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The effects of the minimum wage on employment in Western economies arerelatively uncontroversial. The introduction of a minimum wage inCzechoslovakia at the start of the…
The effects of the minimum wage on employment in Western economies are relatively uncontroversial. The introduction of a minimum wage in Czechoslovakia at the start of the transition, and its increase one year later, gives the opportunity to evaluate to what extent its effects on employment seem to have been comparable to those known for market economies. In order to go further than the measure of direct effects on employment, estimates and simulates a small‐scale macro‐econometric model over the period February 1991 to September 1992, which takes into account the feedback effects of the direct change in employment through other macroeconomic variables. These feedback effects seem to accentuate the increase in the level of employment generated by a fall in the minimum wage by two‐thirds after a term.
The year 1848 is considered by historians as a political and economic turning point in France: a major political crisis took place in the form of the February Revolution…
The year 1848 is considered by historians as a political and economic turning point in France: a major political crisis took place in the form of the February Revolution, accompanied by extensive financial troubles for the French government. The economists of that time actively debated the economic causes and consequences of the crisis. This chapter is devoted to the analysis of these financial controversies in French economic thought around 1848. If the political and philosophical debates of 1848 between the liberals and the socialists are quite well known by historians of economic thought, their financial side has been relatively neglected. According to the authors of this chapter, it is nevertheless of great interest to examine the liberal and socialist ideas of that time. This chapter aims to investigate this little-studied question by raising three main issues: the first one consists of presenting the different diagnoses of the 1848 financial crisis from socialist and liberal viewpoints. Second, it proposes an analysis of the content of theoretical controversies about ways to overcome the financial troubles, particularly regarding the trade-off between taxation and debt. Lastly, it emphasizes the role of this period for the subsequent constitution of a financial orthodoxy in France.
This chapter presents two case studies to address the challenge of how students in large, diverse classes can become effectively engaged in their learning through the…
This chapter presents two case studies to address the challenge of how students in large, diverse classes can become effectively engaged in their learning through the support of technology. Implementation of two modules in the University of Exeter Business School is explored: a first-year management module wherein students make use of camcorders and a master's module where students use wikis. Each has been important in coming to understand the inter-relationship of pedagogic processes and technology use, in particular in the context of group work. Data on student outcomes and perceptions have been collected through ongoing monitoring, individual and group reflective accounts, tutor and student-led surveys and informal verbal feedback. Overall, the use of both technologies is highly valued by most students and by the teachers, despite the many (and sometimes unexpected) difficulties associated with their management. The main benefits are in the way that they can be used to support attendance, group cohesion and quality of work, in an ethos where the importance of group work is central to learning and where individuals are recognised for what they can contribute despite the large cohort size and the many different nationalities.