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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Andrew Kuo, Richard J. Lutz and Jacob L. Hiler

This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of active escapism – a unique form of experiential consumption that engages fantasy and role-play as a means of coping. In…

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3334

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of active escapism – a unique form of experiential consumption that engages fantasy and role-play as a means of coping. In contrast with passive forms of escapism, whereby consumers act as observers (e.g. watching a movie), active escapism provides consumers with the opportunity to directly interact with mediated realities, whether constructed in a virtual space (e.g. a video game) or the real world.

Design/methodology/approach

Within the context of video game consumption, a conceptual framework for active escapism comprised antecedents, processes and consequences is established through literature review, depth interviews and naturalistic inquiry.

Findings

The findings suggest that active escapism functions as a coping mechanism when consumers are confronted with external stressors that threaten either their sense of identity or control. While other forms of emotion-focused coping relieve stress through psychological avoidance (i.e. refocusing of attention away from stressors), active escapism provides the benefits of affirmation and empowerment through projective fantasy (i.e. role-play) and presence (i.e. immersion into a mediated reality).

Originality/value

The conceptual framework established by this analysis gives insight into the structure of active escapism as a theoretical construct, providing a foundation for future research. Managerial implications for consumer escapism (e.g. branded in-game content) are discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Woojin Lee, HeeKyung Sung, Eunju Suh and Jinlin Zhao

The purpose of this study was first to examine how goal-oriented attendees and experiential-oriented attendees were related with their overall satisfaction and loyalty of…

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3331

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was first to examine how goal-oriented attendees and experiential-oriented attendees were related with their overall satisfaction and loyalty of the destination with respect to international food and wine festival. It also investigated how these relations are mediated by different dimension of experiential consumption values such as consumer return on investment (CROI, active value), escapism (active value) and service excellence (reactive value) and aesthetics (reactive value).

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to and collected from attendees at the 2011 Food Network South Beach Wine and Food Festival in Miami, Florida. A total of 450 subjects were collected from attendees indicating a response rate of about 88 per cent. Total 13 hypotheses were tested using structural equation model (SEM) with AMOS, and the results were interpreted adapting Mathwick’s (2001) typology of experiential value.

Findings

The findings indicate that goal-oriented attendees had stronger relationship with reactive experiential values such as service excellence and aesthetics than active values, whereas experiential-oriented attendees had more significant relations with active experiential values such as CROI and escapism than reactive values. In addition, CROI, escapism and service excellence were found to have a positive influence on the overall satisfaction with the festival; in turn, the attendees’ satisfaction had a positive effect on their intention to revisit the destination. Further, the results demonstrated that all experiential values, including CROI and escapism (active values), and service excellence and aesthetics (reactive values), played a mediating role between goal-oriented/experientially oriented attendee and satisfaction with the festival.

Practical implications

The festival organizers and managers should understand what drives the attendees’ participation in the festival. Implementing experiential marketing through various dimensions of experiential value can attract more potential attendees, provide unique experiences and create favorable perception toward the destination.

Originality/value

The research is original in terms of conceptualizing and empirically testing the relation between experiential consumption values and behavior loyalty within the special events and festivals with a specific focus on international food and wine festival. A finding of particular importance here is verifying the unique characteristics of goal-/experiential-oriented attendees in festival settings and determining the linkages between these different attendees and active/reactive experiential values, not to mention the relation with the overall satisfaction and loyalty to the festival destination.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Soheli Begum

The purpose of this paper, aimed primarily at readers' advisors in public libraries, is to take a critical look at the concept of escapism in leisure reading, highlight…

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2126

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, aimed primarily at readers' advisors in public libraries, is to take a critical look at the concept of escapism in leisure reading, highlight the multiple aspects of escapism, present it in a more positive light, and show that escapism is associated not only with light entertaining reading but also with the reading of serious literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a critical review of literature and real‐life examples.

