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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Alexandra Moritz, Joern Block and Eva Lutz

This study’s aim is to investigate the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. The study explores whether and how investor communication can reduce…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study’s aim is to investigate the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. The study explores whether and how investor communication can reduce information asymmetries between investors and new ventures in equity-based crowdfunding, thereby facilitating the crowd’s investment decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper follows an exploratory qualitative research approach based on semi-structured interviews with 23 market participants in equity-based crowdfunding: 12 investors, 6 new ventures and 5 third parties (mostly platform operators). After analyzing, coding and categorizing the data, this paper developed a theoretical framework and presented it in a set of six propositions.

Findings

The results indicate that the venture’s overall impression – especially perceived sympathy, openness and trustworthiness – is important to reduce perceived information asymmetries of investors in equity-based crowdfunding. To communicate these soft facts, personal communication seems to be replaced by pseudo-personal communication over the Internet (e.g. videos, investor relations channels and social media). In addition, the communications of third parties (e.g. other crowd investors, professional and experienced investors and other external stakeholders) influence the decision-making process of investors in equity-based crowdfunding. Third-party endorsements reduce the perceived information asymmetries and lower the importance of pseudo-personal communications by the venture.

Originality/value

Prior research shows that investor communication reduces information asymmetries between companies and investors. Currently, little is known about the role of investor communication in equity-based crowdfunding. This study focuses on the role of investor communication to reduce the perceived information asymmetries of investors in equity-based crowdfunding.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Braam Lowies, Christa Viljoen and Stanley McGreal

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of property investors of the risks and returns associated with property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of property investors of the risks and returns associated with property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle. The study contributes to the understanding of alternative property investment vehicles and how it is perceived by investors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focusses on investor perceptions in using property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle and follows a survey-based design. A questionnaire was finalised after the completion of a pilot study and was distributed to existing property crowdfunding investors via email. Inferential statistical measures were used.

Findings

The results show, to an extent, similarities to general equity-based crowdfunding studies. However, the uniqueness of property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle may explain the insignificance of the results when related to other studies. Overall, the property crowdfunding investor seems to present cautious behaviour with a conservative perception of property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle.

Practical implications

It is recommended that property crowdfunding platforms present prospective investors with more formal regulation of the property crowdfunding industry. Such a regulatory framework may lessen the current level of uncertainty presented by investors.

Originality/value

The study enhances the understanding of the role of property crowdfunding as an alternative investment vehicle in Australia. More importantly, it went some way towards enhancing the understanding of how investors perceive and behave vis-à-vis property crowdfunding as an investment vehicle.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Muhammad Shahrul Ifwat Ishak and Md. Habibur Rahman

This paper aims to explore the potential application of mudharabah (silent partnership) as an investment instrument through an Islamic crowdfunding platform.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the potential application of mudharabah (silent partnership) as an investment instrument through an Islamic crowdfunding platform.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study in which semi-structured interviews were carried out with several experts regarding the application of mudharabah in Islamic crowdfunding. To achieve the purpose of this study, the data is analysed based on thematic analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that even though Islamic crowdfunding could be an efficient platform through financial technology (Fintech), mudharabah is not an entirely ideal instrument, particularly for equity-based Islamic crowdfunding because of its high risk. These include fraudulent projects, insufficient regulations to protect investors’ money and the structure of mudharabah itself in which it is in the form of profit-sharing contract. However, the risk can be mitigated by using Fintech as a way to closely monitor the project, enhancing regulatory aspects to protect investment funds, enhancing mudharabah practice and creating awareness among all involving parties in terms of mudharabah philosophy.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited because it focuses on the current practice of Islamic crowdfunding in Malaysia, given that it is still a new industry. Currently, there is only one Islamic registered equity crowdfunding platform. Also, as the number of interviewees in this study is limited because of purposive sampling, the findings may be considered the result of an exploratory study.

Practical implications

An equity Islamic crowdfunding platform based on mudharabah can be proposed, particularly to support micro enterprises in which they involve small capital. Also, this model can be considered for less risky ventures such as investment in food industries or technology sectors.

