Search results

1 – 10 of over 21000
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Tahereh Sadeghloo, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari, Mahdi Salehi and Amin Faal Jalali

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the public and private financing obstacles to medium- and small-scale entrepreneurs in rural areas in Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the public and private financing obstacles to medium- and small-scale entrepreneurs in rural areas in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive analytic research method is used for collecting field data among 5,770 owners of entrepreneurial businesses located in rural areas of Mashhad in 2015.

Findings

The results showed that there are numerous public and private obstacles in rural entrepreneurship financing in Iran, which are the main factors for short-term loan repayment in public sector, and in the private sector, they result in entrepreneurs’ lack of access to the source of financing. Moreover, there are a variety of financing methods for entrepreneurship in rural areas, among which personal resources and borrowings are the most important ones. Thus, lack of serious and persistent governmental support from local entrepreneurs causes many entrepreneurial failures at the early stages of entrepreneurial activity in villages of Iran.

Originality/value

So far, few studies have been conducted on the subject of the study; hence, the results of the current study may be helpful to the developing nations.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2022

Mohsen Motiei

As technological entrepreneurship has distinctive characteristics and needs particular conceptualizations, it is also important to have specific theoretical developments…

Abstract

Purpose

As technological entrepreneurship has distinctive characteristics and needs particular conceptualizations, it is also important to have specific theoretical developments about its technological entrepreneurship. Studying the related domains like entrepreneurship and technology can be helpful in this path; however, their differences should be considered as well. The purpose of this study is to design a model in support of technological entrepreneurship. Since financing is considered as the main restriction on creating and developing technological entrepreneurship, the focus of this study is the research of financial policies of technological entrepreneurship..

Design/methodology/approach

This research is from the qualitative point of view and in terms of the purpose of application-development that has been done in the second part. At the first step, Iran’s (IRI) national comprehensive policies have been studied from 1993 to 2020; out of 52 documents, 7 were relevant, of which 38 policies were eventually selected. Then, policy statements were explored, and open coding and categorization has been done through theme analysis approach to attain fundamental themes and organizational themes. In the second step, the themes were extracted in the form of soft research method with the approach of interpretive structural modeling to level the financing policies of technological entrepreneurship in Iran.

Findings

The results show that the most important factors influencing financing and entrepreneurship in Iran are increasing the productivity of goods and services, supporting entrepreneurship, increasing the efficiency of monetary policies that are in the first level.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations include access to upstream documents, strategies, administrative and organizational coordination to study documents.

Practical implications

These findings are very important to scholars, the policymakers and technological entrepreneurship operators in designing their financing strategies. The results show that the most important factors influencing financing and entrepreneurship in Iran are increasing the productivity of goods and services, supporting entrepreneurship, increasing the efficiency of monetary policies.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to explore the explanation and classification of technology-based entrepreneurship financing policies in Iran. Moreover, the findings of this study would prove useful in detailed studies of financing policies in the Middle Eastern countries as well.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Harvinder Singh Mand, Meenakshi Atri, Amarjit Gill and Afshin Amiraslany

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Female owners of e-businesses in India were surveyed regarding their perceptions of bank financing, internal financing sources and their motivations for e-entrepreneurship.

Findings

The findings of this study show that bank financing and internal financing sources positively impact women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship in India. The results show that family status, education, easy access to new business information and location positively impact women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship in India. The findings also show that bank financing has a higher impact on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship compared with internal financing sources.

Research limitations/implications

This is a co-relational study that investigated the relationship between bank financing and women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship and the relationship between internal financing sources and women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship. There is not necessarily a causal relationship between the two. The findings of this study may only be generalized to individuals similar to those that were included in this research.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship. The findings may be useful for investment advisors, the Indian Government and entrepreneurship consultants.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Nadiya Parekh and Laurence Attuel-Mendès

Social entrepreneurship is gaining increased attention from academia and practitioners worldwide. Owing to its financing challenges, academic pedagogies are seeking…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurship is gaining increased attention from academia and practitioners worldwide. Owing to its financing challenges, academic pedagogies are seeking methods to strengthen the social financing dimension of this emerging discipline. This paper bridges the gap in social entrepreneurship education by portraying diverse perspectives on this topic from multiple actors in two cross-cultural contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case analysis was conducted to explore financing aspects of social entrepreneurship in France and the United States. The authors interviewed academicians and practitioners to learn about their current experiments and thoughts on integrating finance into the curriculum for social entrepreneurship.

