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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2021

Feston Kaupa and Micheline Juliana Naude

The purpose of the paper is to report on a study that investigated the critical success factors (CSFs) in the supply chain management of essential medicines in the public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to report on a study that investigated the critical success factors (CSFs) in the supply chain management of essential medicines in the public health-care delivery system in Malawi.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploratory and descriptive study followed a qualitative and quantitative research approach. Data were collected by means of semistructured interviews and a questionnaire administered to suppliers of essential medicines, regulators, donors and logistics companies in Malawi. Data was analyzed using SPSS.

Findings

The findings revealed that the significant CSFs are knowledge of disease patterns and prevalence, skills and experience of personnel, adequate financial resources, collaboration with supply chain partners and an efficient procurement and distribution system.

Research limitations/implications

There were a number of limitations in this study. Although every effort was made to carefully and purposefully select the participants for the in-depth interviews in the first phase of the study and the respondents for the questionnaire in the second phase of the study, they were not randomly selected. As such, the findings cannot be generalised to all stakeholders in the pharmaceutical supply chain in Malawi. However, they can be used as a basis for further research on the topic.

Originality/value

No previous studies that deal with the identification of CSFs in the Malawi pharmaceutical supply chain were found. Therefore, this research makes a twofold contribution to the body of knowledge in the field. First, it identifies CSFs; second, it could assist stakeholders in the public health-care service delivery system in Malawi with regard to how they can improve the supply of essential medicines.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Linda D. Hollebeek, Dale L.G. Smith, Edward Kasabov, Wafa Hammedi, Alexander Warlow and Moira K. Clark

While the customer brand engagement (CBE) research has advanced important insight, most studies to date explore CBE under regular, free-market conditions, yielding an…

Abstract

Purpose

While the customer brand engagement (CBE) research has advanced important insight, most studies to date explore CBE under regular, free-market conditions, yielding an important knowledge gap regarding its manifestation under less regular conditions, including disaster/pandemics. This study, therefore, aims to explore CBE with essential/non-essential service during COVID-19-prompted citizen lockdown.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review, the authors develop a framework of lockdown-based CBE with essential/non-essential service interactions, which are conceptualized by their respective capacity to meet differing needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. The authors view lockdown-based essential/non-essential service interactions to differentially impact CBE, as summarized in a set of propositions.

Findings

The framework depicts lockdown-based essential/non-essential service interactions and their respective impact on CBE. The authors propose two essential service modes (i.e. socially distant/platform-mediated interactions) and two non-essential service modes (i.e. service closure/platform-mediated interactions), which the authors hypothesize to differently affect CBE. Moreover, the authors view the associations between our lockdown-based service modes and CBE to be moderated by customers’ regulatory focus (i.e. promotion/prevention), as formalized in the propositions.

Research limitations/implications

Given the authors’ focus on lockdown-based CBE, this paper adds unique insight to the literature. It also raises ample opportunities for further study, as outlined.

Practical implications

This study yields important managerial implications, including the suggested adoption of differing tactics/strategies to leverage promotion/prevention-focused customers’ brand engagement during lockdown.

Originality/value

By exploring the effects of lockdown-based essential/non-essential service modes on promotion/prevention-focused customers’ brand engagement, this paper adds novel insight.

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Sarah Penman and Lisa S. McNeill

The purpose of this paper is to explore consumption habits of the young adult market, as they leave home and enter into a world of personal fiscal responsibility. Prior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore consumption habits of the young adult market, as they leave home and enter into a world of personal fiscal responsibility. Prior research in this area is limited; however those studies, which have focused on young adult consumption have found increasing impulsive consumption and use of credit amongst this generation. This study seeks to extend research in this area by exploring further how young consumers are spending, their motivations for impulsive consumption choices and their attitudes towards debt.

Design/methodology/approach

The study in the paper is exploratory, and takes a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. A two‐stage design is employed, consisting of focus groups with first and second‐year university students and in‐depth interviews with selected cases from these focus groups. The data collected are content‐analysed, with an emphasis on enlightening quotation from participants.

Findings

The paper finds that the young consumers studied show a relaxed attitude to debt and consumer purchasing, with non‐essential consumption seen as “deserved” and a “reward” for behaviour such as studying or working. Social pressure is found to be the key driver of consumption choices in this group, with the majority of spending decisions made impulsively.