Social implications

Mudharabah Islamic crowdfunding model could potentially support local businesses, especially for start-ups. By channelling money among society, it is not only creating a wealth circulation among society, which is one of the Sharīʿah objectives in finance, but it also promotes mutual cooperation and kindness among society members.

Originality/value

While Islamic crowdfunding is not a new topic in research, it lacks empirical studies, particularly qualitative analysis. As this study engages with experts in Sharīʿah and crowdfunding regarding the potential application of mudharabah, it highlights a fresh discussion both in theory and practice.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 March 2020

Ana Odorović and Karsten Wenzlaff

The paper discusses the rationale for a widespread reliance on Codes of Conduct (CoC) in European crowdfunding through the lenses of economic theories of self-regulation…

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1610

Abstract

Purpose

The paper discusses the rationale for a widespread reliance on Codes of Conduct (CoC) in European crowdfunding through the lenses of economic theories of self-regulation. By analysing the institutional design of CoCs in crowdfunding, the paper illustrates the differences in their regulatory context, inclusiveness, monitoring and enforcement. It offers the first systematic overview of substantial rules of CoCs in crowdfunding.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study of nine CoCs in Europe is used to illustrate differences in their institutional design and discern the economic purpose of the CoC.

Findings

The institutional design of different CoCs in Europe mainly supports voluntary theories of self-regulation. In particular, the theory of reputation commons has the most explanatory power. The substantial rules of CoC in different markets show the potential sources of market failure through the perspectives of platforms.

Research limitations/implications

CoCs appear in various regulatory, cultural, and industry contexts of different countries. Some of the institutional design features of CoC might be a result of these characteristics.

Practical implications

Crowdfunding associations wishing to develop their own CoC may learn from a comparative overview of key provisions.

Social implications

For governments in Europe, contemplating creating or revising bespoke crowdfunding regimes, the paper identifies areas where crowdfunding platforms perceive market failure.

Originality/value

This paper is the first systematic study of self-regulatory institutions in European crowdfunding. The paper employs a theoretical framework for the analysis of self-regulation in crowdfunding and provides a comparison of a regulatory context, inclusiveness, monitoring and enforcement of different CoCs in Europe.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Jordan Robert Gamble

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of equity crowdfunding (ECF) within the record industry in terms of challenges and opportunities, in addition to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of equity crowdfunding (ECF) within the record industry in terms of challenges and opportunities, in addition to the marketing and financial implications for independent music artists and major record labels.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a qualitative methodology consisting of two-stage interview-based research methods. A total of 44 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the CEOs of ECF platforms in the record industry, other related record industry informants, independent artist managers and senior executives from major record labels.

Findings

The loyalty aspect of ECF may have significant marketing potential in terms of inconspicuously using the equity platform as a “prosumer” identification mechanism. As this early career stage of artists is delicate in terms of establishing trust and patronage from their fans, these early marketing and ECF ventures should be implemented directly from the artist without external third-party involvement.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this paper’s findings and theoretical model are not limited to the two studied stakeholder groups of the record industry. The insights in relation to the obstinate lack of understanding and clarity (particularly for independent artists) which surround ECF are likely to influence short-term strategic approaches by other players throughout the wider music industry.

Practical implications

The insights regarding negative approaches towards ECF by the labels may influence future “coopetition strategies” for independent labels, as they seek to navigate the changing industry dynamics.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study to empirically explore the predominantly under-researched area of ECF implementation in the record industry in terms of marketing and financial consequences for artists and labels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2016

Abbey Stemler

The purpose of this chapter is to expose the limitations of the equity-based crowdfunding provisions of the 2012 JOBS Act. These provisions have received much attention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to expose the limitations of the equity-based crowdfunding provisions of the 2012 JOBS Act. These provisions have received much attention because they have the potential to open funding opportunities to countless underfunded entrepreneurs and small businesses. In addition, they can provide everyday investors with new ways to diversify their portfolios. However, the author asserts that the JOBS Act is unlikely to be successful in its current incarnation, because it overly burdens the entrepreneur with reporting and accountability requirements, among other things. The author resolves these issues by articulating a regulatory alternative to the JOBS Act.

Methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the general requirements for equity-based crowdfunding under the 2012 JOBS Act. It also reviews the various approaches individual states and other countries have taken to promote equity-based crowdfunding.

Findings

The existing law and proposed regulations for equity-based crowdfunding under the JOBS Act are overly burdensome and will impair the ability of entrepreneurs and small-businesses to successfully use equity-based crowdfunding throughout the United States. Regulators and other lawmakers need to adopt new rules focused on protecting consumers via spending limits.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the research is based on theory, because the equity-based regulations have not been finalized or implemented at the federal level. However, the United States can learn much from the equity-based crowdfunding efforts of individual states and other countries.

Originality/value

This chapter’s critique is designed to engage lawmakers, regulators, entrepreneurs, and small businesses in a new discussion about equity-based crowdfunding regulations.

Details

International Perspectives on Crowdfunding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-315-0

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Enrico Battisti, Elvira Anna Graziano and Michael Christofi

The purpose of this study is to explore the central users (hubs) in the dissemination of equity crowdfunding (EC) news on social media, with particular regard to Twitter…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the central users (hubs) in the dissemination of equity crowdfunding (EC) news on social media, with particular regard to Twitter. Specifically, the study explores some aspects related to the diffusion of news through social networks concerning EC.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a social network analysis (SNA) technique the authors define an understanding of the users' network that is created on Twitter when it comes to crowdfunding. Using Twitter data, the authors identify the central actors on the social network that produce and/or disseminate information about crowdfunding tools.

Findings

The results indicate that a large number of users tweeted about EC in relation to the introduction of the most important Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (Consob) Regulation n. 20264 of 17/01/2018 on an equity model at the beginning of 2018; the growth in the use of this instrument in the first quarter of 2019 and the publication of Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (Consob) Regulation n. 21110 of 10/10/2019. Moreover, the authors find that in the case of tweets concerning EC, the operators of the sector, with particular regard to crowdfunding platforms, are central to the network, followed by traditional and specialised media.

Originality/value

The results shed new light on a still unexplored research field concerning the diffusion of news about EC from a platform's perspective. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first explorative study that jointly investigates an EC model and social media in the Italian market, considering the impacts of two different and important regulations. In particular, this study contributes to the literature on EC by clarifying some new aspects related to the diffusion of news through Twitter.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Zaiyu Huang, Candy Lim Chiu, Sha Mo and Rob Marjerison

The purpose of this paper is to develop initial evidence about the nature and features of crowdfunding in China, given it is largely unregulated regulatory frameworks.

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6864

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop initial evidence about the nature and features of crowdfunding in China, given it is largely unregulated regulatory frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used extensive desk research using data collected from the public and private sectors, after which the data was analyzed parallel to existing academic literature, that is, institutional context by Bruton et al. (2014). This paper uncovered patterns of development, profiling crowdfunding platforms, examining the regulatory landscape and providing antecedents of successful crowdfunding projects in China.

Findings

When the traditional financial markets are hard to reach, micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) were starved for capital. Crowdfunding can play a major role in funding and risk sharing. It is an innovative and dynamic vehicle for MSMEs as well as enthusiastic investors in China. Since its initial introduction to China in 2009, crowdfunding has gained substantial popularity in a relatively short period. Currently, there is still not an identifiable guideline on how to delineate the significance of the crowdfunding platform. The development of crowdfunding in China faces a few unresolved key issues. As researchers exploring this phenomenon in new ways, crowdfunding platforms can be enhanced in a manner that benefits the capital seeker, investors and society as a whole.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of information on start-up crowdfunding in Asia. With little data available to analyze, so this paper hopes to contribute to knowledge and provide valuable information to researchers and industry representations. Crowdfunding represents a potentially disruptive change in the way that new ventures are funded. This paper represents an initial analysis in the study of new ventures in China. Finally, the authors provide recommendations for entrepreneurs, investors and policymakers as well as researchers and practitioners with suggestions about yet unexplored avenues of research.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7812

