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From on-board automotive diagnostics to real-time aircraft state of health, the implementation of health monitoring and management systems are an increasing trend…
From on-board automotive diagnostics to real-time aircraft state of health, the implementation of health monitoring and management systems are an increasing trend. Further, reductions in operating budgets are forcing many companies and militaries to consider new operating and support environments. Combined with longer service lives for aircraft and other systems, maintenance and operations processes must be reconsidered. The majority of research efforts focus on health monitoring techniques and technologies, leaving others to determine the maintenance and logistics impact on the systems. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This research analyzes the impact of a health monitoring system on a squadron of aircraft. Flight, maintenance and logistics operations are stochastically modeled to determine the impact of program decisions on supply metrics. An arena discrete event simulation is utilized to conduct this research on 20 components on each of the 12 aircraft modeled. Costs and availability are recorded for comparison across three sparing scenarios to include economic order quantity (EOQ) for baseline and health monitoring cases and a just-in-time (JIT) health monitoring set of simulations.
Data are presented for EOQ and JIT supply methods. A comparison of health monitoring enabled supply to current methods shows cost savings and availability gains. The different methodologies are compared and discussed as a trade-space for programmatic decisions.
This work demonstrates the ability of health monitoring systems and condition based maintenance to affect supply ordering decisions. The development of trade-spaces within operating environments is demonstrated along with the ability to conduct cost benefit analyses.
For decades, the Department of Defense (DoD) has employed numerous reporting and monitoring tools for characterizing the acquisition cost estimates of its programs. These…
For decades, the Department of Defense (DoD) has employed numerous reporting and monitoring tools for characterizing the acquisition cost estimates of its programs. These tools have led to dozens of studies thoroughly documenting the magnitude and extent of DoD acquisition cost growth. However, little attention has been paid to the behavior of the other main cost component of a system's life cycle cost: Operating and Support (O&S) costs. Consequently, the DoD has little knowledge regarding the accuracy of O&S cost estimates or how that accuracy changes over time. In a previous paper, the authors described an analytical methodology for remedying this deficiency via a study to characterize the historical accuracy of O&S cost estimates. The results are presented here, and indicate there tend to be large errors in DoD O&S cost estimates, and that the accuracy of the estimates improves little over time
This chapter explores the parental experiences of 21 mothers of young and/or adult children who have been diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD). Specific…
This chapter explores the parental experiences of 21 mothers of young and/or adult children who have been diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD). Specific attention is paid to mothers’ reflections on marginalization, stress, and resiliency. Intersectionality of marginalization was explored with a select number of participants who identified with minority racial groups, with the LGBTQ community, and/or as a single or young mother. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Eighteen mothers reported experiencing elevated levels of stress specifically related to challenges associated with DD; the need for greater investments of time and money was emphasized. However, nearly every participant highlighted stories of resilience and acclimation to these challenges associated with raising a child with DD. Thirteen mothers overtly discussed experiences of discrimination and marginalization. Some of these scenarios included being stared at or criticized in public, being excluded from social events, and facing discrimination within school settings. Select participants from marginalized backgrounds (being as a young parent, or as Black, single, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgender) provided insight into how layers of marginalization negatively impacted their parental experiences. These personal accounts provide additional evidence that mothers of children with DD experience courtesy stigma. In addition, they provide a holistic illustration of motherhood experiences that does not center on only negative or positive aspects. Finally, the reports of mothers who identified with multiple marginalized identities strengthen the call for additional empirical focus on intersectionality as it concerns mothers of children with DD.
