The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of runner’s concern for the environment plays as a source of differentiation in the type of race they choose to…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of runner’s concern for the environment plays as a source of differentiation in the type of race they choose to participate. The study also seeks to explore how the environmental consciousness relates with participation motives in an urban and rural race setting.
Participants from urban and rural races were surveyed to explore the relationships between their environmental consciousness, their race selection type and the sport tourism motivational profile for the runners in each of these race locations.
A logistic regression was statistically significant in predicting urban vs rural race choice, correctly classifying 84 percent of cases. Increases in motivational responses relating to self-enrichment, social needs, catharsis and aggression were all associated with an increased likelihood in choosing an urban race. Conversely, motivational constructs related to tourism (e.g. destination attributes) were particularly effective in classifying rural race participants. Subsequent tests revealed significant differences in five of the nine race motives between runners based on their low, medium and high levels of environmental consciousness.
Implications from this study serve to extend the literature on sport and tourism sustainability by understanding the environmental paradigm and sport tourism motives of distance runners in urban and rural race destinations.
This study also serves event organizers from a practical standpoint by offering suggestions to market and execute events in line with participants’ underlying motives which were found to be different in an urban vs rural setting.
In a highly competitive event space like road races, effective differentiation and marketing are paramount to attracting participants. This study advances the research in this area by exploring the role that runners’ concern for the environment plays in their destination and event choice, as well as the differences that may exist in the sport tourism motivational profile for runners at an urban vs rural race destination.
The purpose of this paper was to explore a new sport attendance behavior spectrum framework where sport consumer behavior is not derived from just a dichotomy of a…
The purpose of this paper was to explore a new sport attendance behavior spectrum framework where sport consumer behavior is not derived from just a dichotomy of a motivator positively impacting attendance or a constraint negatively impacting attendance. Rather, when accounting for the context of the setting (e.g. sport, playing level, locality, patron type, etc.), some areas belong on a spectrum that fluctuates between positive and negative impacts on attendance that are dependent on the context of the given environment.
Through factor analysis and structural equation modeling, the proposed model attempted to explain relationships between five second-order factors and game attendance, which expanded to include the new internal contextual and external contextual factors, and ultimately team fandom.
The results indicated three significant main effects where internal contextual exhibited a positive relationship with attendance, while constraints and external contextual demonstrated a negative relationship. Internal and external motives were not significant. Further, the moderating effect of high and low sport interest groupings largely indicated no significant spectator differences. The model explained 24% of the variance in attendance, and attendance accounted for 41% of the variance in team fandom.
Attendance is intricate, and this study highlighted the importance of considering and adapting to the sporting context as some factors exist on a sport attendance behavior spectrum and differently impact spectators positively or negatively, given the context of the setting. Further, in this lower-level sport setting, consumers viewed minor league hockey more as a leisure commodity than a premier sport contest.