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Xuechun Li, Yuehuan Tang, Ningrui Yang, Ruiyao Ren, Haichao Zheng and Haibo Zhou

How to free the potential power of the capital market while simultaneously protecting the investors is critical in equity-based crowdfunding. To realize these goals, the…

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Abstract

Purpose

How to free the potential power of the capital market while simultaneously protecting the investors is critical in equity-based crowdfunding. To realize these goals, the purpose of this study was to investigate the value of information disclosure and leader-follower mechanism which have been widely adopted by crowdfunding platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), a research framework was developed. Then, the authors conducted an in-depth exploratory empirical study of Dajiatou (www.dajiatou.com) which is a typical equity-based crowdfunding service provider in China. Independent-samples t-test and linear regression were used to uncover the value of project information disclosure and the lead investor in terms of fundraising performance improvement.

Findings

First, the quality of entrepreneurial team information, especially the ratio of full-time staff, staff number and enterprise business age, significantly improve fundraising performance. Second, entrepreneurs’ behaviors, including project updates and project video, play important roles in crowdfunding. Third, whether or not the project has a lead investor, leader’s credibility information and his/her advocacy behaviors – percentage of their investment, identity certification, investment experience and comments for projects – are important factors affecting fundraising performance.

Research limitations/implications

The authors are one of the firsts to apply ELM to investigate the effects of diverse information on fundraising performance in equity-based crowdfunding. The value of lead investor which has been ignored in prior research was studied through second-hand data.

Practical implications

First, an equity-based crowdfunding platform should request the entrepreneur to disclose project quality-related information with more details. Second, crowdfunding platforms should set a high qualifications level for lead investor, and limit the lead investor’s committed percentage in a specific project.

Originality/value

This paper extended the research in crowdfunding by uncovering the value of information disclosure and lead investor based on ELM theory.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2018

Mohamed Asmy Mohd Thas Thaker, Hassanudin Mohd Thas Thaker and Anwar Allah Pitchay

Waqf institutions in many Muslim countries including in Malaysia are facing liquidity constraints in developing waqf land. This paper aims to offer a sustainable model of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Waqf institutions in many Muslim countries including in Malaysia are facing liquidity constraints in developing waqf land. This paper aims to offer a sustainable model of source of financing for waqf institutions to meet their liquidity constraint in developing waqf land, which is known as the crowdfunding–waqf model (CWM). Later, CWM validated its acceptance in the field among the crowdfunders by adopting the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM).

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data are collected from the survey administered to donors or crowdfunders in Selangor, Penang, Johor and Pahang. The total number of respondents are n = 1,000. The analysis is conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Based on findings, both the perceived usefulness and perceived easy to use of CWM are found to have a positive impact on the behavioral intention of crowdfunders or donors in assisting waqf institutions to develop waqf land in Malaysia. Furthermore, perceived easy to use has a positive relationship and direct effect on perceived usefulness of crowdfunders to use the CWM.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations of the current study. The sample size and area of study become the obvious limitations. Thus, there is a need for caution in the interpretation of the results, and the conclusion cannot be as generalized. Besides, the use of current factors might limit the ability to explore other potentially important determinants of the crowdfunders’ behavioral intention on using CWM. Thus, future research can be conducted by incorporating new factors and provide new insights for optimizing CWM. Other potential moderator variables should be included into the research model in order to obtain more robust results.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper will provide a new avenue for waqf institutions to raise funds for developing waqf land, particularly in Malaysia. The present study also has implications for the government and policymakers. Through CWM, it enables to reduce the expenses of the government for the development of waqf land. Indeed, CWM could be applied in other Muslim countries that are facing liquidity constraint in developing waqf land.

Originality/value

This paper offers an additional literature on waqf and crowdfunding, especially in the Malaysian context. The paper proposes a viable alternative model for waqf institutions as a source of financing by using crowdfunding.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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