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A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed to estimate the probability of getting listeriosis as a consequence of chicken and beef consumption in…
A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed to estimate the probability of getting listeriosis as a consequence of chicken and beef consumption in Chile. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
As a first step a deterministic retail-to-home model was constructed for the Chilean susceptible population, including storage, cross-contamination and cooking. Next, two probabilistic models were developed, including variability and/or the uncertainty of some of the parameters. The probabilistic models were analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations with 100,000 iterations.
Of the total susceptible population used in the model (2.81 million people), the deterministic model estimated 11 and two listeriosis cases because of beef and poultry consumption, respectively and the variability model estimated a mean of 322 and 7,546 cases for beef and poultry consumption, respectively. The uncertainty analysis showed large ranges, with realistic estimates made with an initial concentration of Listeria monocytogenes of 0.04-1 CFU/g and a dose-response parameter r ranging from 10-14 to 10-10.
The lack of information was the major limitation of the model, so the generation of it has to be a priority in Chile for developing less uncertain risk assessments in the future.
Raw animal products can be the cause of listeriosis cases if they are not stored, cooked and/or handled properly. Consumer education seems to be an essential factor for disease prevention.
This is the first QMRA made in Chile, and also the first study of listeriosis in non-processed meat.
Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush’s Faith‐Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out…
Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush’s Faith‐Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out government programs. The Bush presidential administration has called for the application of Charitable Choice Policy to all kinds of social services. Advocates for child‐abuse victims contend that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy would further dismantle essential social services provided to abused children. Others have argued Charitable Choice Policy is unconstitutional because it crosses the boundary separating church and state. Rather than drastically altering the US social‐policy landscape, this paper demonstrates that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy already is in place for childabuse services across many of the fifty states. One reason this phenomenon is ignored is due to the reliance on the public‐private dichotomy for studying social policies and services. This paper contends that relying on the public‐private dichotomy leads researchers to overlook important configurations of actors and institutions that provide services to abused children. It offers an alternate framework to the public‐private dichotomy useful for the analysis of social policy in general and, in particular, Charitable Choice Policy affecting services to abused children. Employing a new methodological approach, fuzzy‐sets analysis, demonstrates the degree to which social services for abused children match ideal types. It suggests relationships between religious organizations and governments are essential to the provision of services to abused children in the United States. Given the direction in which the Bush Charitable Choice Policy will push social‐policy programs, scholars should ask whether abused children will be placed in circumstances that other social groups will not and why.
Offers a critical commentary on the Evers and Lakomski research programme as summarized in their article, “Theory in educational administration: naturalistic directions”…
Offers a critical commentary on the Evers and Lakomski research programme as summarized in their article, “Theory in educational administration: naturalistic directions”. The origins of their naturalistic epistemology are reviewed and some of its limitations for understanding social action considered, especially the limitations it imposes on understanding social behaviour at the level of meaning. Brief attention is given to their coherence criteria, particularly to the manner in which these should be appropriately employed in theory choice. Concludes with a short consideration of the general problem of developing theory in educational administration and the appropriate role for modern science.
Provides an overview of a rather large research program, developed over the last 15 years, that seeks to offer a new perspective on the nature of theory and practice in…
Provides an overview of a rather large research program, developed over the last 15 years, that seeks to offer a new perspective on the nature of theory and practice in educational administration. The core ideas of the program, together with a considerable amount of detail, can be found in three books by Evers and Lakomski. However, because these volumes stand in a developmental sequence, there is merit in presenting in a brief compass an account of our overall strategy, especially in relation to the nature of administrative theory, and some of the conclusions reached along the way. The discussion has two main parts. First, the central theoretical features of our program are outlined, indicating some earlier results flowing from their application to various debates in educational administration. Then, some examples are offered focused on the main concern of our most recent research – developing and applying this framework to a cluster of problems about administrative practice and the nature of practical knowledge.
In a world of ever-changing educational trends, it is essential for educators to provide a continuum of services to meet the needs of all students. Therefore, employing an…
In a world of ever-changing educational trends, it is essential for educators to provide a continuum of services to meet the needs of all students. Therefore, employing an inclusive structure or environment is imperative to the implementation of Special Education laws, according to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Every Student Succeeds Act. As stipulated in law, all students should be educated in the least restrictive environment with their typically developing peers. This chapter focuses on the role of the special education professional as it specifically relates to the mainstream or inclusion setting. Topics covered in this chapter include an overview of inclusion, the inclusion model, an in-class support model, a content mastery model, and characteristics of an effective special educator, understanding disabilities, assessing and referring to appropriate supports, collecting data for individualized education program meetings, differentiated instruction, and strategies for inclusion. The goal of the chapter is to provide the overall view of inclusion in today’s classrooms in relation to the role of the special education teacher.
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the…
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence down into manageable chunks, covering: age discrimination in the workplace; discrimination against African‐Americans; sex discrimination in the workplace; same sex sexual harassment; how to investigate and prove disability discrimination; sexual harassment in the military; when the main US job‐discrimination law applies to small companies; how to investigate and prove racial discrimination; developments concerning race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; developments concerning discrimination against workers with HIV or AIDS; developments concerning discrimination based on refusal of family care leave; developments concerning discrimination against gay or lesbian employees; developments concerning discrimination based on colour; how to investigate and prove discrimination concerning based on colour; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; using statistics in employment discrimination cases; race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning gender discrimination in the workplace; discrimination in Japanese organizations in America; discrimination in the entertainment industry; discrimination in the utility industry; understanding and effectively managing national origin discrimination; how to investigate and prove hiring discrimination based on colour; and, finally, how to investigate sexual harassment in the workplace.
Commensurate with the 25th anniversary of the Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development (JSBED), this retrospective work distils trends across all original…
Commensurate with the 25th anniversary of the Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development (JSBED), this retrospective work distils trends across all original articles published in the journal during this time period.
Bibliometric analysis techniques are used to analyse 917 original JSBED publications. Specifically, performance analysis is conducted to analyse the journal's publication and citation patterns, bibliographic coupling and author keyword co-occurrence analysis are conducted to identify major themes, and co-authorship analysis is conducted to analyse author collaborations.
Results indicate JSBED has grown considerably since its inception, both in terms publication and citations. JSBED's most prevalent themes include management and growth of small firms, entrepreneurship education, strategy in small firms, business development, technology in small firms, business competencies in small firms, internationalization in small firms, role of social capital, entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurship in under-represented and minority populations.
This is the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of JSBED in the journal's history. Accordingly, it presents a novel and heretofore disparate understanding of the key themes and dialogues emerging from an established journal with a growing reputation for scholarly and practitioner impact.