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The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundations for new ways of management and personality development by using the same way Peter Drucker developed his ideas. What…
The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundations for new ways of management and personality development by using the same way Peter Drucker developed his ideas. What was this “teaching philosophy”? Where else can it be found? Which learning phenomena are typical for this way of teaching? Can this “teaching philosophy” be replicated? Can it be applied to management in general?
The historical genetic method developed by Ernst Mach from the historical‐critical method. Using this approach the paper traces the origin of Drucker's central ideas for management in his early learning experiences. It then asks the question, in how far can these central ideas be generalized and used to develop the central ideas of Drucker (including the intuitive ones) further? The question is genetically left open, i.e. it is continually transformative.
Drucker was heavily influenced in his way of thinking by his education at a special school in Vienna. The school was organized by Eugenie Schwarzwald. Many of Drucker's ideas on personality development and his intuitive theories on psychology and learning can be traced back to that time. What was especially important for Drucker's later works was the “teaching philosophy” taught by Schwarzwald's teachers.
There is a direct link between the science teaching results for Finland in the OECD PISA study and Drucker's way of thinking. Drucker acquired an exponential way of learning, instead of a learning based on a linear model. This is what made his thoughts so challenging and ahead of his contemporaries. As the example of Finland shows, this is not a light‐tower method (i.e. a singular phenomenon without empirical evidence of its reproducibility). One can use these ideas in general for all of education and it has been used in over a dozen cases at different around the world times. It is especially valuable in management education of knowledge workers. In such a way, one can create a much more efficient and effective way of education, an “education 2.0”.
This is the first time that Drucker's ideas can be linked to the ideas of Ernst Mach and to similar types of education based on ideas of Mach, such as used in Finland. The empirical results of such methods can therefore not only be found in Drucker's autobiography as a single case, but they can be compared in much more general contexts, for instance in the large‐scale field study OECD PISA study or in Hattie's educational meta‐meta analysis.
Purpose – The aim of this note is to explain what Hayek meant when in The Sensory Order he claimed that Mach was one of his fundamental readings in psychology while he was…
Purpose – The aim of this note is to explain what Hayek meant when in The Sensory Order he claimed that Mach was one of his fundamental readings in psychology while he was writing The Sensory Order.
Methodology/approach – A historical approach to show the different role Mach played in Hayek and Neurath/Carnap.
Findings•A parallelism between Mach–Kant and Hayek–Mach in psychology.•Hayek's rejection of Mach's final philosophical approach as well as his aversion against the Vienna Circle's positivism as forms of metaphysics, based on an awkward definition of isomorphism.
Research limitations/implications•The human sciences cannot be reduced to the natural sciences.•Any form of knowledge is knowledge of “how” rather than of “what”.
Originality/value of the paper•To show Mach's role in Hayek's psychology.•To consider The Sensory Order as a relevant part of Hayek's struggle against reductionism in psychology.
Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the…
Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the entry that the incomplete determinism in Nature opens to the occurrence of innovation, growth, organization, teleology communication, control, contest and freedom. The new tier to the methodological edifice that cybernetics provides stands on the earlier tiers, which go back to the Ionians (c. 500 BC). However, the new insights reveal flaws in the earlier tiers, and their removal strengthens the entire edifice. The new concepts of teleological activity and contest allow the clear demarcation of the military sciences as those whose subject matter is teleological activity involving contest. The paramount question “what ought to be done”, outside the empirical realm, is embraced by the scientific methodology. It also embraces the cognitive sciences that ask how the human mind is able to discover, and how the sequence of discoveries might converge to a true description of reality.
