This article reports on some of the research findings of a two year study on equal opportunity commissioned by the Department of Employment. Although initially conceived…
This article reports on some of the research findings of a two year study on equal opportunity commissioned by the Department of Employment. Although initially conceived as an investigation of “successfully” operating equal opportunity policies in private industry, the research data suggested that effective practice follows a different line of development. For, in practice, effective equal opportunity bore a closer relationship to everyday problem‐solving in organisations than to the adoption of formal policies abstracted from workplace issues and concerns. The success of equal opportunity policies and practices would appear to be contingent upon their direct relevance to workplace problems and the degree to which employees are involved in formulating and implementing them.
Analyses the notion and value of managing diversity to establish its current theoretical positioning and potential organisational significance. Focuses on a recent case study examination of equality at work in a major, national public sector organisation. Affords an insight into an organisational shift towards managing diversity, through the lens of key organisational stakeholders. Within this case, proposes three emergent practical implications of managing diversity which may have resonance for other public sector organisations.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the aims of equal opportunities policies in the UK and to link them to market forces, European integration and the wider aims of…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the aims of equal opportunities policies in the UK and to link them to market forces, European integration and the wider aims of economic growth.
The theoretical literature around equal opportunities and managing diversity is examined. The paper looks at how these have been implemented in practice by examining a policy document relating to Higher Education.
The paper concludes that the policy document examined exhibits a high degree of confusion and misunderstanding about many of the key principles underlying equal opportunity theory and practice.
The arguments presented add to the wider debates about the nature and role of equal opportunities policies and their relationship to economic policy.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the capacities of different groups of actors, who initiate, support, and control (known as equal opportunity actors) equal opportunities and equal treatment in organizations in Austria.
Based on the concept of social positioning and a qualitative empirical approach, the paper provides an analysis of data deriving from 32 interviews with equal opportunity actors.
The main findings show that, depending on individual commitment, knowledge and abilities, equal opportunity actors have the capacity to influence official equal opportunity policies and to prohibit individual cases of discrimination. However, there are strong restrictions concerning a limited understanding of gender, an ignorance of more subtle forms of the practising of gender and acceptance of the gendered understructure of organizations.
The study relates to the Austrian labour relations system which is rather similar to the German system, but can hardly be transferred to other countries.
The analysis of capacities and restrictions of single actors within organizations may be of general interest.
The paper explores a nearly fully ignored aspect of equal opportunity policies which is crucial for their success or failure.
The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total employment. It is estimated that in 1970, average annual hours worked per employee amounted to only 60% of those for 1870. Two major factors are attributed to explaining the underlying trend towards a reduction in working time: (a) the increase in the number of voluntary part‐time employees and (b) the decrease in average annual number of days worked per employee (Kok and de Neubourg, 1986). The authors noted that the growth rate of part‐time employment in many countries was greater than the corresponding rate of growth in full‐time employment.
Reports research findings from a study of equal opportunities officers. Explores different definitions and understandings of equal opportunities held by equal opportunities…
Reports research findings from a study of equal opportunities officers. Explores different definitions and understandings of equal opportunities held by equal opportunities officers. Argues that the level of support for equal opportunities officers from top executives and equal opportunities officers’ own levels of seniority in organisations are important factors regarding the success of this area of work. Discusses the management role played by some equal opportunities officers. Considers various strategies for the implementation of equal opportunities within organisations, including mainstreaming, building alliances, and prioritisation of issues. Explores some of the advantages and disadvantages of mainstreaming as a strategy for implementing equal opportunities. Makes some recommendations for effective organisational practice in implementing equal opportunities.
This chapter explores the Slovenian equal opportunities policy in the context of globalization debates. Focusing mainly on the equal opportunities legislation in Slovenia…
This chapter explores the Slovenian equal opportunities policy in the context of globalization debates. Focusing mainly on the equal opportunities legislation in Slovenia and the other recent European Union (EU) member states, the aim of the chapter is to reflect upon globalization as Europeanization and as supraterritorialization. Supraterritorial processes, such as the second wave of Western feminist movement established a mutual relationship with feminists in the former Yugoslavia during the 1980s. Feminism and the feminist movement in Yugoslavia and in Slovenia in the 1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s, in particular, represent an important basis for gender equality politics and legislation in Slovenia. Another significant element that contributes to the introduction of gender equality legislation is EU integration. In Slovenia and also in other Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that recently joined the European Union, the accession played a considerable role in adopting gender equality legislation. Europeanization in the context of equal opportunities policy leads to the homogenization process of standards for gender equality in the EU member states. In terms of legislation in member countries, the Europeanization of gender equality policy is performed as top-down politics particularly in recent member states, such as CEE. Using the example of gender equality policy in Slovenia, this chapter analyzes equal opportunities policy as a concept and as a legal mechanism emerging from the Western tradition, which was directly applied to CEE countries, such as Slovenia, when they joined the EU.
Equal pay legislation has been on the statute book since May 1970 in the form of the Equal Pay Act, due to be fully effective at the end of 1975. In an earlier article the authors discussed problems to be expected in implementing the Equal Pay Act with particular reference to retail distribution. The present article first examines progress toward equal pay on the basis of recent statistics covering basic wage rates and earnings in a wide range of industries and occupations in Britain. Secondly it considers implications of further proposals to raise the status of women through measures intended “to make it unlawful to discriminate on the grounds of sex … in a wide range of activities and situations”, including employment. Finally, in the light of procedures and machinery designed for the enforcement of anti‐discrimination laws, it questions whether the two objectives of equal pay and equal opportunity for women are entirely consistent.
This article analyzes the difference between the budgetary expense and the opportunity cost of defense inputs. If inputs are obtained by the government from a market economy with undistorted prices, the price paid for the last unit of each input acquired equals the opportunity cost. However, taxes create a distortion between opportunity cost and unit price. An additional complication, discussed using the case of military personnel, is that premarginal units may have an opportunity cost lower than the unit price determined at the margin. Principles used to determine the social discount rate are also discussed in the analysis.
Describes the origins and development of equal opportunities policyin the Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS), and the creation of theNICS Equal Opportunities Unit…
Describes the origins and development of equal opportunities policy in the Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS), and the creation of the NICS Equal Opportunities Unit. Explains the mode of operation of the Unit, the selection of the key variables selected for monitoring purposes, and how the Unit′s priorities are determined. Goes on to identify what are considered to be the key issues for the future, and concludes by noting that citizens have a right to expect Government to be at the forefront in delivering equality of opportunity in employment.