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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Jie Lv, Ying Xiong and Yingjie Zheng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the nature of firm heterogeneity and factors of the host country on the choice of entry modes in greenfield…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the nature of firm heterogeneity and factors of the host country on the choice of entry modes in greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical analysis was conducted of 450 outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) cases of Chinese-listed companies from 2001 to 2015. A regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the heterogeneous nature of enterprises and host country factors on the choice of entry mode.

Findings

First, the nature of a firm’s heterogeneity differs in terms of their mobile or immobile capabilities, which may affect entry strategies. Second, although Chinese multinational companies do not have a strong ownership advantage when compared with multinational companies in developed countries, they have certain marketing capabilities, such as innovations, aimed at customer needs that make it possible to implement their internationalization strategy. Third, factors such as cultural distance and investment risk of the host country significantly influence the choice of OFDI entry modes.

Originality/value

The authors discuss the mobility of a firm’s resource heterogeneity in determining Chinese firms’ entry mode choices and emphasize that Chinese marketing-intensive firms seek complementary resources from the firms of the host countries to achieve competitive advantages. The authors further divide heterogeneous enterprise resources into research and development resources and marketing resources according to the degree of international mobility and examine what kind of firm heterogeneity could help in the selection of different entry modes.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2021

Mikael Hilmersson, Martin Johanson, Heléne Lundberg and Stylianos Papaioannou

Few researchers and even fewer practitioners would deny that serendipitous events play a central role in the growth process of firms. However, most international marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Few researchers and even fewer practitioners would deny that serendipitous events play a central role in the growth process of firms. However, most international marketing models ignore the role of serendipity in the opportunity discovery process. The authors provide a nuanced view on international opportunities by developing the role of serendipitous opportunities in the foreign market entry process. The authors develop a model integrating the notions of serendipity, entrepreneurial logic, experiential knowledge and network knowledge redundancy. From the study’s model, the authors condense three sets of hypotheses on the relationships among experiential knowledge and entry strategy, network knowledge redundancy, entry strategy and serendipity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors confront the study’s hypotheses with data collected on-site at 168 Swedish firms covering 234 opportunities, and to test the hypotheses, the authors ran ordinary least squares (OLS) regression tests in three steps.

Findings

The results of the study’s analysis reveal that experiential knowledge and network knowledge redundancy both lead to a logic based on rigid planning and systematic search, which in turn reduces the likelihood that serendipitous opportunities will be realized in the foreign market entry process.

Originality/value

This is the first study that develops a measure of opportunities that are the outcome of serendipitous events. In addition, the authors integrate network and learning theories and internationalization theory by establishing antecedents to, and outcomes of, the entry strategy.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Fahri Karakaya

This study examines the importance of 25 barriers to market entry in industrial markets. A survey of 93 firms indicates that majority of business executives consider cost…

Abstract

This study examines the importance of 25 barriers to market entry in industrial markets. A survey of 93 firms indicates that majority of business executives consider cost advantages and capital requirements to enter markets as the two most important barriers to entry followed by incumbents having a superior production process, capital intensity of the market, and customer loyalty. The least important barriers perceived by the executives in the study are government licensing requirements, followed by heavy advertising. In addition, the study investigates the underlying dimensions of barriers to entry in industrial market through a factor analysis. The results indicate that there are four major underlying dimensions of entry barriers in industrial markets.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1966

BARBARA R.F. KYLE

Catalogues of special libraries are primarily finding tools, and not repositories of exemplary cataloguing. Author and name entries, no less than subject entries, should…

Abstract

Catalogues of special libraries are primarily finding tools, and not repositories of exemplary cataloguing. Author and name entries, no less than subject entries, should be evaluated from the point of view of information retrieval. Multiple entries on unit cards generously used may well be justified not only on grounds of efficiency but also on grounds of economy. Stationery, duplicating, and space for extra cards are often cheaper than man‐hours spent in thinking, argument, and fruitless searches. Entries for periodical articles should not be separated from the main catalogue. Series entries in numerical order should include reasons for any deliberately excluded items. A study is made of two possible inquiries and of how far author and name entries may usefully be made for ‘sponsors’ as well as authors of publications. The use of agreed abbreviations is advocated as an economy. Biographee entries should be made in the author catalogue for studies of the work of specialist organizations. Use of book‐reviews for finding critiques of works of such organizations is suggested. Case studies of actual searches should form the basis in compiling a cataloguing code for special libraries.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Lijuan Zheng, Chengyong Wang, Xin Zhang, Yuexian Song, Lunqiang Zhang and Kefeng Wang

The purpose of this study is to present the entry drilling process of flexible printed circuit board (FPCs) and its influence on hole quality, especially hole location…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present the entry drilling process of flexible printed circuit board (FPCs) and its influence on hole quality, especially hole location accuracy. Compared with the traditional PCB drilling process, the technology of drilling FPCs is facing more problems, such as hole location accuracy, smear on the hole wall surface, burned hole wall surface, etc. Moreover, the materials of FPCs are quite different from the rigid printed circuit boards (RPCs). FPCs no longer contain glass fiber cloths to reinforce resin, resulting in flexibility. Micro-hole quality is the most important issue in FPC drilling. Suggestions were given to obtain higher hole qualities and higher FPC reliability.

