Search results

1 – 10 of 36
Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Patrick Holzmann, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business models that 3D printer manufacturers apply to commercialize their technologies. The authors investigate these business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business models that 3D printer manufacturers apply to commercialize their technologies. The authors investigate these business models and analyze whether there are business model patterns. The paper describes the gestalt of the business model patterns and discusses differences and similarities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literatures on business models and 3D printing technology. The authors apply a componential business model approach and carry out an in-depth analysis of the business models of 48 3D printer manufacturers in Europe and North America. The authors develop a framework focusing on value proposition, value creation and value capture components. Cluster analysis is used to identify business model patterns.

Findings

The results indicate that there are two distinct business model patterns in the industry. The authors termed these patterns the “low-cost online business model” and the “technology expert business model.” The results demonstrate that there is a relationship between business model and technology. The identified patterns are independent of age, company size and country of origin.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical results complement and extend existing literature on business models. The authors contribute to the discussion on business models in the context of novel technology. The technology seems to influence the gestalt of the business model. The sample is limited to European and North American companies and the analysis is based on secondary data.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study on the business models of 3D printer manufacturers. The authors apply an original mixed-methods approach and develop a framework that can function as a starting point for future research. 3D printer manufacturers can use the identified business model patterns as blueprints to reduce the risk of failure or as a starting point for business model innovation.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Patrick Holzmann, Christian Wankmüller, Dietfried Globocnik and Erich J. Schwarz

Mountaineering and related activities are increasingly becoming popular and are accompanied by an increase in medical incidents. Emergency operations in mountainous…

Abstract

Purpose

Mountaineering and related activities are increasingly becoming popular and are accompanied by an increase in medical incidents. Emergency operations in mountainous terrain are time-critical and often pose major logistical challenges for rescuers. Drones are expected to improve the operational performance of mountain rescuers. However, they are not yet widely used in mountain rescue missions. This paper examines the determinants that drive the behavioral intention of mountain rescuers to adopt drones in rescue missions.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a behavioral study that builds upon an extended model of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and investigates the relationship between individual attitudes, perceptions, and intentions for drone adoption. Original survey data of 146 mountain rescuers were analyzed using moderated ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that the behavioral intention to use drones in mountain rescue missions is driven by the expected performance gains and facilitating conditions. Favorable supporting conditions and experience with drones further moderate the relationship between performance expectancy and behavioral intention. The effects for effort expectancy, social influence, and demonstrations were not significant.

Practical implications

Rescue organizations and stakeholders are recommended to consider the identified determinants in the implementation of drones in emergency logistics. Drone manufacturers targeting mountain rescue organizations are advised to focus on operational performance, provide sufficient support and training, and promote the gathering of practical experience.

Originality/value

A tailored-model that provides first empirical results on the relevance of personal and environmental factors for the acceptance of drones in emergency logistics is presented.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Patrick Holzmann, Robert J. Breitenecker, Aqeel A. Soomro and Erich J. Schwarz

3D printing possesses certain characteristics that are beneficial for user entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the business models of user…

Abstract

Purpose

3D printing possesses certain characteristics that are beneficial for user entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the business models of user entrepreneurs in the 3D printing industry. In addition, various business opportunities in 3D printing open to user entrepreneurs are classified according to their attractiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the literatures on user entrepreneurship and on business models. Data from eight user entrepreneurs in Europe and North America are analyzed, applying qualitative content analysis. Multiple correspondence analysis is used to analyze their respective business models.

Findings

User entrepreneurs in the 3D printing utilize a number of different business models, which show similarities in particular business model components. User entrepreneurs focus primarily on the combination of low opportunity exploitation cost and a large number of potential customers.

Research limitations/implications

Online business seems to be beneficial for user entrepreneurship in 3D printing. Policy makers can foster user entrepreneurship by expanding entrepreneurship education and lowering administrative barriers of business foundation. The results of this study are based on a small European and North American sample. Thus, they might not be applicable to other markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study of user entrepreneur business models in 3D printing and, thus, contributes to the literature on business models and on user entrepreneurship. In view of the novelty of the field, the business models identified in the study could serve as blueprints for prospective user entrepreneurs in 3D printing.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Sascha Kraus, Rainer Harms and Erich J. Schwarz

To analyze the performance implications of essential elements of strategic planning (time span, formalization, frequency of control, and use of planning instruments) in…

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze the performance implications of essential elements of strategic planning (time span, formalization, frequency of control, and use of planning instruments) in smaller enterprises in a simultaneous way.

