomial forward model of the coupling is proposed to estimate the air layer thickness. The least squares and the nonnegative least squares algorithms are applied and analysed to obtain the estimation results.

Findings

The choice of an appropriate inversion technique to optimize the estimation results is dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of measured data. The obtained estimation error is smaller than a few percent, for both simulated and experimental data. The proposed approach can be used to estimate both the air layer thickness and the second metal layer thickness simultaneously/separately.

Originality/value

This model-based approach is easy to implement and available to all types of eddy current sensors.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Bismark Agyekum, Ernest Kissi, Daniel Yamoah Agyemang and Edward Badu

Cost estimation model serves as a framework for forecasting the probable cost of proposed construction projects. It can be classified either as traditional or…

Abstract

Purpose

Cost estimation model serves as a framework for forecasting the probable cost of proposed construction projects. It can be classified either as traditional or non-traditional depending on the cost variables formulation. However, in the building industry, quantity surveyors traditionally estimate the initial cost of building projects using the traditional models, which have been criticized overtime for its inaccuracies. This paper therefore aims to examine barriers for the utilization of non-traditional cost estimating models.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a questionnaire survey, respondents were invited to rate their level of agreement on 23 barriers identified from literature and interview (expert’s opinion).

Findings

Based on factor analysis inefficient techniques, perceptions of model techniques, unavailability of cost data and lack of understanding and unstable economic conditions were identified as barriers to the utilization of non-traditional cost estimating models.

Practical/implications

Findings demonstrate that there is need for quantity surveyors to get adapted to utilization of non-traditional cost models which offers better accuracies than the traditional approaches in their quest to improve their professional practices.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that there are barriers to the utilization of non-traditional cost estimating models in the Ghanaian construction industry, as evident of this will help in policy formulation for the improvement cost estimating practices.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Steven Stelk, Sang Hyun Park and Michael T Dugan

This paper aims to identify the more accurate method of estimating a firm’s degree of operating leverage (DOL) between two popular DOL estimation techniques: that proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the more accurate method of estimating a firm’s degree of operating leverage (DOL) between two popular DOL estimation techniques: that proposed by Mandelker and Rhee (M&R), and that proposed by O’Brien and Vanderheiden (O&V).

Design/methodology/approach

O’Brien and Vanderheiden argue that M&R measure growth in operating earnings relative to the growth in sales rather than DOL. The authors estimate the relative growth estimate, RGE, from the O&V technique (operating earnings growth rate/sales growth rate) and compare this with the DOL estimates from the M&R technique to see if they are similar.

Findings

The authors find that the DOL estimates from the M&R method are indistinguishable from the relative growth estimates from the O&V method, providing the first direct evidence that O&V’s critique is correct. The M&R DOL estimates primarily measure the growth in operating earnings relative to the growth in sales, not DOL.

Originality/value

A firm’s DOL is a determinant of its common stock’s systematic risk, which determines a firm’s equity cost of capital. The equity cost of capital is a fundamental part of capital budgeting, capital structure and stock price analysis. Accurately estimating a firm’s DOL is important to researchers and corporate financial managers. Existing diversity in DOL estimation techniques raises questions about the validity of various techniques and limits comparability of existing studies. This paper demonstrates why the O&V technique should be used in place of the M&R method.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Chandra R. Bhat, Cristiano Varin and Nazneen Ferdous

This chapter compares the performance of the maximum simulated likelihood (MSL) approach with the composite marginal likelihood (CML) approach in multivariate…

Abstract

This chapter compares the performance of the maximum simulated likelihood (MSL) approach with the composite marginal likelihood (CML) approach in multivariate ordered-response situations. The ability of the two approaches to recover model parameters in simulated data sets is examined, as is the efficiency of estimated parameters and computational cost. Overall, the simulation results demonstrate the ability of the CML approach to recover the parameters very well in a 5–6 dimensional ordered-response choice model context. In addition, the CML recovers parameters as well as the MSL estimation approach in the simulation contexts used in this study, while also doing so at a substantially reduced computational cost. Further, any reduction in the efficiency of the CML approach relative to the MSL approach is in the range of nonexistent to small. When taken together with its conceptual and implementation simplicity, the CML approach appears to be a promising approach for the estimation of not only the multivariate ordered-response model considered here, but also for other analytically intractable econometric models.

Details

Maximum Simulated Likelihood Methods and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-150-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Steve Frosdick

Explores the thesis that the techniques of risk analysis are necessary but in themselves insufficient components of the management of risk process. Begins by exploring the…

Abstract

Explores the thesis that the techniques of risk analysis are necessary but in themselves insufficient components of the management of risk process. Begins by exploring the debate about risk. Proposes a definition of risk analysis, suggesting that the term refers to the sum of risk identification, estimation and evaluation. Takes the three component headings as the frameworks. Within each framework, gives an overview followed by an outline of the more common and important techniques. Discusses the issues of sufficiency and draws conclusions. Refers to the decision making techniques of risk management and sets out the overall conclusions substantiating the thesis.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Oualid Araar, Nabil Aouf and Jose Luis Vallejo Dietz

This paper aims to present a new vision-based approach for both the identification and the estimation of the relative distance between the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new vision-based approach for both the identification and the estimation of the relative distance between the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and power pylon. Autonomous power line inspection using small UAVs, has been the focus of many research works over the past couple of decades. Automatic detection of power pylons is a primary requirement to achieve such autonomous systems. It is still a challenging task due to the complex geometry and cluttered background of these structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The identification solution proposed, avoids the complexity of classic object recognition techniques. Instead of searching the whole image for the pylon template, low-level geometric priors with robust colour attributes are combined to remove the pylon background. The depth estimation, on the other hand, is based on a new concept which exploits the ego-motion of the inspection UAV to estimate its distance from the pylon using just a monocular camera.

Findings

An algorithm is tested on a quadrotor UAV, using different kinds of metallic power pylons. Both simulation and real-world experiments, conducted in different backgrounds and illumination conditions, show very promising results.

Research limitations/implications

In the real tests carried out, the Inertial Navigation System (INS) of the vehicle was used to estimate its ego-motion. A more reliable solution should be considered for longer distances, by either fusing INS and global positioning system data or using visual navigation techniques such as visual odometry.

Originality/value

A simple yet efficient solution is proposed that allows the UAV to reliably identify the pylon, with still a low processing cost. Considering a monocular solution is a major advantage, given the limited payload and processing power of such small vehicles.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 26000