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Article

Yasin Mahmood, Maqsood Ahmad, Faisal Rizwan and Abdul Rashid

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of banking sector concentration, banking sector development and equity market development in corporate financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of banking sector concentration, banking sector development and equity market development in corporate financial flexibility (FF).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used annual data for the period from 1991 to 2014 to examine the relationship between banking sector concentration, banking sector development, equity market development and corporate FF; hypotheses were tested using an unbalanced panel logistic regression model.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into the relationships between macroeconomic factors and corporate FF. The results suggest a substantial change in FF across firms; banking sector concentration discourages firms from borrowing, leading to the reduction of corporate borrowing, consequently an increase in FF can be observed. Banking sector development facilitates debt financing, hence reducing FF. Equity market development also has a positive impact on FF, as it is a substitute for debt financing.

Practical implications

The banking sector is an important provider of capital to business entities. A concentrated banking system discourages the provision of capital to firms; hence regulators have to take appropriate measures to resolve the problem of a reduced supply of capital. Banking sector development facilitates the provision of capital; further development may reduce bank lending rates to firms. Equity market development positively affects FF; hence, firm managers can use equity financing to resume FF. By following pecking order theory, managers use internal sources to finance value-maximizing investment projects, debt and issue shares as the last choice to get financing. When borrowing capacity is depleted, managers can obtain further funds by issuing stocks.

Originality/value

FF is an emergent area of research in advanced countries, while in developing economies, it is in the initial stages. Little work is available in this area to find the impact of banking sector concentration, banking sector development and equity market development, therefore, this study fills this gap in the existing literature.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Article

Yasin Mahmood, Abdul Rashid and Muhammad Faisal Rizwan

This study aims to examine how corporate financial flexibility, financial sector development and the regulatory environment influence corporate investment decisions in an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how corporate financial flexibility, financial sector development and the regulatory environment influence corporate investment decisions in an emerging economy after controlling for several macroeconomic factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors estimated random-effects models to empirically examine the impacts of corporate financial flexibility, banking sector development, equity market development, regulatory quality and corruption on corporate investment decisions. The empirical analysis is based on an unbalanced annual panel data set of a sample of 198 non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for the period 1992–2018.

Findings

The results show that financially flexible firms tend to invest more. The increased banking sector development, stock market development and better regulatory quality play a pivotal role for enabling firms to increase their investment ability. However, the results reveal that corruption acts as a barrier and reduces corporate investments during the examined period. The results suggest that unused borrowing capacity is a good source of financial flexibility. These results strongly support the pecking order theory, which explains why firms incline toward internal sources for financing their investments and why they prefer debt to equity when go for external financing.

Practical implications

The empirical findings of the study enable corporate managers to make better financing and investment decisions by understanding the significance of the attainment and maintenance of the corporate financial flexibility to enhance firm value. Furthermore, the findings enable corporate managers to examine and understand the role of banking sector development (BSD), equity market development (EMD), regulatory quality and the role of corruption in affecting corporate firms' investment ability, allowing them to make appropriate investment decisions, especially from an emerging economy perspective. The findings also help investors in making appropriate investment decisions while they are purchasing financial assets. Finally, the findings of the study have some implications for regulators as well. Specifically, the findings suggest that the authorities should implement economic and financial policies favoring banking sector as well as equity market development to enhance corporate investment.

Originality/value

The study significantly adds to the literature by examining the impact of financial flexibility, financial sector development and regulatory environment on corporate investment decisions. According to the authors' knowledge, the empirical evidence examining the impact of all of these factors on corporate investment is very scarce. Therefore, this study is an effort to fill the gap left in the literature.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article

Md Hasib Noor and Anupam Dutta

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the volatility linkage between global oil market and major South Asian equity markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the volatility linkage between global oil market and major South Asian equity markets.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to serve the purpose, the authors employ a recently developed vector autoregressive-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic model to examine whether shocks and volatility spill over from the oil market to various equity markets under consideration.

Findings

The findings of the empirical analysis suggest that all the markets studied do receive volatility from the oil market. Not surprisingly, the authors do not find any significant evidence of volatility transmission from the equity markets to the global oil market. Additionally, while computing the optimal portfolio weights and hedge ratios, the authors document that inclusion of oil in the portfolio of stocks tends to reduce the risk of the resultant portfolio.

Originality/value

Fully original.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Book part

Mukund Narayanamurti and Jonathan A. Batten

Post-crisis policy measures in Asia have focussed on banking sector and market reform. The paper argues that in order to propel growth, banking and market reform in Asia…

Abstract

Post-crisis policy measures in Asia have focussed on banking sector and market reform. The paper argues that in order to propel growth, banking and market reform in Asia must be undertaken with the view that they are not mutually exclusive competitive tradeoffs. Rather banks and markets must be viewed as complementary supportive pillars in a financial system. Additionally, legal and functional reform must be undertaken simultaneously. The paper proposes that a likely consequence of doing so will enable creating a four-pillared multi-dimensional growth paradigm in the region to help restore and promote growth.

