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Article

Jee Teck Weng and Ernest Cyril de Run

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of Malaysian consumers' personal values and sales promotion preferences on their overall behavioural intention and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of Malaysian consumers' personal values and sales promotion preferences on their overall behavioural intention and purchase satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,300 questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand through hired enumerators in 13 different states in Malaysia (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor and Terengganu). This research was carried out for four different type of consumer product (convenience, shopping, specialty/luxury and unsought product). Data were analysed using General Linear Model-Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and General Linear Model-Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to test for difference between independent and dependent variables.

Findings

The findings suggest that sales promotion technique preferences will have an impact on consumers' behavioural intention and purchase satisfaction for all the product types studied. On the other hand, there is no significant impact in consumers' purchases satisfaction and behavioural intention by personal value for all the product type studied.

Practical implications

The findings from this research have expanded current knowledge and academic studies done on similar areas of research where this research detail the association of personal value and sales promotion techniques preferences on consumers' purchase satisfaction (attitude) and behavioural intention (behaviour) for different types of consumer products. The research suggests to managers in Malaysia that it is crucial to understand the characteristics of their products when selecting appropriate strategies and sales promotion techniques for better market segmentation and targeting.

Originality/value

This research is the first of its type where only a minimal number of studies have looked into these issues (personal values and sales promotion techniques preferences) from a business perspective.

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Article

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

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Article

Hiram Ting, Ernest Cyril de Run, Jun-Hwa Cheah and Francis Chuah

The purpose of this paper is to serve as groundwork to investigate the determinants of ethnic food consumption intention in the context of developing markets. Using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to serve as groundwork to investigate the determinants of ethnic food consumption intention in the context of developing markets. Using the theory of planned behaviour as the underlying basis, it is aimed to explain the effect of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control on consumption intention towards Dayak food. Since Dayak food is relatively unfamiliar compared to conventional food in Malaysia, food neophobia is incorporated into the model so as to assess its moderation effect on every postulated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach via self-administered questionnaire was adopted. In all, 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to non-Dayak Malaysians, and 211 usable copies were subsequently collected, suggesting that non-response bias was not a major issue. A post hoc Harman single-factor analysis was also performed to ensure the variance in the data was not explained by one single factor, thus addressing the common method bias. Structural equation modelling using partial least squares approach was then utilized to assess the relationships of variables under investigation and the moderation effect of food neophobia.

Findings

After ensuring the data have acceptable reliability and validity, structural model assessment was performed to test the hypotheses. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control all have positive effect on consumption intention of non-Dayak Malaysians towards Dayak food. However, food neophobia is only found to have a moderation effect on the relationship between subjective norm and consumption intention.

Research limitations/implications

First, the sample is largely consisted of college and university students in Malaysia who are believed to be more daring to try new things, including new food. Second and more importantly, the dearth of literature and empirical studies on Dayak food and ethnic food in Malaysia might have actually pointed to the limitation in using only quantitative questionnaire in the study. As salient beliefs are the antecedents in the theory of planned behaviour, knowing consumers’ specific beliefs about Dayak food would have provided a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of consumption intention and the moderating effect of food neophobia.

Practical implications

The moderation effect of food neophobia on the relationship between subjective norm and consumption intention towards Dayak food implies the importance of recommendations and favourable word-of-mouth from the significant ones, such as family members and peers, to make people willing to try and consume it. This corresponds to earlier findings pertaining to the collectivistic culture in Malaysia. Unlike countries with individualistic cultures, Malaysians tend to conform to the consumption choices of significant others. This implies that those whom they hold in high regard, are able to influence them both positively and negatively through their advice or opinions.

Originality/value

The present study has not only extended the use of theory of planned behaviour in the context of Dayak food consumption intention in a developing country, but it has also deepened the theory by incorporating food neophobia as the moderator to provide additional theoretical explanation to ethnic food consumption intention. Given the wealth of Asian culture, and its significant role in the global marketplace, the understanding of ethnic food consumption intention of the local and foreign consumers using the extended theory of planned behaviour would contribute knowledge not only to consumer behaviour, but also to food and service industry and tourism.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Kim-Shyan Fam, David S. Waller, Ernest Cyril de Run and Jian He

The purpose of this paper is to determine what can cause dislike of an advertisement's message in Asia. Television commercials were looked at specifically to provide an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine what can cause dislike of an advertisement's message in Asia. Television commercials were looked at specifically to provide an insight into the construct of advertising dislikeability and how it affects purchase intention and purchase frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes the attention/salience hypothesis. A total of 931 people were questioned in five Asian cities (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta, Bangkok and Mumbai) using telephone interviews.

Findings

The results revealed 931 dislike attributes that were reduced to seven: style, meaningless, character, exaggeration, irresponsive, violent and hard-sell. There also appears to be a close relationship between the disliking of advertisements and purchase intention and purchase frequency.

Practical implications

Findings indicate a strong relationship of the dislikeability variables with culture and religion in the five Asian cities and this must be taken seriously by advertisers. International advertisers need to pay attention to the local values and tradition and use the advertising communication message appropriately.

Social implications

Advertisers must be acutely aware of the social norms in designing their advertisements and the findings here can be a guide for public and/or industry policy towards advertising.

Originality/value

The paper has produced a new construct of advertising dislikeability and details how it affects purchase intention and purchase frequency. This construct can be further tested in other nations and situations, in order to develop an understanding of dislike towards advertising.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article

Muhammad Kashif, Eliane Braganca, Zainudin Awang and Ernest Cyril De Run

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the combined effects of customer aggression, job stress, and emotional intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the combined effects of customer aggression, job stress, and emotional intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and organizational turnover among managers from a developing country, i.e. Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 230 respondents working as bank managers in Pakistan by means of a cross-sectional survey. The collected data are analyzed by employing a structural equation modeling (SEM) technique.