Findings

The authors found multiple facets of the social entrepreneurship finance construct, focused not only on specific financial skills but also on a general approach to venture designs. Multidisciplinary knowledge is sought not just on the topic of finance but also in other disciplines that can broaden its scope of financing to a larger investor domain. While in France, this came out as a need for integrating the financial communication skills to personify the social value creation process; in the US, it was pointed out as the need for having a contractual knowledge to differentiate investment opportunities and comprehend their risks levels.

Originality/value

By bringing perspectives from multiple actors who have had experience in social entrepreneurship financing in regions with the fastest development, this paper is seminal in bridging the financing skill gaps that exist in social entrepreneurship discipline. The main theoretical contribution of this article concerns the skills, financial and otherwise that are useful in social finance.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Bismark Kusi Appiah, Zhang Donghui and Shapan Chandra Majumder

The purpose of the current study is to analyze the influence that is caused by ethnicity and volunteer self-employment in entrepreneurship on the initial financing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to analyze the influence that is caused by ethnicity and volunteer self-employment in entrepreneurship on the initial financing and business performance of Chinese enterprises. The increasing trend of entrepreneurship has raised certain ethnic challenges in entrepreneurship owing to globalization and now there are several minority groups that are running their households in China. So, the current study aims to assess whether the minority-operated and majority-operated firms have different access to initial financing and different business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are collected from 25 Chinese enterprises about the current variables, and the relationships are tested. This study has used the ordinary least of square (OLS) regression model to examine the findings.

Findings

The purposive sampling is used in the current study because the purpose of the present research is to understand and study the role of ethnicity and self-employment in initial financing and business performance of Chinese enterprises and so the data was collected from related enterprises. This study has used the ordinary least of square (OLS) regression model to examine the findings.

Originality/value

The current findings have significant implications in theory and practice. This study will be a great addition to the literature because the self-employment has never been examined before in such models to assess the role of forceful or volunteer self-employment in entrepreneurship, and so, it will open new doors of research for future researchers.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

David Villaseca, Julio Navío-Marco and Ricardo Gimeno

The purpose of this paper is to understand women’s approaches to acquiring financial and other resources is essential for closing the entrepreneurship gender gap. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand women’s approaches to acquiring financial and other resources is essential for closing the entrepreneurship gender gap. In nearly 40% of economies, women’s early-stage entrepreneurial activity is half or less than half of that of men’s.

Design/methodology/approach

Even when there is extensive literature on female entrepreneurs, the authors review the findings through a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-1)9 crisis lens, trying to find new perspectives and solutions. With the approach of a systematic review of 4,520 publications on financing topics related to female entrepreneurs, various sources of financing available to female entrepreneurs are considered: bootstrapping, banks, business angels, venture capital and crowdfunding.

Findings

Identifying potential gender bias both on the supply and the demand side of financing, this research highlights new directions in encouraging female entrepreneurship and gives guidelines to public organisations on how to foster advanced forms of financing for female entrepreneurs in COVID-19 times.

Social implications

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge for economies and companies. Female entrepreneurs are the ones who have been hit harder, as they overcome pre-existing barriers, such as lack of access to finance, lack of networks and mentors and gendered priorities, among others. Without ensuring gender policies to counter these incremental negative effects, the authors face the risk of widening the gender gap.

Originality/value

Regarding previous systematic reviews of literature, this paper focusses on a specific challenge, how women entrepreneurs finance their activity, with a double vision: supply and demand of money.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Mohammed Ayoub Ledhem and Warda Moussaoui

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities and economic growth in Malaysia within the model of endogenous growth.