Design/methodology/approach

The main methods being used for this article were a thorough review of literature for the development of hypotheses and a logistical regression analysis for the empirical evaluation. The study is based on a representative sample of small Austrian enterprises (n = 290).

Findings

Planning formalization has a positive and highly significant impact on the probability of belonging to the group of growth firms, whereas other aspects of strategic planning (time horizon, strategic instruments, and control) did not contribute to performance.

Research limitations/implications

Employee growth has been used as an indicator for firm performance. Other indicators (e.g. sales growth, profitability, and subjective evaluation of the entrepreneur) might be used to draw a more detailed picture. Additionally, dichotomizing the dependent variable has some weaknesses. Furthermore, only a limited number of industry categories have been controlled for.

Practical implications

Practitioners might want to emphasize formal strategic planning in order to enhance the probability of performance. Also, they might want to regard the business plan as a management and learning tool rather than as a pure means to generate funding.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyze different dimensions of strategic planning in small firms simultaneously. Additionally, it is one of only very few studies outside of the Anglo‐American realm, which might be a help especially for European SMEs (small and medium‐sized enterprises).

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Erich J. Schwarz, Malgorzata A. Wdowiak, Daniela A. Almer‐Jarz and Robert J. Breitenecker

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of intention, it aims to develop a model of entrepreneurial intent that incorporates both human and environmental factors. Specifically, the proposed model aims to focus on three constructs to predict the entrepreneurial intent, i.e. general attitudes (toward money, change, and competiveness), the attitude toward entrepreneurship, and the perception of the university environment and regional start‐up infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

In June 2005, 35,040 students of medicine, law, and technical, natural, social and business science from seven universities in Austria (electronic survey) were contacted. The response rate was 8.10 per cent. A total of 2,124 cases were considered in the final analysis. A multiple linear regression model with attitudes, perceptions of environment conditions, and selected control variables (age, gender, field of study) was estimated to test the hypotheses.

Findings

With the exception of the attitude toward competitiveness, all other paths regarding general and specific attitudes are significant. Pertaining to the environment conditions, only significant effects of the university on students' interest in business founding were detected. Other environment factors have no impact on entrepreneurial intention among students in Austria. In addition to that, significant differences in entrepreneurial intent regarding age, gender and field of study were found. Despite variation in the intent level between students of different fields of study, any significant differences in the effects of predictor variables on the entrepreneurial intent among the investigated student population were not discovered.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should place more emphasis on interaction between personal and environmental factors. Besides, students' social networks (family and friends) should be included in the analysis of entrepreneurial career decision. Practical implications – The universities in Austria should more extensively address entrepreneurship education to students of other subjects than business sciences. An important component of entrepreneurial training is a social learning process. In this respect, inviting successful entrepreneurs (role models) to the lectures or enabling students small business experience via interaction with local entrepreneurs can be viewed as supportive actions. Developing entrepreneurial skills as crucial life capacities should be the main target of all university faculties.

Originality/value

The paper lays the foundation for a better understanding of the “intent preconditions” in the context of new venture creation, particularly in the context of Austrian students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Mohammad Saud Khan, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to examine how internal locus of control (LOC) as a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait at team level impacts team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how internal locus of control (LOC) as a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait at team level impacts team performance (effectiveness and efficiency) in Austria. In addition, it investigates the interaction effects of LOC diversity and affective trust on the internal LOC-performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data originated from 44 entrepreneurial teams based in nine business incubators in Austria. Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling was used to estimate the model.

Findings

Results indicate that higher internal LOC at team level promotes entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. However, team efficiency is increased when such teams possess a high internal LOC and low LOC diversity. Affective trust is identified as a crucial component in enhancing entrepreneurial team effectiveness, especially when the team has a high internal LOC.

