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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1993

Henry W. Fischer and Eric M. Drain

The local emergency management directors (n=54) from amidwestern state (USA) were surveyed to determine how accurately theyunderstood behavioural response to disaster…

Abstract

The local emergency management directors (n=54) from a midwestern state (USA) were surveyed to determine how accurately they understood behavioural response to disaster, which disaster myths they most often believed, and if education, disaster experience, and EMS work experiences were associated with a more accurate understanding of the behavioural response problems commonly encountered during a disaster. The respondents performed better on a disaster knowledge scale than did their predecessors a decade and a half earlier, which suggests that education and training have had an encouraging impact. However, they averaged only a 65 per cent (the equivalent of a “D”) on the disaster knowledge scale. They continued to believe that citizens will panic and behave irrationally in other ways, that survivors will not prepare or know what to do, and that the initial damage, injury and death estimates are very accurate. On the other hand, they understood that survivors, EMS workers, and others usually behave altruistically in numerous ways. Education, training and experience were found to be associated with a more accurate perception of the behavioural response to disaster. A response rate of 61 per cent was attained after two mailings.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Henry W. Fischer, George F. Stine, Brenda L. Stoker, Marna L. Trowbridge and Eric M. Drain

Evacuation is commonly used to mitigate the ill effects of avariety of disaster agents. It is important that authorities gain anaccurate understanding of the circumstances…

Abstract

Evacuation is commonly used to mitigate the ill effects of a variety of disaster agents. It is important that authorities gain an accurate understanding of the circumstances under which citizens will evacuate. Tests the efficacy of evacuation message clarity and frequency, authority type, the accuracy of past warnings, and the impact of the presence of children in the home as viable variables in effecting an evacuation response. Finds the evacuation response was more likely to occur if the potential victim was ordered to do so, if the potential victim was contacted frequently (more than once) by the proper authority (as perceived by the potential victim), if past warnings were perceived as being accurate, and dependent children were in the home. Interviews respondents from 83 households in Ephrata, Pennsylvania, USA, after a major fire emergency threatened residents of three neighbourhoods contiguous to the site.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

K.K. Yuen, Eric W.M. Lee and S.M. Lo

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first reported in China in November 2002 and had spread to Hong Kong by late February 2003. Initially hospitals were the main…

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first reported in China in November 2002 and had spread to Hong Kong by late February 2003. Initially hospitals were the main sites of the infection which was thought to be due to an airborne virus. However the spread of the virus to large residential tower blocks led authorities to suspect that the evaporation of toilet floor drain U‐traps may be a possible way of spreading the virus. The paper reports a full scale rig testing of methods to prevent the evaporation of the U‐trap water seals and concludes with recommendations for further research.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Eric Moffa

Due to the complexities of place and the limited knowledge of citizenship education in rural contexts, the purpose of this paper is to examine civics teachers’ perceptions…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the complexities of place and the limited knowledge of citizenship education in rural contexts, the purpose of this paper is to examine civics teachers’ perceptions of place in rural schools and its influence on their decision making about the curriculum.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study design was utilized. Four 12th grade civics teachers were sampled across three rural schools in a southern state. Data came from interviews, classroom observations and teaching artifacts. A constant comparison method of data analysis led to the emergence of a major theme: the paradoxical treatment of place in civic education in rural schools.

Findings

Participants implemented place-based pedagogies while simultaneously promoting the narrative that students leave their home communities after graduation due to limited post-secondary opportunities (i.e. place-based learning for future (dis)placements). Participants reconciled leaving narratives and the displaced futures of students by emphasizing “the basics” devoid of place.