1675

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities and economic growth in Malaysia within the model of endogenous growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied a parametric analysis represented by vector autoregression (VAR) Granger causality and a non-parametric analysis represented in the bootstrapped quantile regression to examine the effect of Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities on economic growth within the model of endogenous growth. This paper used a sample of all Islamic banks working in Malaysia covering a period from 2014 first quarter until 2019 third quarter (2014Q1–2019Q3).

Findings

The findings demonstrated that Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities are promoting economic growth in Malaysia which indicates that Islamic finance is a vital contributor to economic growth through financing entrepreneurial domains small and medium-sized enterprises.

Practical implications

The analysis in this paper would fill the literature gap by investigating the link between Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities and economic growth within the model of endogenous growth in Malaysia as this study serves as a guide for the researchers and decision-makers to the necessity of merging Islamic finance as a major player in the economy to finance the entrepreneurial domain which contributes to economic growth.

Originality/value

This study is the first that investigates the relationship between Islamic finance for entrepreneurship activities and economic growth empirically using the causality and quantile regression within a new theoretical approach over the model of endogenous growth to provide a proven valuable experiment from Malaysia concerning Islamic finance for the entrepreneurial domain which promotes economic growth.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Adeniyi D. Olarewaju, Sunday A. Adebisi and Olusoji J. George

The efficacy of conventional financing strategies such as angel investment and venture capital financing developed in the context of Western economies but applied to…

Abstract

The efficacy of conventional financing strategies such as angel investment and venture capital financing developed in the context of Western economies but applied to Africa remains a subject of interest. This chapter, therefore, examined financing strategies that are indigenously peculiar to Africa and opportunities therein that could lead to entrepreneurial growth. Consequently, based on a number of criteria such as population and gross domestic product, five countries were selected from the five distinct African geographical regions while six different homogenous ethnic groups were selected from the five countries based on numbers (strength) and spread. A study of the financing strategies of these ethnic groups revealed germane customary funding practices based on culture and communal norms. Thus, as a result of the findings, a model was developed to explain the path to rapid entrepreneurship growth. It is emphasised that there are indigenous modes of financing strategies which the world could learn and adopt from Africa, particularly in instances where conventional theories or modes are not quite effective. Africa needs to achieve industrialisation and grow at a very rapid pace, and this could be achieved through indigenous financing strategies for its many unemployed youths. Advice for managers, educators and government officials are discussed.

Details

Indigenous Management Practices in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-849-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Robyn Owen, Julie Haddock-Millar, Leandro Sepulveda, Chandana Sanyal, Stephen Syrett, Neil Kaye and David Deakins

The chapter examines the role of volunteer business mentoring in potentially improving financing and financial management in under-served (i.e. schemes aim to assist…

Abstract

Introduction – General Principles

The chapter examines the role of volunteer business mentoring in potentially improving financing and financial management in under-served (i.e. schemes aim to assist deprived neighbourhoods and youth entrepreneurs) youth enterprises.

Youth entrepreneurship (commonly defined as entrepreneurs aged up to 35 years) is regarded by the OECD as under-represented, within entrepreneurship as a general social phenomenon, and young entrepreneurs as disadvantaged through being under-served. Indeed, young people with latent potential for entrepreneurship have been defined as a component of ‘Missing Entrepreneurs’ (OECD, 2013). This under-representation of nascent entrepreneurs within young people under 35 is partly theoretical. While examining entrepreneurship as a social phenomenon and taking a resource-based approach (Barney, 1991), young people are perceived at a particular disadvantage compared with older members of society. That is, however creative, they lack the experience and network resources of older members.

Theoretically, from a demand-side perspective, young people may have aspirations and the required skills for start-up entrepreneurship, but are disadvantaged from a supply-side perspective since financial institutions, such as the commercial banks, private equity investors and other suppliers of financial debt and equity, will see greater risk combined with a lack of track record and credibility (pertaining to information asymmetries and associated agency and signalling problems: Carpenter & Petersen, 2002; Hsu, 2004; Hughes, 2009; Mueller, Westhead, & Wright, 2014). This means that aspiring nascent youth entrepreneurs face greater challenges in obtaining mainstream and alternative sources of finance. Practically, unless such young entrepreneurs can call upon deep pockets of the ‘bank of Mum and Dad’ or family and friends, we can expect them to resort to pragmatic methods of stretching their resources, such as financial bootstrapping and bricolage (Mac an Bhaird, 2010; Mac an Bhaird & Lucey, 2015). Although these theoretical and practical issues have long existed for youth entrepreneurship, they have only been exacerbated in the post-2007 Global financial Crisis (GFC) financial and economic environment, despite the growth of alternative sources such as equity and debt sources of crowdfunding.

