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Article

Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the findings of a qualitative cross‐cultural study of participation in managerial decision making.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise the findings of a qualitative cross‐cultural study of participation in managerial decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper theme‐focused interviews were conducted with middle managers in five European countries and the transcripts were analysed using elements of the grounded theory method. In the context of the current study, grounded theory served as a suitable method for detecting both general patterns and country‐specific particularities.

Findings

The findings of the present study suggest that country‐specific models of participation exist which is embedded in broader country‐ and culture‐specific concepts. In addition, decision type, time‐related issues and conflict emerge from the study as the main general context factors influencing managerial choices on the use of participation. The comparison of the current qualitative findings with earlier quantitative research suggests a good match with two of the studies (that investigated participatory behaviour in context) but not the third (that investigated participatory values).

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory character of the study imposes certain limitations on its findings which could be addressed in future research by studying other countries and cohorts and possibly by employing additional or different types of methodology.

Practical implications

The qualitative study findings are of interest to organisations engaging in business relations abroad as well as to individual expatriates in each of the five European countries included in the study.

Originality/value

In contrast to earlier quantitative studies with a similar focus, this research initiative explores the meaning and enactment of participation from a holistic perspective, taking context factors into account and integrating the findings into earlier research.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

A. R. Elangovan, Werner Auer-Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation trust repair behaviours by the trustee on the subsequent erosion of trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 232 middle to senior level managers using a two-part scenario-based experimental design to test the impact of damage incurred (avoided) and post-violation repair behaviour. Respondents’ levels of trust were measured pre- and post-violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded independent of the level of damage that may have been caused. Further, post-violation trust repair behaviour by the trustee led to a significantly lower erosion of trust as compared to not engaging in such behaviours. Furthermore, erosion of trust was minimized, when the trustee engaged in increasing levels of trust repair behaviour. Results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation.

Research limitations/implications

In this study we focused on two key factors influencing the erosion of trust. Further factors need to be identified and empirically tested in order to get a more holistic view on how trust erodes. The results serve as one step towards building an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results imply that the actual incurrence or avoidance of damages from a trust violation appears to be peripheral – trustors are more concerned about the violation as a principle and a harbinger of similar future incidents. Further, quickly engaging in trust repair behaviours, such as offering an a good explanation, a heartfelt apology, and appropriate remedy, helps minimize the erosion of trust.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under-investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

A.R. Elangovan, Werner Auer‐Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on the subsequent erosion of trust in the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 120 middle‐senior level managers using a two‐part scenario‐based experimental design to test the impact of attributions and frequency of violations. Respondents' levels of trust and distrust were measured pre‐ and post‐violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded (and distrust increased) more when trustors perceived the trustees as not wanting to fulfill the trust‐expectations than when they could not do so. Further, trustors were willing to tolerate a maximum of two violations before trust in the relationship eroded significantly. The results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation, as were younger and less experienced individuals.

Research limitations/implications

Although scenario‐based experiments assess the cognitive states of the respondents rather than actual behaviors, they serve as a valuable first step. By highlighting the two‐step sequence that may underlie the trust erosion process and emphasizing the importance of using an attributional perspective, the paper invites future research on a range of factors such as patterns of violation, degrees of damage, etc. Collectively, they ought to lead to an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results underscore the importance of maintaining trust by constantly meeting expectations. While they may be forgiven for one‐time mistakes in maintaining trust, they cannot be repeated without severely damaging the trust in the relationship. Also, employees need to be convinced that the erring manager or colleague has done his/her very best to prevent the violation.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under‐investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article

Mark F. Peterson, Aycan Kara, Abiola Fanimokun and Peter B. Smith

The present study consists of managers and professionals in 26 countries including seven from Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study consists of managers and professionals in 26 countries including seven from Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether culture dimensions predict country differences in the relationship between gender and organizational commitment. The study integrated theories of social learning, role adjustment and exchange that link commitment to organizational roles to explain such differences in gender effects. Findings indicate that an alternative modernities perspective on theories of gender and commitment is better warranted than is a traditional modernities perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the relationship between gender and organizational commitment using primary data collected in 26 counties. The cross-level moderating effects of individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and restraint vs indulgence was examined using hierarchical linear modeling.

Findings

Organizational commitment is found to be higher among men than women in four countries (Australia, China, Hungary, Jamaica) and higher among women than men in two countries (Bulgaria and Romania). Results shows that large power distance, uncertainty avoidance, femininity (social goal emphasis) and restraint (vs indulgence) predict an association between being female and commitment. These all suggest limitations to the traditional modernity-based understanding of gender and the workplace.

Originality/value

This study is unique based on the three theories it integrates and because it tests the proposed hypothesis using a multi-level nested research design. Moreover, the results suggest a tension between an alternative modernities perspective on top-down governmental effects on commitment through exchange and bottom-up personal effects on commitment through social learning with role adjustment in an intermediate position.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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