Methodological pluralism in consumer research is usually confinedto post‐positivist interpretive approaches. Argues, however, that apositivistic stance, radical…
Methodological pluralism in consumer research is usually confined to post‐positivist interpretive approaches. Argues, however, that a positivistic stance, radical behaviourism, can enrich epistemological debate among researchers with the recognition of radical behaviourism′s ultimate reliance on interpretation as well as science. Although radical behaviourist explanation was initially founded on Machian positivism, its account of complex social behaviours such as purchase and consumption is necessarily interpretive, inviting comparison with the hermeneutical approaches currently emerging in consumer research. Radical behaviourist interpretation attributes meaning to behaviour by identifying its environmental determinants, especially the learning history of the individual in relation to the consequences similar prior behaviour has effected. The nature of such interpretation is demonstrated for purchase and consumption responses by means of a critique of radical behaviourism as applied to complex human activity. In the process, develops and applies a framework for radical behaviourist interpretation of purchase and consumption to four operant equifinality classes of consumer behaviour: accomplishment, pleasure, accumulation and maintenance. Some epistemological implications of this framework, the behavioural perspective model (BPM) of purchase and consumption, are discussed in the context of the relativity and incommensurability of research paradigms. Finally, evaluates the interpretive approach, particularly in terms of its relevance to the nature and understanding of managerial marketing.
The present work aims to investigate the capabilities of accurately predicting the six-degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) trajectory and the flight behavior of a flare-stabilized…
The present work aims to investigate the capabilities of accurately predicting the six-degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) trajectory and the flight behavior of a flare-stabilized projectile using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and rigid body dynamics (RBD) methods.
Two different approaches are compared for calculating the trajectory. First, the complete matrix of static and dynamic aerodynamic coefficients for the projectile is determined using static and dynamic CFD methods. This discrete database and the data extracted from free-flight experiments are used to simulate flight trajectories with an in-house developed 6DoF solver. Second, the trajectories are simulated solving the 6DoF motion equations directly coupled with time resolved CFD methods.
Virtual fly-out simulations using RBD/CFD coupled simulation methods well reproduce the motion behavior shown by the experimental free-flight data. However, using the discrete database of aerodynamic coefficients derived from CFD simulations shows a slightly different flight behavior.
A discrepancy between CFD 6DoF/RBD simulations and results obtained by the MATLAB 6DoF-solver based on discrete CFD data matrices is shown. It is assumed that not all dynamic effects on the aerodynamics of the projectile are captured by the determination of the force and moment coefficients with CFD simulations based on the classical aerodynamic coefficient decomposition.
The greatest mistakes and delusions of human history have come about through logically drawing conclusions from an omissive set of premisses. Cybernetics, being the…
The greatest mistakes and delusions of human history have come about through logically drawing conclusions from an omissive set of premisses. Cybernetics, being the science of the study and redirection of feedback, is the science of consequences; its essential task is to recognize and deal with all feedback effects, including the consequences of such omissive conceptions – the so‐called blind spot. Gives some examples of the blind spot as it has manifested itself throughout history in the world of science. Concludes that cybernetics can defuse this blind spot which has perennially plagued human development, individually and societally.
Argues preliminarily that quantitative‐mathematical social science, including economics, is not possible because it applies a method useful in other areas to a field to…
Argues preliminarily that quantitative‐mathematical social science, including economics, is not possible because it applies a method useful in other areas to a field to which it cannot be applied and because the truth claim of science so conceived is self‐referential to begin with. The argument is primarily based on the classic Gadamerian hermeneutic critique of the natural sciences and on the conception of the social sciences as related to phronésis.
Aims to build a theory of human creativity on the premisses of autopoietic systems theory (AST) in contrast to the classical representationist paradigm. Correspondingly…
Aims to build a theory of human creativity on the premisses of autopoietic systems theory (AST) in contrast to the classical representationist paradigm. Correspondingly, creativity is seen as an activity recurrently reproduced by couplings of specific states of moderate emotional arousal with “transitional” environments, i.e. “soft” social structures in which the world is permitted to be both subjective and objective; the archetype of these creative couplings can be found in the earliest “perfect environment” formed by the symbiotic infant‐mother relationship. Hypothesizes that these early states of synergy serve as centres of emotional gravity that are actively sought after by the mature creative person in his/her efforts to overcome splits of verbal space corresponding to schisms of cultural value and belief systems.
§ 1. My presentation to the Circle. When I presented my theory to the Circle, I found a mixed reception. Schlick, however, slightly shook his head, the mock-smile appeared…
§ 1. My presentation to the Circle. When I presented my theory to the Circle, I found a mixed reception. Schlick, however, slightly shook his head, the mock-smile appeared on his face, and he tried to exchange glances. Only Waismann responded. Kaufmann was too loyal a friend to openly go against me even though he strongly felt that I was wrong. And Carnap was in deep thought.