Originality/value

This study extends research on internal LOC at team level by investigating it as a predictor of entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. Second, it systematically analyses if and how diversity in internal LOC affects team performance in an entrepreneurial team context. The paper takes a pioneering step by testing a key methodological contribution of addressing the inherent bias in measuring diversity of small teams. Finally, it is one of the first studies to show not only the importance of affect in general, but also the trust based on affect for entrepreneurial team dynamics.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mohammad Saud Khan, Robert J. Breitenecker and Erich J. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to examine how diversity in need for achievement (nfA) a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait impacts team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how diversity in need for achievement (nfA) a well-established entrepreneurial personality trait impacts team performance (effectiveness and efficiency) in Austria. In addition, it investigates the interaction effects of Team Mean nfA and relationship conflicts on the nfA diversity-performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data originated from 44 entrepreneurial teams based in nine business incubators in Austria. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to estimate the model.

Findings

Results indicate that, in general, nfA diversity has a negative impact on entrepreneurial team effectiveness and efficiency. However, acknowledging the importance of nfA for being entrepreneurial, diversity in nfA could improve team effectiveness when the prevailing team nfA (mean) is low. The dysfunctional role of relationship conflicts for entrepreneurial team performance is confirmed; nonetheless, similarity in nfA could help teams to cope more successfully with these potentially negative consequences.

Originality/value

The paper puts forth one of the first empirical investigations of nfA and performance at a team level in an entrepreneurial field setting. Moreover, a contextually specific contribution of examining nfA diversity, team nfA (mean), relationship conflicts and team performance also augments team deep-level diversity and conflict literature. Finally, this study highlights that entrepreneurial teams could effectively leverage their human capital by realizing that some types of deep-level homogeneity (nfA) might prove helpful in neutralizing the damaging effects of relationship conflicts.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2006

Erich J. Schwarz and Malgorzata A. Wdowiak

Entrepreneurial activity is a critical issue in the transition of economies attempting to reduce, or abolish state-owned monopoly enterprises. In many Central and Eastern…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial activity is a critical issue in the transition of economies attempting to reduce, or abolish state-owned monopoly enterprises. In many Central and Eastern European countries, privatization, restructuring, and failure of state-owned enterprises as consequences of the reforms typically led to a reduction of the size of the workplace. For example, in Poland, about 3.5 million employees lost their jobs in the period 1991–1996 (PEAD, 2003). After the collapse of communism in Europe, post-communist countries have undertaken reforms to liberalize their economies. These reforms stimulated the development in the private sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. New ventures provide a counterbalance to the loss of jobs at state-owned companies. In the period 1991–1996, new enterprises in the private sector in Poland created more than 1.8 million jobs. By the end of 2002, they provided work for 68% of the total employed persons (PEAD, 2003). Further, new ventures can play a critical role in stimulating economic growth. As a result of market reforms, the contribution of the private sector to Gross Domestic Product, e.g., in Hungary, went from 7% in 1988 to 85% in 1999 (World Bank, 2000). However, many new ventures do not survive the first year of operation. For example, in Poland, about 40–45% enterprises established in the period 1995–2000 failed after the first year of their existence (PEAD, 2003).

Details

Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-452-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2006

Abstract

Details

Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-452-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2006

Craig S. Galbraith and Curt H. Stiles

The first paper by Hernando de Soto is titled, “Trust, Institutions and Entrepreneurship.” Hernando de Soto certainly needs no introduction. As the author of two…

Abstract

The first paper by Hernando de Soto is titled, “Trust, Institutions and Entrepreneurship.” Hernando de Soto certainly needs no introduction. As the author of two best-selling books, The Other Path and The Mystery of Capital, and the founder of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy in Peru, Hernando de Soto has made his mark on examining critical issues related to economic development among poor people. In 1999, Time magazine chose Hernando de Soto as one of the five leading Latin American innovators of the century. Forbes magazine highlighted him as one of 15 innovators “who will re-invent your future.” The Economist magazine identified his Institute for Liberty and Democracy as one of the top two think tanks in the world. The essay in this volume, based upon a speech given at the University of North Carolina on October 26, 2004, examines the important relationships between institutions, trust, property rights, and the ability of entrepreneurs to participate in economic growth and development. This stimulating essay sets a foundation for much of what is discussed in this volume.

Details

Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-452-2

1 – 10 of 36