Findings

It is found that escapism in leisure reading is a very complex and composite concept. Although it is not always associated with pleasure and relaxation, it is always a transformative and thus instrumental and functional experience in the reader's life.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a valuable discussion of the literature on escapist reading.

Practical implications

The paper considers the importance of escapist reading and whether would this be of benefit to library professionals involved in the public library sphere.

Originality/value

Multiple and diversified examples of escapism through leisure reading are reviewed and critically analyzed; and the application of this knowledge in readers' advisory work is clearly delineated.

Details

Library Review, vol. 60 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Cong Liu, Xiaoqian Gao, Zhihua Liu and Jiahui Gao

This study aims to examine whether consumers’ lay theories of emotion play a moderating role between self-threat and their choice of threat-coping strategies (direct…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether consumers’ lay theories of emotion play a moderating role between self-threat and their choice of threat-coping strategies (direct resolution and escapism) and product preference.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research uses the methods of experimental design and surveys to collect data and verify the hypotheses we assumed.

Findings

Study 1 indicates that in self-threatening situations, people who perceive emotions as fleeting (lasting) are more likely to use a threat-coping strategy of direct resolution (escapism). Study 2 demonstrates that people who believe emotions are fleeting are more likely to choose problem-solving products; people who believe emotions are lasting are more likely to choose emotion-enhancing products. Study 3 further demonstrates that the direct resolution (escapism) strategy plays a mediating role between the interaction effect and consumer preference for problem-solving products (emotion-enhancing products). Study 4 replicates the results of Study 2 by incorporating the manipulation of lay theories of emotion transience in a product evaluation context.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the present research is that this paper puts focus on exploring the effects of self-view threat (e.g. intelligence and competence) on consumer product preferences. Another issue for future research is the extent to which emotion-transience theories hold for specific emotions. Given that distinct emotions of the same valence differ in their antecedent appraisals and that specific emotion could lead to different subsequent behaviors (Lerner and Keltner, 2000), future research may need to explore the roles of specific negative emotions triggered by self-threat in consumers’ product choosing behaviors. One potential direction for future research is to examine whether the perceived locus of control affects consumers’ choice of threat-coping strategies and product preferences.

Practical implications

Marketers could use product tactics for motivating consumers to restore their self-perceptions on the threatened attributes and address the self-threat, such as product attributes, advertising copy or promotional appeals that insert people who are more motivated to directly resolve the threat. Marketers can nudge consumers toward a direct resolution strategy by posting prompts such as, “I can do it!” For example, the slogan of Nike – “Just do it” and the 2012 award-winning campaign by Nike Spain have told consumers: “If something is burning you up, burn it up by running” (Allard and White, 2015), which suggests that consumers experiencing self-threat may resolve the negative self-discrepancy through the acquisition of the products in the advertisement. Another important implication suggested by the findings is that product consumption can be a way of helping consumers escape from self-threats. For example, the slogan of Coca-Cola – “Taste the feeling” resonates with consumers and stimulates their basic hedonic needs.

Originality/value

First, this research extends previous research by demonstrating that lay theories of emotion serve as a motivator of the selection of threat-coping strategies. Second, this research is conducive for literature to examine how differences in lay theories of emotion affect consumers’ product-choosing behaviors to cope with self-discrepancies. Third, the present research extends the broad marketing literature by differentiating problem-solving products from emotion-enhancing products.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Rishika Nayyar and Shameen Prashantham

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether subnational market-supporting institutions in Indian states affect the likelihood of Indian multinational enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether subnational market-supporting institutions in Indian states affect the likelihood of Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs) to undertake acquisitions in advanced economies (AEs) rather than emerging economies (EEs) and, if so, which mechanism – institutional fostering or escapism – underlies the phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a logistic regression model on a dataset of 647 firm-level cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) undertaken by Indian MNEs during the period 2010–2016.

