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Article

Thomas Bamert and Hans Peter Wehrli

Brand equity has been a topic of interest in consumer goods markets for many years. Several studies suggest that existing consumer‐based measures of brand equity, which…

Abstract

Purpose

Brand equity has been a topic of interest in consumer goods markets for many years. Several studies suggest that existing consumer‐based measures of brand equity, which have traditionally been used in the consumer goods markets, can also be used to capture brand equity in the services markets. The purpose of this research is to assess the quality dimension in consumer‐based measurers of brand equity in the context of services and to compare it with consumer goods.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot and a main study were conducted. Nine different brands were tested in a consumer‐based experimental online survey. Each participant was assigned randomly to one brand.

Findings

In the consumer goods markets customer service can be considered as a marketing instrument. In the services markets customer service is a part of the perceived quality of a service.

Research limitations/implications

The implication leads to the question whether existing measures of brand equity in consumer goods markets should be used without adaptation in services markets. The findings show that the consumer‐based brand equity should be measured different in these markets. Concerning the differences the findings show also that customer service can be seen as a marketing instrument in consumer goods markets and a part of the perceived service quality in services markets.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research in the difference of measuring brand equity between consumer goods and services. This paper explores this difference of measuring brand equity.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Book part

Pym Manopimoke, Suthawan Prukumpai and Yuthana Sethapramote

This chapter examines dynamic connectedness among emerging Asian equity markets as well as explores their linkages vis-à-vis other major global markets. We find that…

Abstract

This chapter examines dynamic connectedness among emerging Asian equity markets as well as explores their linkages vis-à-vis other major global markets. We find that international equity markets are tightly integrated. Measuring connectedness based on a generalized Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model, more than half of all total forecast error variance in equity return and volatility shocks come from other markets as opposed to country own shocks. When examining the degree of connectedness over time, we find that international stock markets have become increasingly connected, with a gentle upward trend since the Asian financial crisis (AFC) but with a rapid burst during the global financial crisis (GFC). Despite the growing importance of Asian emerging markets in the world economy, we find that their influence on advanced economies are still relatively small, with no significant increase over time. During the past decade, advanced markets have been consistently net transmitters of shocks while emerging Asian markets act as net receivers. Based on the nature of equity shock spillovers, we also find that advanced countries are still tightly connected among themselves while intraregional connectedness within Asia remains strong. By investigating whether uncertainty plays an important role in explaining the degree of stock market connectedness, we find that economic policy uncertainty (EPU) from the US is an important source of financial shock spillover for the majority of international equity markets. In contrast, US financial market uncertainty as proxied by the VIX index drives equity market spillovers only among advanced economies.

Details

Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

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Book part

Michael Donadelli

This chapter measures financial integration in 10 industries over 4 different periods. We use two robust measures of integration: (i) the Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009)’s…

Abstract

This chapter measures financial integration in 10 industries over 4 different periods. We use two robust measures of integration: (i) the Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009)’s multi-factor R-square and (ii) the Volosovych (2011)’s integration index. Both measures, based on PCA, indicate that the difference between the level of integration over the period 2009–2012 (“Post-Lehman” era) and the level of integration over the period 1994–1998 (“Post-Liberalizations” era) is relatively high. In addition, the level of financial integration across international equity markets decreased during the late 1990s. This suggests that de jure integration does not necessarily improve de facto integration. Overall, our findings give rise to a “diversification benefits-insurance benefits trade-off.”

Details

Risk Management Post Financial Crisis: A Period of Monetary Easing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-027-8

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Article

Yi Xie and Xiaoying Zheng

This paper aims to examine the role of learning orientation in building brand equity for B2B firms. The present research proposes that learning orientation contributes to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of learning orientation in building brand equity for B2B firms. The present research proposes that learning orientation contributes to the development of innovation and marketing capabilities and, in turn, leads to enhanced industrial brand equity. Furthermore, the moderating effect of firm size in these processes is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested by administering a survey with a set of managers of manufacturing firms in China.

Findings

Innovation capability and marketing capability serve as the mediators between learning orientation and industrial brand equity. The mediating path through innovation capability is stronger for small firms than for large firms.

Research limitations/implications

Learning orientation provides a cultural base for B2B firms to cultivate brand equity. Measurement of industrial brand equity and contingency of its effect requires further investigation.

Practical implications

To transform learning-oriented culture into brand equity, firms need to develop and manage innovation and marketing capabilities. The learning orientation–innovation capability route is more beneficial for small firms.

