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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 1999

Erling Barth and Harald Dalc-OIsen

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

Abstract

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

Abstract

This paper shows how a shorter fecundity horizon for females (a biological constraint) leads to age and educational disparities between husbands and wives. Empirical support is based on data from a natural experiment commencing before and ending after China’s 1980 one-child law. The results indicate that fertility in China declined by about 1.2–1.4 births per woman as a result of China’s anti-natalist policies. Concomitantly spousal age and educational differences narrowed by approximately 0.5–1.0 and 1.0–1.6 years, respectively. These decreases in the typical husband’s age and educational advantages are important in explaining the division of labor in the home, often given as a cause for the gender wage gap. Indeed, as fertility declined, which has been the historical trend in most developed countries, husband-wife age and educational differences diminished leading to less division of labor in the home and a smaller gender wage disparity. Unlike other models of division of labor in the home which rely on innately endogenous factors, this paper’s theory is based on an exogenous biological constraint.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Karsten Albæk, Rita Asplund, Erling Barth, Stig Blomskog, Björn Rúnar Guômundsson, Vifill Karlsson and Erik Strøjer Madsen

This study uses micro-data to analyze wage formation in the Nordic countries at the regional level. Our results deviate systematically from the main conclusions drawn by…

Abstract

This study uses micro-data to analyze wage formation in the Nordic countries at the regional level. Our results deviate systematically from the main conclusions drawn by Blanchflower and Oswald (1994). We do find a significant negative long-run relationship between unemployment and real wages at the regional level. However, we find no stable negative relation between wages and unemployment across regions in the Nordic labor markets once regional fixed effects are accounted for. Wage formation at the regional level is characterized by considerable persistence, but unemployment exerts no immediate influence on wages at the regional level. There is no evidence of a transitory wage curve, nor of a Phillips curve, at the regional level in the Nordic countries. The results are consistent with a theoretical model where central bargaining agents

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Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-067-8

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Erling Barth, Bernt Bratsberg, Torbjørn Hægeland and Oddbjørn Raaum

The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of why some firms tie compensation to worker performance as well as the variation in type of performance pay…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of why some firms tie compensation to worker performance as well as the variation in type of performance pay system across firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study first presents a theoretical framework that motivates n empirical study of performance‐related pay. The data are based on Norwegian establishment surveys from 1997 and 2003. The empirical analysis addresses determinants of adoption of performance pay systems.

Findings

Performance‐related pay is more prevalent in firms where workers of the main occupation have a high degree of autonomy in how to organise their work. Performance pay is also more widespread in large firms, but is less common in highly unionised firms and in firms where wages are determined through centralised bargaining. Results show that performance pay is on the rise in Norway, even after accounting for changes in industry structure, bargaining regime, and union density. Finally, it is found that the incidence of performance‐related pay relates positively to product‐market competition and foreign ownership.

Originality/value

The paper provides new empirical evidence on the use of performance‐related pay. The results support an interpretation of incentive pay as motivated by agency problems, and provide new evidence on the relationship between payment schemes and institutions such as unions and bargaining framework.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Abstract

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Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-067-8

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Abstract

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Carmen Sum, Ivy Chan and Helen Wong

The purpose of this paper is to examine student engagement in learning amid COVID-19 and compare it with the previous cohort under face-to-face learning and propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine student engagement in learning amid COVID-19 and compare it with the previous cohort under face-to-face learning and propose a series of learning activities to engage students for any uncertain situations in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online surveys were conducted at the end of the academic years of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to measure student engagement under face-to-face tradition learning and emergency remote learning respectively.

Findings

Student behavioural engagement was found no statistical difference between the two learning situations, whereas students having face-to-face learning demonstrated greater emotional and cognitive engagement. Social interaction is essential to drive student engagement in emergency remote learning.

Practical implications

The authors intended to highlight some teaching approaches and learning activities for social interaction to engage students.

Originality/value

Engaging students in remote or online learning is an educational challenge for the new reality. This paper proposed the teaching approach and learning activities to engage students in their learning in the future.

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Accounting Research Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Kristian Berg Harpviken

There is an emerging consensus within the literature on failed and failing states that state failure is contagious across borders. For its part, the literature on…

Abstract

There is an emerging consensus within the literature on failed and failing states that state failure is contagious across borders. For its part, the literature on regionalisation claims that states within the same region tend to form clusters of security – or insecurity – so that geographical proximity is closely associated with inert security relationships. This article – along with the individual contributions in the volume it introduces – seeks to bridge these two literatures, which otherwise rarely talk to each other. The approach taken throughout the volume is largely qualitative and case-oriented, yet methodologically diverse, while the articles have a shared comparative ambition. This introductory article examines the debate on failing states and contextualises the volume's contributions within that debate. It then does the same in relation to the debate on regional security, before moving on to examine the role and impact of emerging regional responses to insecurity. When we examine recent state-building initiatives, the effectiveness of external actors seems limited, while existing power holders – and the conflicts between them – are at the centre in processes for building states. This calls for studying the practice of state-building, and for rooting policies in viable practices, even when the driving actors are not inherently benign. To a considerable degree, a state's strength and functionality are relational: the state can only be understood in relation to significant other states. Within regions, hegemonic states – and the strategies pursued by other states in their efforts to cooperate with, balance, or counter the hegemon – have major implications for security. Regional cooperation emerges through concrete collaboration to address commonly perceived challenges, at times as an unintended effect of a targeted initiative. Key actors – and the networks of which they form part – are often transnational, spanning the borders of several states. The behaviour of transnational actors, how they interface with the system of states and regions and the potential for their conversion into constructive political forces remain poorly understood. As a whole, these are findings that inspire an agenda for future research at the interface between the state and the region.

Details

Troubled Regions and Failing States: The Clustering and Contagion of Armed Conflicts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-102-3

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