Findings

The employees perceive that job stress positively influences emotional exhaustion among employees. Furthermore, EI negatively influences job exhaustion to minimize the potential to lead it through to organizational turnover.

Originality/value

The combined effects of customer- and organization-related elements have been scarcely investigated – the heart and soul of contribution regarding this research. The moderation of EI to lessen the emotional exhaustion is a significant contribution to this study. Finally, the context of Pakistan’s banking sector is also unique to this study.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Muhammad Mohsin Butt and Ernest Cyril de Run

This article aims to explore attitudinal and behavioural differences between target and non‐target groups of ethnic advertisements. It seeks to expand the existing body of…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore attitudinal and behavioural differences between target and non‐target groups of ethnic advertisements. It seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by investigating these differences from the perspective of young consumers in an Eastern context. This helps in testing the established theories of distinctiveness and cultural schemas in an Eastern society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consists of 1,600 randomly selected adolescents from different states of Malaysia. Data were analysed using MANOVA, ANOVA and t‐test to explore the group differences between adolescents based on their ethnicity and advertisement type.

Findings

The results indicate a significant group difference between target and non‐target respondents to the advertisement. It also shows that ethnicity is a viable target variable for both majority and minority ethnic groups in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

Although there are many ethnic groups in Malaysia this research only investigated two ethnic groups. Therefore, the results may not be applicable to other ethnic minority groups in Malaysia.

Originality/value

The study explores the possibility of using ethnicity as a target variable for adolescents in an Eastern context. It investigates the issue in a holistic manner by incorporating views from target as well as non‐target groups.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Muhammad Kashif, Ernest Cyril De Run, Mohsin Abdul Rehman and Hiram Ting

The purpose of this study is to understand the practice of Dawah among Muslims by discovering its perceived motives and benefits that can be replicated to organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the practice of Dawah among Muslims by discovering its perceived motives and benefits that can be replicated to organizational settings. Furthermore, the motives and benefits of performing Islamic Dawah are tied together to establish a Dawah based framework to foster ethical decision making in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study is based on interviews conducted among 40 male Muslims from Pakistan. The sample consists of Muslim scholars having strong religious knowledge, younger people and old-age Muslims. The data collected through the interviews are transcribed and content-analysed by using multiple coding schemes.

Findings

The Islamic Dawah-based framework is based on five elements, which are self-reform, transcendence, complacency, dutifulness and pridefulness. The findings reveal that Muslim scholars put much emphasis on sharing of Islamic faith and livelihood among the members of the community, while the common people, both from the younger and older generations, are more concerned with establishing their own understanding of the Islamic value system and self-improvement. Aside from the spiritual impact that Dawah has on them, the role of family members in stimulating the practice of Dawah is highlighted.

Practical implications

The study has managerial relevance in a way that the highlighted themes represented by a framework can be replicated to an organizational setting to impart a culture of ethicality which is purely based on Islamic tradition. The roles of peers, CEO and self-correction are pivotal to establishment of an ethical workplace culture.

Originality/value

This study extends marketing knowledge in general and internal marketing knowledge specifically by presenting a first-ever Islamic Dawah-based model to foster workplace ethics.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Harry Entebang, Richard T. Harrison and Ernest Cyril de Run

The purpose of this paper is to gauge the extent to which government‐linked companies in Malaysia demonstrate corporate entrepreneurship activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gauge the extent to which government‐linked companies in Malaysia demonstrate corporate entrepreneurship activities.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the objectives of the study, data was solicited directly from top management through face to face survey.

Findings

The findings on nature of corporate entrepreneurship activities suggest that GLCs appeared engage in incremental aspect of CE activities. On the other hand, many of new ideas seemed to come from the top management. Given the nature of external and internal environmental factors of firm which include government policy, environmental hostility, technological forces, top management support, strategic planning, organizational strategies, internal processes, culture, regulation/controls, work discretion, rewards, structure and time/resources were noted to influence the extent to which GLCs pursued CE activities.

Research limitations/implications

The findings in this study were drawn from six top management of GLCs. Future research should include more top management team. Given the external, internal and key challenges, future studies should investigate the direct and/or indirect effect of these factors on CE activities in GLCs.

Practical implications

Based on outcomes of the study, managers may learn that to benefit from CE activities, they should shift their focus from incremental to substantial and/or radical types of CE activities.

Originality/value

Previous studies on CE focused on the performance of private entities. This paper extends the domain of CE into government business enterprises.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

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Article

Ernest Cyril De Run, Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Kim‐Shyan Fam and Hui Yin Jong

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Malaysian Malays attitude towards offensive advertising and the reasons that make these advertisements offensive. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Malaysian Malays attitude towards offensive advertising and the reasons that make these advertisements offensive. This paper aims to explore the role of religiosity on attitudes towards controversial advertisements and the reasons why they are controversial.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper consists of 279 randomly selected Malay participants. Data were analyzed using means, correlations, and ANOVA.

Findings

Results indicate that those high on religiosity differ on the nature and manner of controversial advertisements from those of low religiosity. Malay Muslims when compared on their degree of religiosity differ in terms of their evaluation of offensive nature of advertisement. More important they differ more on the reason that make these advertisement offensive compared to the nature of the products.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents are somewhat more skewed towards a younger population causing concern that the results might not be a true indication of all Malaysian age groups.

Originality/value

The original value of the research lies in its effort to examine the results from the lens of religious theology and respondent degree of religiosity.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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