Originality/value

While a majority of prior literature ignores the impact of organizational culture in driving industrial brand equity, the present research explores learning orientation as a key cultural antecedent of industrial brand equity. A more refined industrial-brand-equity-building mechanism from learning orientation to corporate capabilities and then to brand equity is proposed and tested. The mechanism varies with firm size.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Dewi Ratih

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the impacts of equity market timing on corporate capital structure policies in Indonesia by apply Baker and Wurgler’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the impacts of equity market timing on corporate capital structure policies in Indonesia by apply Baker and Wurgler’s analytical approach to firms in Indonesia to see, first, if that approach applies to Indonesian firms and, second, if it can be generalized to other emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study will focus on capital structure policies based on Market Timing Theory in developing countries, which uses the panel data of companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange after IPO. The companies used as research object are 70 firms in the non-financial/non-banking sector with the observation period of 2000–2015. The period of measurement is five years after IPO. Using a past market value in which equity market timing is measured in two-time measurements, i.e. yearly timing and long-term timing to prove its persistence.

Findings

Consistent with equity market timing theory, the results suggest that firms tend to issue equities when their market valuations are relatively higher than their book values and their past market values are high. As a consequence, the firms become underleveraged or have their debts reduced in the short run. The results of long-term measurement on equity market timing do not appear to affect the firms’ capital structure decisions due to the firms’ relatively quick adjustments of optimal capital structures. The conclusion is that equity market timing is an important element in the short run but not in the long run.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study describe how firms in Indonesia take advantage of temporary market share fluctuations through equity market timing in their capital structure policies before ultimately making adjustments to the directions they are targeting.

Practical implications

The use of equity market timing is more aimed at reducing the debt ratio and avoiding unfavorable conditions in the debt market, as well as taking advantage of the capital gains derived from the differences in their stock prices. This study also has practical implications on investment policies that need to consider the adaptation factor of the industrial environment when it comes to making capital structure decisions, including how the entity must take policy when uncertain economic conditions.

Social implications

Through the research behavior of capital structure more in-depth decision is expected to provide an overview for investors widely in determining investment policy. Thus, the investment strategy is more planned and can also anticipate unexpected conditions.

Originality/value

This research is the first study to analyze and to evaluate the impacts of equity market timing on corporate capital structure policies on post-IPO firms in Indonesia. This research is an empirical study that investigates the relevance of equity market timing considerations in the determination of debt-equity choices in the capital structure, included in the conditions of the global financial crisis.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Zia-ur-Rehman Rao, Muhammad Zubair Tauni, Amjad Iqbal and Muhammad Umar

The purpose of this paper is to find whether Chinese equity funds outperform the market and do Chinese fund managers possess positive market timing ability. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find whether Chinese equity funds outperform the market and do Chinese fund managers possess positive market timing ability. This study also aims to investigate whether well-performing (worst) funds of last year continue to perform well (worst) in the following year.

Design/methodology/approach

Capital Asset Pricing Model and Carhart four-factor model are used for performance analysis, whereas for analyzing market timing ability, the Treynor and Mazuy (1966) and Henriksson and Merton (1981) models are applied. To investigate persistence in the performance of Chinese equity funds, all equity funds are divided, on the basis of performance in the past 12 months, into three equally weighted groups (high, middle and low) and then observed for next 12 months. After that, groups are again rebalanced according to their performance. This study uses a panel regression model for analysis.

Findings

Chinese equity funds are successful in providing higher than market returns, and fund managers possess positive market timing ability. The authors find that Chinese equity funds do not show persistence in performance as witnessed in developed markets. Well-performing funds (worst funds) of last year do not continue to provide higher (lower) return in the following year. Moreover, the authors detect positive relationship of fund size, age and expense ratio with the fund’s performance. Overall results suggest that emerging market equity funds show better performance than that of developed markets.

Practical implications

Investors are better off if they invest in equity funds instead of index funds, as results illustrate that equity funds outperformed the market. Further, the strategy of buying well-performing funds of last year and selling poorly performing funds of last year does not look very attractive in China. This study helps investors to understand the Chinese managed funds industry, and such an understanding is also helpful for fund managers and asset management companies who use performance information in marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the performance persistence in Chinese equity funds and also contributes to the literature about the performance and market timing ability of equity funds. The study takes the sample of 520 equity funds for the period from 2004 to 2014, which includes a period of financial crisis of 2008.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article

Nuruzzaman Arsyad

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If so, how many cointegrating equations are there? Second, what are the short-term causal relationships between equity markets in East and Southeast Asia? Third, what is the East Asia’s most influential equity market toward their Southeast counterparts, and vice versa?