Details

Asia Pacific Financial Markets in Comparative Perspective: Issues and Implications for the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-258-0

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Article

Antonios Antoniou, Gioia M. Pescetto and Ibrahim Stevens

The paper seeks to investigate conditional correlations and conditional volatility spillovers across international stock markets and industrial sectors from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to investigate conditional correlations and conditional volatility spillovers across international stock markets and industrial sectors from the perspective of the UK investor.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing the DCC model, the paper extracts the time‐varying conditional correlations between the UK, US and European stock markets and industrial sectors. It also uses the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MVGARCH) to assess the transmission of volatility from the US and European stock markets to the UK.

Findings

The findings suggest that the UK equity market is more integrated with Europe, in terms of both aggregate stock markets and sectors. Correlations are higher during bear markets and tend to fall during periods of recovery. The sectoral analysis also provides interesting insights into the dynamics of volatility transmission across sectors.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that the search for a better understanding of the dynamics of correlations between markets and sectors must continue.

Practical implications

The investigation raises interesting questions for investors and regulators, as well as theoretical finance. For example, the finding that correlations increase in bear markets suggests that hedging strategies need to be revisited. The existence of sectoral idiosyncratic volatility offers further evidence that arbitrage may at times become more risky and thus limited.

Originality/value

The findings from analysing both market‐wide and sectoral integration raises the overarching question of whether studies of market integration and portfolio diversification, as well as the authorities overseeing financial stability, should be focusing on sectoral rather than market‐wide analysis.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Walid M.A. Ahmed

Over a short interval of time (i.e. 2011-2014), Egypt has experienced tectonic political shifts, including the toppling of a long-entrenched dictator, two presidential…

Abstract

Purpose

Over a short interval of time (i.e. 2011-2014), Egypt has experienced tectonic political shifts, including the toppling of a long-entrenched dictator, two presidential elections, and a military coup. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the impact of such events on the country’s equity market behaviour, both in terms of returns and volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set is composed of daily stock index closing prices for the overall market and top eight most actively traded sectors. To assess the impact of the considered events on the market and sector returns, an event study approach is applied. On the other hand, a univariate VAR-EGARCH model is employed to explore whether, and to what extent, volatilities at the market and sector levels respond to such events.

Findings

The results suggest that political uncertainty has a profound impact on the risk-return profiles of almost all market sectors, with different degrees of intensity. By and large, the price and volatility effects are most pronounced in banks, financial services excluding banks and chemicals sectors, whilst food and beverages as well as construction and materials sectors are found to be the least responsive to these events. The 2013 military coup turns out to be the most pervasive event impinging on the market and sector-specific indices.

Practical implications

The results have a number of practical implications that could be of interest to many parties involved. More specifically, with political dysfunction overshadowing business and investment activities in Egypt, genuine democratic reforms, which entail proper regard for human rights and the rule of law, must have the highest priority of policymakers, in order to secure a positive investment climate and to foster investor confidence. Furthermore, in tandem with considering other relevant factors, multinational companies need to have a thorough assessment of Egypt’s future political course and to develop more robust contingency plans to effectively combat potential threats generated by political vicissitudes.

Originality/value

To the author’s best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to empirically examine the price and volatility effects of the recent presidential events in Egypt, thereby contributing to the relevant literature in this area.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article

Bushra Sarwar, Ming Xiao, Muhammad Husnain and Rehana Naheed

Numerous researchers have developed theories and studies to uncover the issues pertinent to dividend policy dynamics, but it is still one of the unresolved problems of…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous researchers have developed theories and studies to uncover the issues pertinent to dividend policy dynamics, but it is still one of the unresolved problems of finance. The purpose of this paper is to focus on a new dimension, i.e., financial expertise on the corporate board for explaining the dividend policy dynamics in the emerging equity markets of China and Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs static (fixed effect (FE) and random effect (RE)) and dynamic models – two-step generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation techniques by Arellano and Bond (1991) and Arellano and Bover (1995) – during the timespan from 2009 to 2014. Further, this study re-estimated FE, RE and GMM two-step estimation techniques by excluding the non-dividend-paying companies, and also employed instrumental variable regressing by using two instrumental variables – industry average financial expertise of the board and board size – as proxies for board financial expertise to control the possible endogeneity.

Findings

The study reveals that Chinese firms having more financial expertise on the board do not take dividends as a control mechanism (substitution hypothesis), while Pakistani firms support the compliment hypothesis and use dividends as a control mechanism to mitigate agency conflict to protect shareholders’ interests and keep additional funds from the manager’s opportunism. Further robustness models also confirm the presence of a significant association between dividend policy and board financial expertise in both equity markets.