Findings

The paper finds support for the institutional escapism mechanism, as opposed to the institutional fostering mechanism, underlying Indian MNEs’ acquisitions in AEs (rather than EEs). That is, firms headquartered in Indian states where market-supporting institutions (such as economic liberalization and efficiency of legal systems) are weak are more likely to undertake CBAs in AEs than in EEs as an escapist response to weak subnational institutions at home.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the relevance of the mainstream international business (IB) concept of emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) internationalization to critical IB scholarship by examining subnational institutional influences on EMNEs’ foreign market choice between AEs and EEs. In particular, by providing evidence for the institutional escapism mechanism which has potential negative socioeconomic consequences in the region of the investing firm, the paper adds to critical IB research which places great emphasis on the examination of inequalities and draws attention to the EMNE context as a suitable setting for further research on internationalization from a critical perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2020

Vanessa Apaolaza, Patrick Hartmann, Cristobal Fernández-Robin and Diego Yáñez

This paper aims to examine the effects of natural plants on satisfaction and loyalty in the hospitality servicescape and provides a theoretical framework explaining the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of natural plants on satisfaction and loyalty in the hospitality servicescape and provides a theoretical framework explaining the underlying processes.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study (plants vs no-plants) was conducted in a restaurant with a sample of 119 individuals. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and bootstrapping moderated mediation analysis (Hayes, 2013).

Findings

The results of the study confirmed significant effects of indoor natural plants on consumers’ satisfaction and loyalty, mediated by the experiential value components of aesthetic value, service excellence and escapism. The absence of an interaction of these influences with consumers’ connectedness to nature indicates that the beneficial effects of indoor plants universally affect all individuals, independent of their personal degree of feeling connected with nature.

Practical implications

Indoor natural plants as ambient elements in restaurants can improve satisfaction and loyalty by enhancing the dimensions of aesthetics and escapism of the service experience, as well as the perception of service quality.

Originality/value

This is the first experimental study analyzing the effects of indoor plants on customer satisfaction and loyalty conducted in a real-life restaurant setting using actual plants. The findings contribute theoretically by providing an integrated conceptual model of the satisfaction and loyalty effects of atmospheric stimuli (i.e. plants) in the hospitality servicescape, which offers a process explanation based on the mediating influence of aesthetic value and the sequential mediations of aesthetic value → service excellence and aesthetic value → escapism.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Muhammad Junaid, Fujun Hou, Khalid Hussain and Ali Ashiq Kirmani

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact on brand love of consumption experience at the dimensional level and to determine whether brand love mediates between…

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2490

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact on brand love of consumption experience at the dimensional level and to determine whether brand love mediates between consumption experience and customer engagement in the context of Generation M.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 265 Muslim smartphone users responded to a structured questionnaire adapted from existing literature. First, confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and then data were analyzed through structural equation modeling using MPlus.

Findings

The findings indicate that hedonic pleasure and escapism directly, while flow, challenge and learning indirectly affect brand love and that brand love mediates the relationship between consumption experience and customer engagement.

Practical implications

This paper explicates Generation M’s consumption experience, ascertains ways to supplement their love for brand and engage them in gainful relationships and provides suggestions for further investigation. From a managerial perspective, the paper has implications for the management of consumer experience, identifies the most valuable dimensions of consumption experience and proposes that managers can develop customer-engagement strategies via brand love.

Originality/value

The paper validates the mediating role of brand love in the relationship between consumption experience and customer engagement; is the first to investigate the relationship between all dimensions of consumption experience and brand love; is one of few studies to investigate consumption experience, brand love and customer engagement in developing countries; and is one of first investigations to use a sample of Generation M.

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2021

Naser Valaei, Gregory Bressolles, Hina Khan and Yee Min Low

Even though there is a noticeable market value in the mobile gaming apps industry, there has been limited research examining experiential value of gamers with respect to…

Abstract

Purpose

Even though there is a noticeable market value in the mobile gaming apps industry, there has been limited research examining experiential value of gamers with respect to in-game ads in gaming apps. This study fills the void in the literature by examining factors associated with “experiential value of gamers through ads in gaming apps” as well as investigating its antecedents (cognitive and affective involvement) and consequences (positive word of mouth and intention to continue playing the mobile game).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 600 valid responses from gamers was used to test the model fit, measurement and structural models, conditional probabilistic queries, and nonlinearity.