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Johansen's (1988) cointegration method to test long-run relationships among East and Southeast Asian equity markets. With regards to short-run causal relationships, this study uses Granger-causality test as well as the forecast variance decomposition method.

Findings

Johansen test proves that there is cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets, but the integration process is not complete. Cointegrating vector also provides evidence that member countries of ASEAN+3 respond differently to external shocks. With regards to short-run causal direction, this study finds that Japan Granger-causes all equity markets in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam Granger-cause all equity markets in East Asia. These results imply that Japan is the market with most linkages in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam are the markets with most linkages to East Asia. Furthermore, forecast variance decomposition reveals that Japan is the East Asia’s most influential equity markets, while Singapore is the most influential equity market in Southeast Asia. This study suggests that policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to synchronize the capital market standards and regulations as well as to reduce the barriers for capital mobility to spur the regional equity market integration.

Research limitations/implications

Increasing integration of East and Southeast Asian capital markets forces policymakers in ASEAN+3 countries to synchronize monetary policies, as it has been found that regionally integrated capital markets reduce the degree of independent monetary policy (Logue et al., 1976). It is therefore important for policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to assess the possibility of stock market integration within this region to anticipate the future risks associated with economic integration as well as to build collective regional institutions (Wang, 2004). Click and Plummer (2005) also argued that integrated stock markets is more efficient than nationally segmented equity markets, and the efficiency of Asian capital markets has been questioned in particular after the 1997 Asian financial crises. Yet, the empirical evidence on the extent of financial integration among ASEAN+3 member countries has been limited and inconclusive. This study is therefore an attempt to investigate the recent development of ASEAN+3 equity markets integration.

Practical implications

This study focuses its attention on the existence and the extent of financial integration in East and Southeast Asia region, and it provides evidence that equity market integration in ASEAN+3 is far from complete, and for that reason, there is a need for policymakers in ASEAN+3 member countries to synchronize their standards and regulations. Furthermore, the policymakers in East and Southeast Asia can gain benefit from this study, as it provides the evidence that ASEAN+3 member countries respond differently to policy shocks, which may hinder the development of regional financial integration as well as the policy effectiveness of region-wide authority in ASEAN+3.

Originality/value

This research is different from previous studies, as it puts the regional financial integration within the context of ASEAN+3 frameworks. Unlike previous research that considers East and Southeast Asian countries as an individual entity, this research considers East and Southeast Asia into two different blocks, following Tourk (2004) who documented that negotiation process for ASEAN+3 financial integration is conducted in sub-regional level (ASEAN vs East Asia), rather than national level (country per country basis). Second, this study covers the period after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. As suggested in Wang (2014), that the degree of stock market integration tends to change around the periods marked by financial crises, the updated study on Asian financial integration in the aftermath of 1997 financial crises is important to document the development of regional financial integration.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article

Joseph J. French and Wei‐Xuan Li

The purpose of this research is to understand the long‐run dynamics between returns, commodity prices, volatility, and US equity investment into Brazil. This research is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to understand the long‐run dynamics between returns, commodity prices, volatility, and US equity investment into Brazil. This research is prompted by the rapid increase in foreign equity investment into Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

To address long‐run dynamic nature of the variables, multivariate autoregressive model is fitted for the period of January 1998 to May 2008. To achieve identification of this model, restrictions are imposed based on underlying financial theory and the nature of the data.

Findings

The paper finds consistent with a long literature, that US institutional equity investment is forecasted by past returns on the Brazilian stock index (BOVESPA). The paper also documents the important role of commodity prices in forecasting US equity flows to Brazil, a variable that has not been considered in much of existing literature. Finally, the paper uncovers a strong relationship between US equity flows to Brazil and measures of risk. The paper documents that an unexpected shock to US equity flows increases the volatility of the Brazilian equity market beyond what could be predicted by other variables in the system. The strong joint dynamics among US portfolio equity flows and the risk and return of the Brazilian equity market demonstrates the need for policy makers in Brazil to monitor short‐term portfolio flows.