Social bookmarking is an online tool that can enable students to develop their skills in finding, sharing and (re)organising online information. Research has demonstrated…
Social bookmarking is an online tool that can enable students to develop their skills in finding, sharing and (re)organising online information. Research has demonstrated that it has the potential to impact positively on students’ digital literacies – their ability to use the Internet critically to support their learning – and particularly on the kinds of online research skills that are vital to supporting inquiry-based approaches to learning and teaching in history. This chapter provides a detailed overview of how online social bookmarking tools have been used to support the development of students’ digital literacies in history in a number of UK higher education institutions. The general approach which has been adopted is based on constructivist principles and requires students to develop their skills and appreciation of the Internet as a venue for scholarly research in order to strengthen their inquiry skills in preparation for more independent work at higher levels of study. The chapter presents evaluative data that has been collected from students who have used social bookmarking to support inquiry activities within modules and as part of their independent learning activities. We also report staff reflections on the usefulness of social bookmarking to support student learning in history and make some recommendations for the practical application of such tools elsewhere. These include the potential significant impact of social bookmarking on students’ ability to interact productively and creatively with online resources in the course of their learning; the usefulness of the tool in supporting collaborative working and sharing materials; the need to ensure that students receive adequate training in using social bookmarking and that their work receives adequate credit (which will, in turn, increase motivation).
Development of economic understandings fosters the growth of democratic citizenship competencies. Elements of popular culture should be recognized for the influence they…
Development of economic understandings fosters the growth of democratic citizenship competencies. Elements of popular culture should be recognized for the influence they have on children’s economic decisions. Children should learn of the concept of popular culture to regulate its effect on their habits and understand how it has shaped the lives of people throughout history. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Using a C3 inquiry investigation, this study explored if students from fifth grade to kindergarten could be engaged in higher-level thinking about economic concepts through the analysis of elements of popular culture in historical primary sources and then continue that analysis into popular culture of their own lives. Analyses of students’ discussions during each stage of the study provide descriptive statistics and themes to reveal understandings.
Results imply that children can successfully engage in document analysis and creation of accurate present-day popular culture artifacts and that children in second grade and above were subsequently influenced in their economic understandings about spending and saving money from popular culture analyses. Children in first grade and kindergarten were not successfully able to express these deeper connections, which may be explained by cognitive theory offered for this age range.
This research offers a unique way of combining the analysis of historic and present-day primary sources in order to understand the influences popular culture can have on economic-based behaviors. Novel approaches, which use the C3 framework to engage students in higher-order thinking of social studies disciplines, will help build stronger democratic citizenship competencies in children.
The purpose of this chapter was to examine the implementation of a flexible work initiative that attempted to challenge two institutionalized precepts of contemporary…
The purpose of this chapter was to examine the implementation of a flexible work initiative that attempted to challenge two institutionalized precepts of contemporary white-collar workplaces: the gendered ideal worker norm, with its expectation of the primacy of paid work over family and personal life, and the assumption of managerial control over employees’ schedules and work location.
Using ethnographic and interview data, how the Results Only Work Environment (ROWE) was experienced by employees in four different teams within the Best Buy, Co., Inc. corporate headquarters was explored.
Comparing more and less successful implementation across teams, results suggested that collective institutional work is required for the emergence of new norms, expectations, and legitimated practices. Findings indicated that managers’ task-specific knowledge – their deep experience with the tasks that the team is charged with completing – is a structural condition that facilitates managers’ trust in employees and encourages team experimentation with new practices.
Data for this study was limited to one organization and four teams. Future research should include similar organizational change efforts in other organizations and in larger teams.
These findings may promote a better understanding, among researchers and practitioners, of the importance of manager knowledge and background and how this appears to be key to achieving institutional change.
This research is an example of an innovative approach to workplace flexibility and applies an institutional theory lens to investigate variation in the implementation of organizational change.
This chapter outlines the progression in the development of educational settings and services for students with visual impairments over the past several hundred years…
This chapter outlines the progression in the development of educational settings and services for students with visual impairments over the past several hundred years. Information is provided that explains how the education systems have advanced to the present state for students who are blind or have low vision. An explanation of the professionals who support the unique disability-specific needs of students with visual impairments in inclusive settings is also presented. This chapter concludes with a discussion of current issues related to the inclusion of students with visual impairments including personnel shortages, technological developments, and unemployment rates.