Originality/value

The paradoxical treatment of place, as influenced by teachers’ perceptions and civic sensibilities, contrasted with theoretical perspectives on place-based education that emphasize inhabiting and attending to place. Findings suggest the need to prepare rural civics teachers for place-conscious civic pedagogies to challenge paradoxical treatments of place and engender democratic investments in rural communities.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2006

Eric M. Rice

The design and direction of economic reforms are heavily taxing the macroeconomic policy apparatus of every country of Eastern Europe. Government ministers and their…

Abstract

The design and direction of economic reforms are heavily taxing the macroeconomic policy apparatus of every country of Eastern Europe. Government ministers and their senior staff tend to operate in relative isolation from other ministries. Few officials grasp the broad shape of their national reform program or can express the underlying motivations for the policies being enacted.2

Details

Comparative Public Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-453-9

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Anne C. Campbell

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 4.b calls to “substantially expand globally the number of scholarships” for enrollment in overseas higher education between 2015…

Abstract

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 4.b calls to “substantially expand globally the number of scholarships” for enrollment in overseas higher education between 2015 and 2020. To advance knowledge on international scholarships and sustainability, this chapter examines notions of sustainability in literature related to international scholarships for students in the Global South. Based on an exploratory review of literature, ways that sponsored international student mobility – programs, students, graduates, and networks – maintain and sustain systems and outcomes are explored. Findings are presented through four frames: (a) programmatic sustainability, (b) organizational development, (c) national sustainable development, and (d) international and global actions. Challenges to sustainability, such as poor coordination between degrees earned and local market conditions, are also discussed. In addition, the findings point to several prominent ways that scholarships could contribute to sustainability that are mostly absent from the literature: transformative education for sustainable development, and international education for environmental sustainability. The chapter closes with a vision of alumni networks – both within and among programs – to work together to transform societies and tackle the most pernicious international challenges of our time.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-907-1

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Eric G. Olson

The purpose of this article is to discuss opportunities that businesses have to grow their operations in a more scalable way with a higher level of investment in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to discuss opportunities that businesses have to grow their operations in a more scalable way with a higher level of investment in variable‐cost resources and assets. For most companies around the world, resources have been reduced, inventory drained, technology spending curtailed, and core processes scaled back in order to adjust to the current reality of reduced demand. In an uncertain recovery, supply chain operations need to be more scalable and flexible as they anticipate economic recovery and increase capacity. Moreover, this can be easier to achieve coming out of a severe recession.

Design/methodology/approach

This work first explains why scalability and flexibility benefits are potentially easier to achieve when rebuilding supply chain operations out of a severe downturn. Second, a rationale is provided to show how a scalable and flexible supply chain mitigates multiple risks from economic uncertainty during a recovery where a more traditional fixed‐cost approach does not. Third, a four‐step approach is described that businesses can follow to identify and capture supply chain opportunities where a scalable and flexible model might be most sensible to consider.

Findings

More scalable, variable cost supply chain operations have clear advantages over more traditional cost ones, especially when the economic recovery includes a high level of uncertainty and there is a risk of reentering a renewed recessionary period. There may be no better time than now for enterprises in any industry to consider adopting a more variable cost supply chain to limit risk and capture the most revenue growth opportunity.

Originality/value

The concepts of centralization, utilizing temporary and part‐time labor, and outsourcing are certainly not new ones and many companies have already benefited from adopting these ideas in their supply chains. However, it has not been widely recognized that these same concepts pose heightened and renewed opportunity for any business across industries because of how the global recession has changed their business landscape. Since companies have already downsized labor forces, drained inventory levels, closed facilities, and cut other costs dramatically, there is a tremendous opportunity to evaluate new, more variable‐cost business models as they grow operations to meet renewed demand.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1972

The New Year will see Britain a member of the largest multi‐national free trade area in the world and there must be few who see it as anything less than the beginning of a…