Practical implications

The paper considers the influence of peers and society pressures as a whole in encouraging young adults develop particular consumption habits and attitudes to money and debt. It highlights key aspects of the “culture of consumption” that young consumers are part of today and indicates an attitude to debt that is quite different to generations before.

Originality/value

The paper shows that where consumption habits are the focus of numerous consumer behaviour studies, far fewer studies concentrate on how these consumption habits are developed. The study adds to existing knowledge on the development of consumption norms by considering the practises of the youth market as they leave home and begin making purchasing decisions away from parental influence.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Heloísa Alves de Figueiredo Sousa, Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho, Mariana Buranelo Egea, Edilsa Rosa da Silva, Dirceu Macagnan, Marcio Pires and José Peixoto

Banana is an important tropical fruit with high demand in the market. The ripe fruits are less resistant to transport making logistics difficult. Moreover, as a…

Abstract

Purpose

Banana is an important tropical fruit with high demand in the market. The ripe fruits are less resistant to transport making logistics difficult. Moreover, as a climacteric fruit, it has a short post-harvest shelf life. Edible coatings/films, including active substances, have been used as an alternative for preserving fruits and vegetables during post-harvest period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incorporating clove essential oil on the properties of cassava starch films and their effect on the post-harvest quality of different banana varieties.

Design/methodology/approach

Cassava starch films incorporating clove essential oil were developed and the films were characterized with respect to moisture, thickness, solubility, water vapor permeability (WVP), biodegradability, color and in vitro antifungal activity. Cultivars such as Prata-Anã, Grand Nine, BRS Tropical and BRS Conquista were coated with cassava starch, cassava starch film with clove essential oil (CSEO) and polyvinyl polychloride (PVC). The quality of fruits was monitored during eight storage days using mass loss, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titratable acidity (TTA).

Findings

Incorporation of clove essential oil significantly increased film thickness, reduced moisture content, solubility and WVP (p < 0.05) and did not affect the biodegradability and color of the films. The essential oil incorporated films showed antifungal activity against the fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum musae, but not against the yeast Saccharomyces bourladii. CSEO and PVC coating were more efficient in reducing the mass loss, SS content and TTA of the coated fruits in all varieties studied. Both CSEO and PVC coatings improve the quality attributes such as TSS and TTA and reduced mass loss, of the banana varieties such as Prata-Anã, Grand Nine, BRS Tropical and BRS Conquista during storage.

Originality/value

The active film with essential oil showed antifungal activity and essential oil can be incorporated into other food systems. This study approaches a new possibility of film coating with essential oil for a banana that showed minimum weight loss and satisfactory quality and increased shelf life. This film coating demonstrates biodegradable characteristics that could be eco-friendly and sustainable to consumers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Farhad Sharafati Chaleshtori and Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori

The purpose of this study is to evaluate antimicrobial activity of chitosan incorporated with lemon and oregano essential oils on broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate antimicrobial activity of chitosan incorporated with lemon and oregano essential oils on broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage.

Design/methodology/approach

In this experimental study, antibacterial effect of lemon and oregano essential oils was measured using the microdilution method for four foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The effect of 0.5, 1 and 2 per cent (Wt./Vol.) essential oils with chitosan 2 per cent on microbial quality of broiler breast meat (slaughter age: 42 days), up to 9 days’ storage time in 4 ± 1°C temperature was evaluated. Also, organoleptic characteristics of meat samples in certain storage time were examined.

Findings

The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for lemon and oregano essential oils ranged between 1.41 and 11.25 and 2.81 and 22.5 mg/mL, respectively. In the treatment groups, A decrease in total mesophilic bacterial count (TMBC) was observed up to sixth day, but TMBC increased on the ninth day. Decrease in lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mold and yeast in the treatment groups was observed compared with the control group up to the ninth day (p < 0.01). Overall, chicken meat containing 1 per cent lemon essential oil with chitosan had a greater acceptance rate (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

In recent years, active packaging containing essential oils have been used to maintain the quality and increase the shelf life of various types of meat, chicken, fish, shrimp, fruits, etc. Therefore, it can be suggested that using chitosan in combination with the aforementioned essential oils in combination might increase shelf life of chicken meat during refrigerated storage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mohd. Zuhaili Mohd. Rodzi, Mohammad Nazir Ahmad and Nor Hidayati Zakaria

