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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Erhan Kilincarslan

This study aims to investigate the impact of board independence on the cash dividend payments of family firms listed on the Borsa Istanbul (BIST) in balancing controlling…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of board independence on the cash dividend payments of family firms listed on the Borsa Istanbul (BIST) in balancing controlling families’ power to mitigate agency problems between family and minority shareholders in the post-2012 period. The authors focus on this period because Turkish authorities implemented mandatory regulations on the employment of independent directors on boards from fiscal year 2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model uses a panel dataset of 153 BIST-listed family firms over the period 2012–2017, employs alternative dependent variables and regression techniques and is applied to various sub-groups to improve robustness.

Findings

The empirical results show a strong positive effect of board independence on dividend decisions. The authors further detect that family directorship exhibits a negative effect, whereas both board size and audit committees have positive influences but chief executive officer (CEO)/duality has had no significant impact on the dividend policies of Turkish family firms since the new compulsory legal requirements in the Turkish market.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that independent directorship and dividend policy are complementary governance mechanisms to reduce agency conflicts between families and minority shareholders in Turkey, which is a civil law-based emerging country characterized by high family ownership concentration.

Practical implications

The authors present evidence that Turkish family firms’ corporate boards have evolved, to some extent, from being managerial rubber stamps to more independent boards that raise opposing voices in family decision-making. However, independent directors’ preference for dividend-induced capital market monitoring implies that their direct monitoring is less effective than it is supposed to be. This suggests a need to revise the Turkish Corporate Governance Principles to enhance independent directors’ monitoring and supervisory power.

Originality/value

This is thought to be the first study to provide insights on how board independence influences dividend policy in controlling agency problems in Turkish family firms since Turkish authorities introduced compulsory rules on the employment of independent directors on boards.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Erhan Kilincarslan and Sercan Demiralay

This study aims to examine cash dividend practices of travel and leisure (T&L) companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine cash dividend practices of travel and leisure (T&L) companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a panel data set of 524 firm-year observations of 55 unique publicly listed UK T&L companies between 2007 and 2019. First, it uses a modified version of Lintner’s (1956) partial adjustment model for analysis regarding the target payout ratio and dividend smoothing. Second, it performs logit and Tobit models in ascertaining the association between financial characteristics and divided decisions of T&L firms. Finally, it applies the modified specification of the partial adjustment model on different sub-samples that are partitioned based on various financial factors to determine how the financial characteristics of T&L companies affect their dividend behavior.

Findings

The results show that UK T&L companies have long-term payout ratios and adjust their cash dividends by moving gradually to their target at a serious degree of smoothing. The findings also detect that financial characteristics of T&L firms (i.e. profitability, debt and size) have significant effects on their dividend payments decisions. In particular, more profitable and larger T&L corporations are more likely to pay cash dividends, whereas T&L companies with more debt are less likely to pay cash dividends in the UK. The results further reveal that although such financial characteristics also have important impacts on the target payout ratios and dividend smoothing levels, UK T&L companies generally adopt stable dividend policies over the period 2007-2019.

Originality/value

This is thought to be the first study to provide insights on dividend policy practices of UK travel and leisure corporation listed on the LSE.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2020

Erhan Kilincarslan, Mohamed H. Elmagrhi and Zezeng Li

This study aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance structures on environmental disclosure practices in the Middle East and Africa (MEA).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance structures on environmental disclosure practices in the Middle East and Africa (MEA).

Design/methodology/approach

The research model uses a panel data set of 121 publicly listed (non-financial and non-utility) firms from 11 MEA countries over the period 2010-2017, uses alternative dependent variables and regression techniques and is applied to various sub-groups to improve robustness.

Findings

The empirical results strongly indicate that MEA firms with high governance disclosures tend to have better environmental disclosure practices. The board characteristics of gender diversity, size, CEO/chairperson duality and audit committee size impact positively on MEA firms’ voluntary environmental disclosures, whereas board independence has a negative influence.

Research limitations/implications

This study advances research on the relationship between corporate governance structures and environmental disclosure practices in MEA countries, but is limited to firms for which data are available from Bloomberg.

Practical implications

The results have important practical implications for MEA policymakers and regulators. The positive impact of board gender diversity on firms’ environmental disclosures, policy reforms should aim to increase female directors. MEA corporations aiming to be more environmentally friendly should recruit women to top managerial positions.

Originality/value

This is thought to be the first study to provide insights from the efficiency and legitimation perspectives of neo-institutional theory to explain the relationship between MEA firms’ internal governance structures and environmental disclosures.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Basil Al-Najjar and Erhan Kilincarslan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of regulations, reforms and legal environment on dividend policy in a different institutional setting. Particularly…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of regulations, reforms and legal environment on dividend policy in a different institutional setting. Particularly, it examines the firm-level cash dividend behaviour of publicly listed firms in Turkey in the post-2003 period, since there were major economic and structural reforms as well as significant regulatory changes of dividend payout rules imposed by the supervisory bodies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on a recent large panel data set of 264 Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE)-listed firms over a ten-year period 2003-2012. First, it employs a modified specification of Lintner’s (1956) partial adjustment model for analysis regarding target payout ratio and dividend smoothing. Second, it performs a logit model for analysis in identifying the link between financial characteristics and the likelihood of paying dividends.