Abstract

The New Year will see Britain a member of the largest multi‐national free trade area in the world and there must be few who see it as anything less than the beginning of a new era, in trade, its trends, customs and usages and especially in the field of labour, relations, mobility, practices. Much can be foreseen but to some extent it is all very unpredictable. Optimists see it as a vast market of 250 millions, with a lot of money in their pockets, waiting for British exports; others, not quite so sure, fear the movement of trade may well be in reverse and if the increasing number of great articulated motor trucks, heavily laden with food and other goods, now spilling from the Channel ports into the roads of Kent are an indication, the last could well be true. They come from faraway places, not all in the European Economic Community; from Yugoslavia and Budapest, cities of the Rhineland, from Amsterdam, Stuttgart, Mulhouse and Milano. Kent has had its invasions before, with the Legions of Claudius and in 1940 when the battle roared through the Kentish skies. Hitherto quiet villagers are now in revolt against the pre‐juggernaut invasion; they, too, fear more will come with the enlarged EEC, thundering through their one‐street communities.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 74 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Y. Pan

As the physical dimensions of the devices are reduced to the submicrometer regime, the hot‐carrier reliability has become an important issue in the scaling of the p‐MOSFET…

Abstract

As the physical dimensions of the devices are reduced to the submicrometer regime, the hot‐carrier reliability has become an important issue in the scaling of the p‐MOSFET as well as the n‐MOSFET. In this paper, we present a unified approach for p‐MOSFET degradation due to the trapping of the hot electrons in the gate oxide layers. A physical analytical model, based on the pseudo two‐dimensional model, is derived for the first time to describe the linear and saturation drain current degradation. The model has been verified by comparing the calculation and the measurement from submicron p‐MOSFET's with different channel lengths and oxide thickness. There are no empirical parameters in the model. Two physical parameters: the capture cross section and the density of states of electron traps, which can be determined independently from the measured degradation characteristics, are valid for both the linear current and the saturation current degradation. The simple expression is very suitable for the predicting of the circuit reliability.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Harikrishnan Ramiah, Tun Zainal Azni Zulkifli and Noramalia Sapiee

The purpose of this paper is to design and realize a low‐phase noise, high‐output power, and high‐tuning range, fully integrated source injection parallel coupled…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and realize a low‐phase noise, high‐output power, and high‐tuning range, fully integrated source injection parallel coupled (SIPC)‐based inductor‐capacitor (LC)‐quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) covering WiMAX frequency range in 0.18‐μm deep submicron CMOS technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A pMOS based‐SIPC LC‐QVCO topology is realized with the center frequency of 2.58 GHz. On chip spiral inductor is integrated with substantial quality factor, Q coupled with underlying pattern ground shield (PGS) shielding. An enhanced tuning range is achieved by integrating the diode connected MOS‐based varactors. The CMOS‐based autonomous SIPC LC‐QVCO circuit was characterized for its output phase noise, tuning range and power spectrum response via wafer probing, utilizing a signal source analyzer (Agilent E5052 A).

Findings

A quadrature oscillator catering to the needs of local oscillator (LO) generation covering the frequency range of WiMAX is realized. The parallel coupled architecture adapts direct source coupling, bypassing the LC resonator tank and relaxes the close in phase noise up‐conversion. The design consumes 2.19 mm2 of active chip area and measures a phase noise of −114.34 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz of offset frequency with 2.67 GHz of output frequency at 0.9 V of input tuning voltage. The corresponding output power measures to be −10.1 dBm, well suited for mixer hard switching. The design is realized in one poly, six metal 0.18‐μm standard CMOS technology.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to convergence discrepancy in the analysis, a diode‐connected MOS varactor is adapted in contrary to the accumulation mode MOS varactors with superior tuning range.

Practical implications

The designed SIPC LC‐QVCO is of need in the generation of low‐phase noise, highly matched quadrature LO generation covering the WiMAX frequency range. The adapted parallel coupling also relaxes the voltage headroom limitation.

Originality/value

This paper shows how a fully integrated CMOS‐based SIPC LC‐QVCO architecture is adapted with low‐output phase noise and low voltage headroom consumption covering the WiMAX frequency range.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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