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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Manuel Vallée

Since the beginning of the 20th century environmental health researchers have known about the association between toxicant exposure and disease. However, that knoweldge…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the beginning of the 20th century environmental health researchers have known about the association between toxicant exposure and disease. However, that knoweldge has not been well integrated into mainstream medicine. Shedding light on why is the focus of this chapter.

Methodology/approach

To shed light on this issue I analyze the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics’ clinical practice guidelines for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focusing specifically on the omission of environmental health research pertaining to ADHD symptoms and exposures, such as lead and mercury.

Findings

I found that while environmental researchers have been documenting the link between lead and ADHD for over forty years, the American Academy of Pediatrics has completely omitted this research from its 2012 clinical practice guidelines. Moreover, I argue this omission can be traced to competitive pressures to protect medical jurisdiction, and a reductionist worldview that emphasizes treatment over prevention.

Originality/value of paper

This is the first attempt to analyze the way clinical practice guidelines help reinforce and perpetuate dominant medical perspectives. Moreover, to shed explanatory light, this chapter offers a synthetic explanation that combines materialist and ideological factors.

Research implications

Beyond the specific case of ADHD, this chapter has implications for understanding how and why environmental health research is omitted from other materials produced by mainstream medicine, such as materials found in the medical school curriculum, continuing medical education, medical journals, and on the medical association web sites.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Tatyana J. Andrushchenko is dean of the School of Psychology and Social Work, head of the Department of Social Work and professor of psychology at Volgograd State…

Abstract

Tatyana J. Andrushchenko is dean of the School of Psychology and Social Work, head of the Department of Social Work and professor of psychology at Volgograd State Pedagogical University. Dr. Andrushenko earned her Ph.D. in Psychology from the Russian Federation Education Academy, Institute of Psychology. Her primary work is in child development, counselling methods, interpersonal communication, and the evaluation of social psychological services. She has participated in exchange programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and the US. tandr@vspu.ru

Details

Cultures of Contamination
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1371-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Luc Hens

Describes the main structural lines of the Brussels master′s programmein human ecology. Delineates its relationships with the EuropeanCertificate of Human Ecology and the…

Abstract

Describes the main structural lines of the Brussels master′s programme in human ecology. Delineates its relationships with the European Certificate of Human Ecology and the European Association of Human Ecology. In this way describes two complementary networking structures on human ecology (HE) in Europe. This overview of networking structures is complemented by an enumeration of national and international HE organizations in Europe. Discusses the possible involvement of the Society for Human Ecology in two rather recent international developments in the field: the growing number of academic initiatives in East European countries; and the evaluation by international panels of experts of interdisciplinary research products as state of the environment studies which otherwise escape the test of international scientific validation.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Wai‐On Phoon

The Asia‐Pacific Region is the fastest growing area of the world ineconomic terms. Unfortunately, it has also suffered from severalenvironmental and occupational health…

Abstract

The Asia‐Pacific Region is the fastest growing area of the world in economic terms. Unfortunately, it has also suffered from several environmental and occupational health problems largely as a result of this rapid growth without attendant safeguards. Highlights problems such as environmental pollution, those relating to sanitation, cigarette smoking, traffic accidents, poisoning from industrial and agricultural chemicals, noise, health of women workers and other psychosocial problems, and recent trends in the health education and environmental improvements. Concludes with a plea for more attention to and collaboration concerning a clean environment.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Mattie Tops, Jesús Montero-Marín and Markus Quirin

Engagement, motivation, and persistence are usually associated with positive outcomes. However, too much of it can overtax our psychophysiological system and put it at…

Abstract

Engagement, motivation, and persistence are usually associated with positive outcomes. However, too much of it can overtax our psychophysiological system and put it at risk. On the basis of a neuro-dynamic personality and self-regulation model, we explain the neurobehavioral mechanisms presumably underlying engagement and how engagement, when overtaxing the individual, becomes automatically inhibited for reasons of protection. We explain how different intensities and patterns of engagement may relate to personality traits such as Self-directedness, Conscientiousness, Drive for Reward, and Absorption, which we conceive of as functions or strategies of adaptive neurobehavioral systems. We describe how protective inhibitions and personality traits contribute to phenomena such as disengagement and increased effort-sense in chronic fatigue conditions, which often affect professions involving high socio-emotional interactions. By doing so we adduce evidence on hemispheric asymmetry of motivation, neuromodulation by dopamine, self-determination, task engagement, and physiological disengagement. Not least, we discuss educational implications of our model.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2003

Peter R. Stopher

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

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Abstract

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The Aging Workforce Handbook
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-448-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Toon W. Taris and Michiel A.J. Kompier

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job…

Abstract

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job control are conducive to employee learning behavior. A review of 18 studies revealed that whereas most of these supported these predictions, methodological and conceptual shortcomings necessitate further study. Perhaps the most important weakness of the DC-based research on learning is that the conceptual foundations of the DC model regarding employee learning behavior are quite rudimentary, while the role of interpersonal differences in the learning process is largely neglected. The second part of this chapter explores the relationship between work characteristics and learning behavior from the perspective of German Action Theory (AT). AT explicitly discusses how work characteristics affect learning behavior and assigns a role to interpersonal differences. We conclude by presenting a model that integrates action-theoretical insights on learning with DC-based empirical results.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

This study aims to identify the status of occupational stress among a sample of hospital employees in Iran. It further intended to reveal the harmful effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the status of occupational stress among a sample of hospital employees in Iran. It further intended to reveal the harmful effects of occupational stress on employees’ health and well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a cross-sectional research design. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from hospital employees.

Findings

Job-related, working environment, interpersonal and organisational factors were related to occupational stress. One-fourth of employees rated their occupational stress high. The major sources of occupational stress were inadequate pay, inequality at work, too much work, staff shortage, poor recognition and promotion, time pressure, job insecurity and lack of management support. High levels of occupational stress have been linked to an increased risk of physical injuries, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, depression and increases in negative personal behaviours such as anger, anxiety and irritability. Occupational stress was positively associated with employees’ turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study are not generalisable to the wider population of hospital employees in Iran due to the small sample size. Thus, future research should involve additional samples.

Practical implications

The study has practical relevance for designing and implementing strategies to decrease occupational stress among hospital employees.

Originality/value

This article contributes to health care theory and practise by identifying factors contributing to employees’ occupational stress and examining the association between occupational stress and two important employee outcomes – health status and turnover intention.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

Keywords

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