This paper aims to study the significant role of knowledge integration, which has a considerable influence on the growth of civilisation and modernisation. It identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the significant role of knowledge integration, which has a considerable influence on the growth of civilisation and modernisation. It identifies the essential processes in knowledge integration for establishing common understanding, thus enabling long-term sustainability in a dynamic environment that requires continuous adaptability. By understanding the essential processes of knowledge integration, the timely creation of new knowledge is ensured as a solution for critical problems; thus enhancing past and present knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper undertakes a comparative analysis of research in the literature on knowledge integration and derives the essential processes in knowledge integration from existing theories.

Findings

Generally, there are various interpretations of knowledge integration that complicate the understanding and implementation of knowledge integration in many organisations. This study extracts the implicit nature of knowledge integration by explicitly proposing its essential processes, namely: identification, creation, assimilation and evaluationto identify the core elements necessary for any initiative in knowledge integration.

Research limitations/implications

A number of barriers and dependencies exist in knowledge integration. These are categorised as individual, structural and ontological factors.

Practical implications

The utilisation of the essential processes of knowledge integration increases the speed of knowledge creation through the elimination of redundant conventional processes. This indirectly establishes a generic form of knowledge integration, allowing effective communication among knowledge practitioners.

Originality/value

The paper’s originality lies in the explicit proposal of the essential processes of knowledge integration, referred to as identification, creation, assimilation and evaluation. Furthermore, this paper highlights the potential of essential processes to act as an ontology that can bridge the real and virtual world of knowledge integration implementation through a generic understanding of the knowledge integration concept among practitioners.

Details

VINE, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Arvind Soni, G Kandeepan, S. K. Mendiratta, Vivek Shukla and Ashish Kumar

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical properties. Livestock products especially meat products need special packaging system for protection. The most well-known packaging materials are polyethylene or co-polymer-based materials which have led to serious ecological problems due to their non-biodegradability and non-renewable nature. There has been a growing interest for edible films in recent years trying to reduce the amount of wastes, capable of protecting the food once the primary packaging is open, and because of public concerns about environmental protection. Various kinds of antimicrobial substances can also be incorporated into edible films to improve their functionality, as these substances could limit or prevent microbial growth on food surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Biopolymers such as carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose and their various combinations were tried to develop an edible film. The levels of antimicrobial substances such as oregano and thyme essential oils were standardized on the basis of their minimal inhibitory concentration against Escherichia coli, Salmonella pullorum, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Standardized edible film coated with standardized concentration of essential oil was examined for different physicochemical properties and compared with edible film without essential oil.

Findings

In total, 1.5 per cent (w/v) solution of carrageenan was found best suited biopolymer for edible film formation on the basis of thickness, transparency and elongation ability. Combined concentration of oregano (0.02 per cent) and thyme (0.03 per cent) essential oils were found to be best suited for coating the edible film as antimicrobial application.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may benefit from the present attempt in evaluating the potency of easily available agricultural by produces for preparation of economically viable edible film incorporated with various natural biopreservatives in combination for the enhancement of shelf life.

Originality/value

Antimicrobial packaging for enhancing the quality and shelf life of stored meat products offers great scope for further research in this field. Moreover, the literature pertaining to the application of edible films containing biopreservative for chicken meat products is very limited.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Achmad Firdaus

The purpose of the study is twofold: first, it is to develop each aspect of maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah (essential needs), i.e. dīn (faith/religion), nafs (soul), ʿaql (intellect)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is twofold: first, it is to develop each aspect of maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah (essential needs), i.e. dīn (faith/religion), nafs (soul), ʿaql (intellect), naṣl (descendants) and mal (wealth), into various aspects of organisational essential needs; second, it is to formulate maṣlaḥah-based performance measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is an exploratory study that uses a two-stage design: defining the research question and developing the research design. The research question is how each element of maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah can become an element of organisational essential needs. The research design developed is to formulate maṣlaḥah-based performance measurement.

