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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Mark Brown, Barbara Minsky, Richard Voss and Eren Ozgen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between countries’ values of individualism/collectivism and organizations’ top management team (TMT) pay…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between countries’ values of individualism/collectivism and organizations’ top management team (TMT) pay structures. Individualistic countries are expected to prefer more hierarchical TMT pay structures and collectivist countries are expected to prefer more egalitarian TMT pay structures. The manuscript also investigates the international implications of the relation between TMT pay structures and organizational performance. Specifically, it is proposed that a country’s level of individualism/collectivism will mediate the relation between TMT pay structure hierarchy and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A pooled sample of data from 56 organizations in 12 countries was used to investigate the research questions. Individualism/collectivism was measured using country specific individualism/collectivism scores and top management pay structures were operationalized using Gini coefficients. Organizational performance was evaluated using return on assets.

Findings

Support was found both for a preference for more hierarchical TMT pay structures in individualistic countries, and that a country’s level of individualism/collectivism mediates the relationship between an organization’s top management’s pay structure and company performance.

Originality/value

Findings demonstrate that organizations use pay structures consistent with their environments. Results suggest cultural dimensions can contribute to understanding cross-national TMT pay structures and that national culture plays a significant role in the relationship between TMT pay structure and company performance.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

İrem Eren-Erdoğmuş and Taşkın Dirsehan

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate local versus global brand associations in an emerging market (Turkey)’s coffee shop market.

1586

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate local versus global brand associations in an emerging market (Turkey)’s coffee shop market.

Design/methodology/approach

Two leading coffee shop brands – one local and one global – were analyzed with an emerging exploratory research technique – brand concept mapping (BCM) – to reveal their strong, favorable and unique associations leading them to market leadership.

Findings

The results indicate that, these two successful brands both have distinctive, yet relevant positions in their consumers’ mind. Local cultural experience is relevant for differentiating local brands, even if the coffee shop concept is globally imported. Global coffee shop brand, on the other hand, means membership to global middle income segment and is remembered as global fast coffee service.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this exploratory study is the sample size limitation by its nature. So, the generalizability of the results should be approached with caution. Researchers use BCM technique; however, this method does not permit to reveal the expected levels and the importance of the attributes. Thus, further research are suggested to be complementary.

Originality/value

This study fills the research gap in revealing and comparing local vs global brand associations by using BCM technique, which enables one to measure the strength, unique and favorable associations/brand images more suitable to Keller’s (1993) conceptualization. This study pioneers in using this technique in international branding.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Manizha Wafeq, Omar Al Serhan, Kimberley Catherine Gleason, S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka, Roudaina Houjeir and Mohamad Al Sakka

For the present generation of entrepreneurs, the operating environment in Afghanistan has been among the most tenuous in the world. Numerous regime changes, civil unrest…

Abstract

Purpose

For the present generation of entrepreneurs, the operating environment in Afghanistan has been among the most tenuous in the world. Numerous regime changes, civil unrest and war have created tremendous uncertainty, making civilian business planning difficult. These challenges incrementally impact female entrepreneurs. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between one aspect of entrepreneurial psychological capital – optimism regarding enterprise success of Afghan female entrepreneurs – and aspects of the marketing function.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data collection was used for this study. A total of 248 women business owners were surveyed via telephone from five provinces of Afghanistan. Over half (133) of respondents were from the Afghan capital, Kabul. A total of 49 respondents were obtained from Herat, 44 from Mazar, 12 from Nangarhar and ten were obtained from Kandahar.

Findings

We find that a focus on marketing positively and significantly impacts reported optimism by female Afghan entrepreneurs, as do marketing planning efforts. However, self-reliance and orientation toward the outside world do not impact the perceived success of the entrepreneurial venture.

Research limitations/implications

Like other empirical studies, this research has its own limitation. First, we would have liked a larger sample size, but date collection in a war-torn country and from female business women in a male-dominated society is proofed very challenging task. Also, some cities had less representation due to security concerns especially Kandahar province.

Practical implications

Our results have significant relevance for economic development policymakers, non-governmental organizations and entrepreneurs throughout the developing world. What drives the psychological capital of these entrepreneurs under these extreme conditions should be of interest not only from the perspective of the entrepreneurship literature, but also for policymakers who are often uninformed regarding on the ground conditions under which individuals in the environment function.

Social implications

It is our hope that our results inform those in a position of power so that they support the development of human capital of Afghan women who are or who seek to be entrepreneurs. We also hope to raise questions for other researchers related to the importance of human capital investment and the business functions for entrepreneurs in other less developed, conflict-prone environments with low mean educational levels.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to use proprietary, hand collected survey data from Afghani female entrepreneurs to collect, analyze and draw conclusions and recommendations from a sample of 248 women-owned businesses regarding the relationship between the marketing function and one aspect of psychological capital – perceived optimism – in five Afghan cities.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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