Findings

This study found that experiential value of gamers through ads in gaming apps is a second-order factor of four constructs: escapism, enjoyment, social affiliation and entertainment. Most of the structural paths between cognitive/affective involvement and dimensions of experiential value are supported. Surprisingly, only social affiliation and entertainment values predict positive word of mouth and intention to continue playing the mobile game, in a nonlinear way.

Originality/value

This study is the first to introduce “experiential value of gamers through ads in gaming apps”. The findings have important implications for companies to develop brand and communication strategies by leveraging specific advertisement formats and present their ads to the right audience in the right gaming apps and at the right time.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Amalia Triantafillidou and George Siomkos

The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of the different aspects of consumption experience on various post-consumption variables (i.e. satisfaction…

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6199

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of the different aspects of consumption experience on various post-consumption variables (i.e. satisfaction, nostalgia intensity, word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and behavioural intentions).

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The sample comprised of 645 respondents and the snowball sampling technique was used. Consumption experience was measured using a seven-dimensional scale (dimensions: hedonic, flow, escapism, socialisation, personal challenge, learning and communitas).

Findings

Not all experience dimensions affect consumers equally in the post-consumption stage. Hedonism was an important experiential dimension affecting positively most of the post-consumption variables. Other boosters of consumers’ nostalgia, WOM communication and behavioural intentions were the feelings of escapism, knowledge and communitas. On the contrary, flow and personal challenge were negative predictors of consumers’ evaluations.

Practical implications

Marketers should co-create the experience with consumers by carefully managing their experiential offering. Companies should focus on designing pleasurable, social, educational and fantasy experiences while minimizing the feelings of immersion and risk that arise from intense activities.

Originality/value

A holistic conceptual model on the consequences of the different consumption experience dimensions is tested. Until now, most of the relevant studies on experiences have treated experience as a higher order construct without taking into consideration the different effects of the various experience dimensions. Hence, the present study contributes to research by identifying the most pertinent experience dimensions on post-consumption evaluations, behaviour and intentions of consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Amalia Triantafillidou and George Siomkos

The aim of the present study is twofold. First, it measures Facebook users’ experience in a holistic way by taking into account the various dimensions of Facebook…

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2782

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is twofold. First, it measures Facebook users’ experience in a holistic way by taking into account the various dimensions of Facebook experience (i.e. entertainment, flow, escapism, challenge, learning, socializing and communitas); second, it tests the effects of these dimensions in relation to consumers’ brand engagement on Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Respondents were recruited through the snowball sampling technique.

Findings

The findings suggest that the different experiential elements of Facebook usage have varying effects on the two brand engagement factors (consuming and contributing) on Facebook. Specifically, the passive element (consuming) is positively influenced by the dimensions of flow and communitas (i.e. feelings of belongingness), while escapism is found to be a negative predictor. The active element of engagement (contributing) is positively affected by dimensions such as entertainment, flow, socializing and communitas.

Practical implications

Brand managers should design Facebook pages for their brands that entertain and immerse consumers, while enabling them to socialize and bond with others to increase levels of consumers’ engagement with brands on Facebook. However, brand managers should be cautious regarding the fantasy experience (escapism) offered by their Facebook pages, as this can distract consumers from the content of the brand page.

Originality/value

To date, most studies on Facebook usage have been conducted under the uses and gratifications framework, while the various elements that comprise Facebook users’ experience have not received sufficient attention in previous conceptualizations of Facebook experience. In addition, the present study enhances the research by examining consumers’ brand engagement on Facebook as a potential consequence of the various Facebook experience dimensions.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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