Originality/value

There is a broad literature on the dynamics of US investment in emerging and developed markets but very little work focuses directly on Brazil. Additionally, this work is one of the first to explicitly consider the role of commodity prices on the dynamics of foreign equity flows to resource rich nations.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article

Marta Olivia Rovedder de Oliveira, Aline Armanini Stefanan and Mauri Leodir Lobler

This study aims to compare the performance of stocks of companies with high brand equity with the stocks of other companies listed on the stock market of emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the performance of stocks of companies with high brand equity with the stocks of other companies listed on the stock market of emerging countries of Latin America: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.

Design/methodology/approach

The valuable brands (brands with high brand equity) considered were the most valuable Latin America brands according to the Millward Brown reports. Carhart four-factor model was used to analyze performance and the total sample included 732 stocks in the Latin American market collected at Economatica, monthly, for a period of 10 years.

Findings

The Valuable Brands Portfolio presents the lowest investment risk, suggesting that stocks of companies with valuable brands ensure lower risk investment to shareholders in these emerging markets.

Originality/value

This study is the first to associate brand equity with the creation of shareholder value in the context of emerging Latin American countries. In addition, the proposed method has also not been used previously to study emerging countries. The association found between a marketing asset (brand equity) and stock market performance contributes to improve the relationship between marketing and finance areas. The results of this study in emerging markets corroborate previous studies in developed markets, strongly suggesting the confirmation of the effect of brand equity on the reduction of risk stock.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Avichai Shuv-Ami

The current study conceptualizes and empirically tests a new model of market brand equity (MBE). This model, that not just provides an understanding of customer mindsets…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study conceptualizes and empirically tests a new model of market brand equity (MBE). This model, that not just provides an understanding of customer mindsets toward the brand, as most empirical models do, but also measures the marketing benefits of such mindsets. The present study offers two models. One is comprehensive and theoretical while the other is an empirical model. The empirical model is a practical model drawn from the more comprehensive and conceptualized model. The hypothesized empirical MBE model is tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis followed by a formula that offers a method to calculate and rank competitive brands in the market place. The purpose of this paper is to conclude with a discussion of the implications of the model.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings of the present research are based on a representative sample of 964 cellular phone users selected randomly from an Israeli internet panel were analyzed. The questions related to the dimensions of the brand equity needed a more intimate relationship of the customers with the brand. Thus, those questions were asked only with regard to the brand that the respondents were mainly using. These questions were concerned with brand knowledge, brand commitment and brand overall attitude. The other questions that the respondents answered were about three other brands on the market. All dimensions, except purchase barriers, were measured on a ten-point scale.

Findings

SEM analysis was used to test the hypothesized MBE model as well as alternative models. The results, which supported the hypothesized model, indicated that knowledge has a strong positive effect on image, personality and attitude. Image has a positive effect on attitude, but that of personality was insignificant. Attitude, image and personality have a positive effect on commitment. Commitment affects recommendation strongly and positively. Both commitment and recommendation have a positive and significant effect on potential market share.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the current research are that it was not measured over time and that only one product category has been tested. In addition to dealing with these limitations, future research may also add additional marketing performance outcome variables such as the ability to obtain premium prices and to exercise brand power in relation to channels of distribution.

Practical implications

The model presented in this paper provides the marketer with the ability to compare, from a competitive perspective, the relative average in the market place of customer mindset, customer performance and marketing performance. The analysis also reveals whether to invest in strengthening customer mindset or in capturing a greater market share. When the brand leader is far from its followers, an additional analysis may be required and it may be necessary to increase the sensitivity of the analysis by examining separately (without the leading brand) the relative differences between the follower brands. Moreover, the measurement questions should be adjusted to fit different product categories. For example, in testing the MBE in the service industry, “product performance,” which is a component of brand commitment, should be measured by the “quality of service.” But the way of using the model will not change. Another example for future research may be found in sport marketing, such as among football or basketball clubs. In such instances, performance – winning or losing – or even the quality of the players on the team may be considered. It is suggested here that the MBE’s measurement of fast-moving products vs slow moving ones. However, in such cases the model would probably show a significant difference in involvement with the brands of fast-moving products displaying much lower customers’ involvement then brands of slow-moving products.

Originality/value

The empirical model suggested in this study is a new and practical market-based brand equity that uses commitment as the main construct, building brand equity to represent the performance outcome of the customer mindset used in the models noted above. The current study also offers a new practical and useful formula for calculating and ranking MBE.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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