Findings

The study concludes that maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah could be developed as a basis for identifying organisational essential needs. The five elements of maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah are developed into the following organisational essential needs: worship orientation, internal process orientation, talent orientation, learning orientation, customer orientation and wealth orientation. Maṣlaḥah-based performance measurement uses five variables: strategic objective, measure, formula, target and strategic initiatives and applies the modified plan – do – check – action cycle: performance planning, performance implementation, performance evaluation and performance action.

Practical implications

Organisational essential needs can be developed by Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) into performance measurement. IFIs have six essential needs that can be developed into performance variables. Key performance indicators that can be developed for each need are worship orientation (social responsibility, regulatory compliance and Sharīʿah compliance); internal process orientation (innovation process, digital adaptation and employee satisfaction); talent orientation (career development, talent pool, compensation and benefits); learning orientation (training programme, training evaluation and return on training investment); customer orientation (customer engagement, customer satisfaction, customer survey and promotion programme); wealth orientation (profitability, cost-cutting, share prices, dividends, cost efficiency and financial sustainability).

Originality/value

This paper contributes to new knowledge. The study attempts to discuss the organisational essential needs based on the maṣlaḥah ḍarūriyah concept, while previous studies discussed organisational needs based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In developing performance measurement, organisational performance is measured in a balanced manner. According to the concept of Maṣlaḥah, not only financial factors but also worship, internal processes, talents, learning and customers define organisational needs. Thus, organisational needs are considered not only in terms of material factors but also in terms of spiritual (worship) factors.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Book part
Publication date: 27 April 2004

Constance E. Bagley and Gavin Clarkson

This paper focuses on two related questions at the intersection of antitrust and intellectual property law. First, under what circumstances must the holder of a patent or…

Abstract

This paper focuses on two related questions at the intersection of antitrust and intellectual property law. First, under what circumstances must the holder of a patent or a copyright or the owner of a trade secret allow others to use that intellectual property? Second, under what circumstances can the holder of an intellectual property right use that right to make it difficult for another party to succeed in a related market? These questions have vexed antitrust and intellectual property scholars alike ever since the Federal Circuit ruled in 2000 that patent holders “may enforce the statutory right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the claimed invention free from liability under the antitrust laws,” a ruling that directly contradicted the Ninth Circuit ruling that antitrust liability could be imposed for almost identical conduct, depending on the motivations of the patent holder. The various proceedings in United States v. Microsoft only added fuel to the firestorm of controversy.After briefly retracing the jurisprudential path to see how this situation arose, we propose a solution that primarily involves a variation on the real property concept of adverse possession for the intellectual property space along with a slight extension of the Essential Facilities Doctrine for industries that exhibit network effects. We examine, both for firms with and without market power, how our proposal would resolve the situations presented by large fixed asset purchases, the introduction of entirely new products, and operating systems with network effects. We also demonstrate how our proposal could be applied in the European antitrust enforcement context.

Details

Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-265-8

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Emad S. Shafik, Azza A. Ward and Adel Farid Younan

This study aims to develop a biodegradable linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/starch blends with improved mechanical and flow characteristics and evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a biodegradable linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/starch blends with improved mechanical and flow characteristics and evaluate the probability of using essential oils such as Moringa oleifira and castor oils as green plasticizers and compatibilizers to avoid using harmful chemicals.

Design/methodology/approach

Corn starch was blended with LLDPE through the melt blending technique. The corn starch content was varied from 5 to 40 phr in LLDPE. To enhance poor mechanical characteristic of the LLDPE/starch, essential oils such as M. oleifira and castor oils were incorporated into the composites with different concentrations starting from 1 to 7 phr. The essential oils’ effect on mechanical, flow character, thermal stability and electrical properties of the LLDPE/starch was also investigated. The morphology of LLDPE/starch containing essential oils was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Findings

The results revealed that increasing the corn starch content had an adverse effect on mechanical and flow characteristics of the composites, whereas incorporation of essential oils had increased the flow and mechanical characteristics of the composites. Also, dielectric measurements revealed that permittivity and dielectric loss increased by increasing oil content. Moreover, the values of the blends containing castor oil are higher compared to that containing M. oleifira. The SEM micrographs illustrated that the presence of essential oils in LLDPE/starch enhanced the distribution and the homogeneity of the composites, and the particle size of starch granules became smaller in LLDPE matrix.

Originality/value

This study aims to introduce green plasticizer and compatibilizer to avoid using harmful chemicals in packaging industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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