Originality/value

This study introduces the financial expertise on a board as a determinant of dividend policy. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous studies have focused on board-level financial expertise as a contributing factor toward dividend policy.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Nur Adiana Hiau Abdullah, Kamarun Nisham Taufil Mohd and Woei Chyuan Wong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of 19 Malaysian Real Estate Investment Trusts (M-REITs) over the period 1999 to 2014, following the implementation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of 19 Malaysian Real Estate Investment Trusts (M-REITs) over the period 1999 to 2014, following the implementation of dividend tax reforms announced in the 2007, 2009 and 2012 budgets.

Design/methodology/approach

Sharpe index, Treynor index and Jensen α are utilized to compare the performance of M-REITs against a newly developed tax-adjusted value-weighted M-REITs index, equity market, property sector and three month Malaysia Treasury Bills (T-Bills). The calculation of M-REITs returns has been adjusted to take into account the dividend tax reforms which have never been considered in previous studies.

Findings

Most M-REITs outperform the tax-adjusted value-weighted REITs index, equity market, property sector and three month T-Bills. Property sector performs worst during those periods. Some of the M-REITs have a higher standard deviation than the equity market and the tax-adjusted value-weighted M-REITs index. Most M-REITs have a lower total risk than the property sector. Further analysis shows that before (after) the tax reforms, most M-REITs underperform (outperform) the other sectors. The introduction of the tax reforms benefits both REITs and investors. A significant positive Jensen α for some M-REITs indicates that fund managers are able to time the market or to select undervalued assets.

Practical implications

Findings of the study would enable investors to evaluate the performance of all REITs in comparison to other financial assets during the period of study for better investment decision making. A more accurate assessment on REITs performance that take into account the tax reforms, is available for investors and fund managers to decide on the investment mix to be included in their portfolio. Moreover, fund managers’ performance can be assessed whether they perform better or worse than the equity market, property sector and three month T-Bills.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the scant literature on dividend tax reforms and their implication toward REITs performance. It is the first study to thoroughly assess the returns of REITs by taking into account the changes on dividend tax rates announced in the 2007, 2009 and 2012 budgets.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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Article

Yasin Mahmood, Abdul Rashid, Faisal Rizwan and Maqsood Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of macroeconomic factors and the institutional environment on corporate financial flexibility (FF). Most studies focus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of macroeconomic factors and the institutional environment on corporate financial flexibility (FF). Most studies focus on well-developed financial markets and very little is known about corporate FF in less developed financial markets and emerging markets (Buvanendra et al., 2016). The present study contributes to filling this gap in the literature and provides a more practical and functional framework to assess the FF of firms located in emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used annual data for the period from 1991 to 2018. To examine the relationship between macroeconomic indicators, institutional environment and corporate FF, hypotheses were tested using an unbalanced panel logistic regression model.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into the relationships between macroeconomic factors, institutional environment and corporate FF. The results suggest a substantial change in FF across firms. Inflation, institutional quality and banking sector development negatively affect FF, while equity market development has a significant positive impact. Gross domestic product growth was found to be an insignificant predictor of FF.

Practical implications

This study has practical implications for corporate finance managers, regulators and investors, who must consider the significant factors of this study when making economic decisions. Finance managers can thus make appropriate decisions regarding capital structure and FF. Regulators of the banking sector can take appropriate measures to enhance competition and increase the development of the banking sector. Further, regulators of the equity market can enhance the development of the market to enhance the supply of capital.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature showing that not only firm-specific factors affect corporate FF, but country-specific macroeconomic and institutional factors also have a significant effect. It also adds to the literature in the area of corporate FF; this field is in its initial stage, even in developed countries, while, in developing countries, little work has been done.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad, Safwan Mohd Nor, Nur Azura Sanusi and Ronald Ravinesh Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to identify the arbitrage opportunities between US industry-level credit and stock markets with a focus on dynamic lead-lag relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the arbitrage opportunities between US industry-level credit and stock markets with a focus on dynamic lead-lag relationships given that these markets involve heterogeneous agents operating over various time horizons.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use daily data of 11 US industries stock markets and their credit counterparts to model the dynamic dependence and casual nexuses using time-frequency approach, namely, wavelet squared coherence (WTC).

Findings

The WTC estimation results show that credit and stock markets are out of phase (counter cyclical) and stock markets lead their credit counterparts. The coherence between two markets increases during financial crises. The banks (utilities) industry credit and stock markets have relatively high (low) dependence.

Research limitations/implications

The casual nexuses between stock and credit markets have multilateral dimensions. Greater interest in examining the relationship between stock markets and credit default swap (CDS) spreads emerged as an important albeit a complex area of research, and gained prominence especially at the onset and following the global financial crises of 2007-2008 which clearly showed that the positive views of CDSs contribution in creating a resilient and efficient financial sector was nothing further from the truth.

Practical implications

The arbitrage and hedging opportunities between stock and credit markets are industry dependent and vary over investment time horizons. The utilities industry seems attractive for the investment with the objective to exploit arbitrage, but not for hedging.

Originality/value

The paper, for the first time, employs time-frequency approach to assess the arbitrage opportunities between US industry-level credit and stock markets.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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