Ship accidents may create, apart from other damage, environmental pollution. For at least three decades, continuous efforts have been made by various maritime…
Ship accidents may create, apart from other damage, environmental pollution. For at least three decades, continuous efforts have been made by various maritime organizations, and especially the IMO, to find effective ways towards reducing these accidents. This paper tries to quantify the risk of an accident leading to pollution as a result of the exposure of the ship to certain risk factors. It tests the statistical significance of the relevant risk’s magnitude by using real data that refer to pollution incidents occurring during 1993‐1997. The results have shown that 60 per cent of the accidents occurred in ports and regulated zones. The large tankers involved in pollution accidents, that happened in ports and regulated zones, present an almost seven times higher risk than smaller tankers. Most frequently these accidents are attributed to collisions, hull and machinery damage and groundings. Small bulk carriers have experienced a risk rising to ten. The paper also provides certain recommendations for policy makers and indications for further research.
The present range and character of child‐care services in Britain have evolved erratically over a long period of time. Structured by a succession of Acts of Parliament…
The present range and character of child‐care services in Britain have evolved erratically over a long period of time. Structured by a succession of Acts of Parliament, shaped and re‐shaped by the changing pattern of social values, needs and expectations, current provision is both complex and comprehensive. Statutory and voluntary bodies now provide preventive services, shelter and treatment for both the deprived and the delinquent, for the able‐bodied and the handicapped, for infants and for adolescents. Often this care will be provided in the child's own home or in a foster home, but at any one time roughly 40 per cent of the 120,000 children and young persons that are today the responsibility of local authorities will be resident in a children's home.
This register of current research in social economics has been compiled by the International Institute of Social Economics. The register does not claim to be comprehensive but is merely an aid for research workers and institutions interested in social economics. The register will be updated and made more comprehensive in the future but this is largely dependent on the inflow of information from researchers in social economics. In order to facilitate this process a standardised form is to be found on the last page of this register. Completed forms, with attached sheets as necessary, should be returned to the compiler: Dr Barrie O. Pettman, Director, International Institute of Social Economics, Enholmes Hall, Patrington, Hull, N. Humberside, England, HU12 OPR. Any other comments on the register will also be welcome.