Design/methodology/approach

The entry drilling process of FPC with different kind of entry boards was observed by a high-speed camera. The hole qualities of FPC micro-drilling, especially hole location accuracy and hole entrance quality, were measured. The relationship between entry boards and hole quality was analyzed.

Findings

Significant sliding occurred when drilling FPC with using no-entry board or pure aluminum plate entry board. On the contrary, no significant sliding occurred when using LC-110 or resin-coated aluminum foil (MVC) entry boards. The type, thickness and use-pattern of entry boards influenced hole location accuracy of FPCs seriously. In addition, entry board also influenced the micro-hole entrance quality and micro-hole diameter. The entrance quality of drilling FPC with LC-110 entry board was the best. The diameter variation of drilling FPC with MVC entry board was the smallest. The hole location accuracy decreased as the thickness of entry board increased. Thus, the best use-pattern of entry board was putting a LC-110 under MVC entry board, resulting in best entrance quality and hole location accuracy.

Originality/value

The technology and manufacturing of FPCs in China are obviously behind. Research of FPCs micro-drilling and research data are lacking so far. Thus, it is most necessary to improve the technology level of FPCs micro-drilling in China. Researches on hole quality, especially hole location accuracy of FPCs drilling, were performed in this paper. Suggestions were given to obtain higher hole quality of FPCs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Horn-Chern Lin and Tao Zeng

– This paper examines the effect that foreign bank entry into China had on transaction fees and service fees charged by domestic Chinese banks.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effect that foreign bank entry into China had on transaction fees and service fees charged by domestic Chinese banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an empirical study using financial data for listed Chinese banks collected from the China Stock Market Financial Statement Database.

Findings

This paper finds that domestic banks cut transaction fees and service fees shortly before the entry into China of foreign banks, and domestic banks did not cut transaction fees and service fees after foreign banks entered into China.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not examine any non-price strategies employed by local Chinese banks in response to the entry of foreign banks.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine transaction fees and service fees charged by domestic Chinese banks in response to the entry of foreign banks into China.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Peter Hancox

Combination indexing is a method of ordering a set of terms or keywords on the syntagmatic axis rather than the paradigmatic axis. All terms applied to the document by the…

Abstract

Combination indexing is a method of ordering a set of terms or keywords on the syntagmatic axis rather than the paradigmatic axis. All terms applied to the document by the indexer are listed in all possible combinations to produce the index entries, and therefore the user should be able to search the index with no more knowledge of its structure beyond alphabetization. The disadvantage of combination indexing is the large number of entries produced. For n keywords, n! entries are produced. With a very few terms in each string this is not a serious problem, but when several terms are included in a string the number of entries soon reaches excessive proportions. Five terms would produce one hundred and twenty entries; seven terms, five thousand and forty entries.

Details

Program, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2014

Alexander H. Wisgickl and Jonas Puck

Building on transaction cost economics (TCE) and recent critique on international business (IB) research, we intend to sharpen our knowledge on the application of TCE in…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on transaction cost economics (TCE) and recent critique on international business (IB) research, we intend to sharpen our knowledge on the application of TCE in entry mode studies.

Methodology/approach

We develop a two-sided model of transaction costs by considering the multinational corporation (MNC) and the local partner.

Findings

Overall, we illustrate that the decisions firms undertake are not always in line with traditional MNC-centric TCE reasoning. Specifically, we identify three situations when “traditional” TCE predicts transaction costs lower than they actually are. Based on our findings we derive implications for future TCE studies.

Originality/value

Our study is among the first to highlight the relevance of potential partners’ transaction costs during market entry. Our model of dually impinged transaction costs is supposed to guide future research and can be of direct use to firms assessing costs of entry.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2006

Esther Sánchez Peinado and José Pla Barber

Despite the importance of the service sector in developed economies and the growth of foreign investments in this sector during the last decade, few studies have…

Abstract

Despite the importance of the service sector in developed economies and the growth of foreign investments in this sector during the last decade, few studies have undertaken to empirically analyze the factors influencing entry mode choice. The special characteristics of the service sector increase the complexity of the analysis and, thus, traditional explanations of entry mode choice in manufacturing sectors may need to be complemented by other moderating influences. Based on 174 entry decisions of service firms, our results suggest the importance of including strategic variables and the specific nature of services to understand a complex phenomenon, which is not always associated just with efficiency and value-based considerations but also with strategic issues and industry characteristics.

Details

International Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-369-3

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Michael Hilb

This paper introduces a conceptual framework to assess the foreign market entry behavior of emerging market multinationals (EMMs). By introducing strategic cognition as…

Abstract

This paper introduces a conceptual framework to assess the foreign market entry behavior of emerging market multinationals (EMMs). By introducing strategic cognition as the underlying theoretical perspective, this paper postulates that different levels of institutional voids in home markets shape the strategic cognition of EMMs, influencing their market entry behavior due to the prevalence of organizational imprinting in the early stages of internationalization. The paper aims to contribute to the strategic cognition literature by introducing emerging markets as a relevant context in which to apply and extend current thinking. Additionally, it aims to contribute to the institutional voids literature by providing a cognitive framework of behavioral patterns that is rationalized by institutional voids. Finally, the paper contributes to the entry mode literature by proposing strategic cognition as a relevant moderator for foreign entry mode choices, particularly those of EMMs.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

Keywords

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