Findings

The results show that ISE firms now follow the same determinants as suggested by Lintner. They, indeed, have long-term payout ratios and adjust their cash dividends by a moderate level of smoothing, and therefore adopt stable dividend policies (although less stable policies compared to their counterparts in the developed US market) as a signalling mechanism over the period 2003-2012. Moreover, the results also report that ownership structure concentration affects the target payout ratio and dividend smoothing in the Turkish market. In addition, the results further show that more profitable, more mature and larger sized ISE firms are more likely to pay cash dividends, whereas ISE firms with higher investment opportunities and more debt are less likely to distribute cash dividends in the post-2003 period.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first major research that examines the implications of reforms and regulations on cash dividend payments and dividend smoothing over time in Turkey during its market integration process in the post-2003 period.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Basil Al-Najjar and Erhan Kilincarslan

This paper aims to investigate the impact of ownership structure on dividend policy of listed firms in Turkey. Particularly, it attempts to uncover the effects of family…

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4706

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of ownership structure on dividend policy of listed firms in Turkey. Particularly, it attempts to uncover the effects of family involvement (through ownership and board representation), non-family blockholders (foreign investors, domestic financial institutions and the state) and minority shareholders on dividend decisions in the post-2003 period as it witnesses the major economic and structural reforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses alternative dividend policy measures (the probability of paying dividends, dividend payout ratio and dividend yield) and uses appropriate regression techniques (logit and tobit models) to test the research hypotheses, by focusing on a recent large panel dataset of 264 Istanbul Stock Exchange-listed firms (non-financial and non-utility) over a 10-year period 2003-2012.

Findings

The empirical results show that foreign and state ownership are associated with a less likelihood of paying dividends, while other ownership variables (family involvement, domestic financial institutions and minority shareholders) are insignificant in affecting the probability of paying dividends. However, all the ownership variables have a significantly negative impact on dividend payout ratio and dividend yield. Hence, the paper presents consistent evidence that increasing ownership of foreign investors and the state in general reduces the need for paying dividends in the Turkish market.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the absence of empirical research on how ownership structure may affect dividend policy and the data unavailability for earlier periods in Turkey, the paper cannot make comparison between the pre-and post-2003 periods. Nevertheless, this paper can be a valuable benchmark for further research.

Practical implications

The paper reveals that cash dividends are not used as a monitoring mechanism by investors in Turkey and the expropriation argument through dividends for Turkish families is relatively weak. Accordingly, the findings of this paper may benefit policymakers, investors and fellow researchers, who seek useful guidance from relevant literature.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to examine the link between ownership structure and dividend policy in Turkey after the implementation of major reforms in 2003.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Ozgur Ozdemir and Erhan Kilincarslan

This study aims to examine the governance role of shareholders and board of directors in determining firm performance through an eclectic multi-theoretic model that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the governance role of shareholders and board of directors in determining firm performance through an eclectic multi-theoretic model that integrates structure and incentive functions of agency theory and capability aspect of the resource-based view.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model uses a large panel data set of 2,364 UK firms over the period 2000–2010 and uses alternative specifications of the model to improve robustness.

Findings

The results show that the industry experience of major shareholders as a proxy for shareholder capability has a significant positive impact on investee firm performance. The findings also reveal that the lock-in effect of the largest shareholder has a positive impact on performance, whereas the monitoring effectiveness of shareholders is not associated with ownership concentration. Moreover, the results indicate the underlying capabilities of the board of directors and their impact on corporate performance – particularly, the interlocking directorates of executives have a positive impact on firm performance but those of non-executives have a negative one. However, the previous directorship experience of non-executives has a positive impact on performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a more comprehensive and complete understanding of the governance-performance relationship beyond the narrow or partial explanations provided by single-theory-based studies or those of investigating the effect of various governance tools separately.

Practical implications

This study provides more insights into the capability dimension of shareholders and the role of incentives in motivating shareholders to exercise stronger oversight on the management rather than just using ownership concentration. Hence, the study can serve as valuable guidance for investors, corporate managers and policymakers.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study that uses an eclectic philosophical approach, integrating the agency theory and resource-based view, to not only examine the impact of board of directors but also investigate the governance role of shareholders in modern corporations to understand how shareholders acquire the requisite skills and information, the best practices and processes, and ultimately use the scarce and inimitable resources that help investee firms in improving their performance.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Basil Al-Najjar and Erhan Kilincarslan

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the ongoing debate of dividend policy, which is considered one of the most controversial topics in corporate finance literature.

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1060

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the ongoing debate of dividend policy, which is considered one of the most controversial topics in corporate finance literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a survey of literature; it, first, outlines the main theoretical arguments of dividend policy and then critically discusses the most important and influential previous empirical studies in the dividend literature.

Findings

The analysis of literature review detects that no general consensus has yet been reached after many decades of investigation, despite extensive debate and countless research. Consequently, the main motivation for paying dividends is still unsolved and thus remains as a puzzle. In addition, there is no doubt that carrying the dividend debate into the context of emerging markets attaches more pieces to this puzzle.

Originality/value

This paper offers an updated and more comprehensive survey of literature by examining the relationship between theory and practice from both developed and emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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