Prior Work – Unlocking Potential

There has been an evidence for some time that young people have a higher desire to enter entrepreneurship and self-employment as a career choice, in preference to other forms of employment (Greene, 2005). Younger people are also more positive about entrepreneurial opportunities. For example, a Youth Business International, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (YBI/GEM) (2013) report indicated that in the European Union (EU), ‘younger youth’ were more positive in their attitudes to good business opportunities and in seeing good opportunities than older people. Theoretically, the issues of low experience and credibility can be mitigated by the role of advisors, consultants and/or volunteer business mentors. In corporations and large organisations, mentors are known to be valuable for early career staff (Clutterbuck, 2004; Haddock-Millar, 2017). By extension with young entrepreneurs, business mentors raise credibility, develop personal and professional competence, business potential and entrepreneurial learning. From a supply-side perspective, this reduces risk for financial institutions, potentially increasing the likelihood of receiving external finance and improving the likely returns and business outcomes of such financing.

Methodological Approach

In examining the role of business mentoring in youth entrepreneurship finance, the chapter poses three research-related questions (RQs):

To what extent is the youth voluntary business mentoring (VBM) associated with access to external finance?

Where access to external finance takes place, does the VBM improve the outcomes of the businesses?

To what extent do VBMs make a difference to the performance of businesses receiving financial assistance?

The chapter draws on primary evidence from an online Qualtrics survey of 491 (largely) youth entrepreneur mentees drawn from eight countries in the YBI network. These were selected for their contrasting high (Sweden and Spain), middle (India, Argentina, Chile, Russia and Poland) and lower (Uganda) income economies, global coverage of four continents and operation of established entrepreneurship mentoring schemes. The study provides collective quantitative data on the current relationship between mentoring and the access and impact of external finance. It surveyed current or recently completed mentees during Autumn 2016 – the typical mentoring cycle being 12 months. Additionally, the chapter draws on further qualitative insight evidence from face-to-face interviews, with current mentor-mentee case study pairings from the eight countries.

Key Findings

In summary, the profile of surveyed mentees demonstrated even gender distribution, with three-fifths currently in mentoring relationships. At the time of commencing mentoring, nearly four-fifths were aged under 35, half being self-employed, one quarter employed, with the remainder equally distributed between education and unemployment. At commencement of mentoring, mentee businesses were typically in early stages, either pre-start (37%) or just started trading (34%), the main sectors represented being business services (16%), education and training (16%), retail and wholesale (12%) and creative industries (8%), with the median level of own business management —one to two years.

For one-third of mentees, mentoring was compulsory, due largely to receiving enterprise finance support, whilst for the remainder, more than a quarter stated that access to business finance assistance was either considerably or most important in their choice to go on the programme.

In terms of business performance, businesses receiving external finance (loans or grants through the programme) or mentoring for business finance performed significantly better than the rest of the sample: amongst those trading 47% increased sales turnover, compared to 32% unassisted (<0.05 level); 70% increased employment, compared to 42% (<0.05); 58% directly attributed improved performance to mentoring, compared to 46% (<0.1).

Contribution and Implications

The chapter provides both statistical and qualitative evidences supporting the premise that youth business mentoring can both improve access to external finance and lead to improved business performance. This provides useful guidance to youth business support, given that in some of the countries studied, external financing in the form of grants and soft micro loans for youth entrepreneurs are not available.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-577-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Hui Zhang, Ying Chen and Xiaohu Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate ways to mitigate gender bias in entrepreneurial financing. The authors aim to unveil the role entrepreneurs’ gender played in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate ways to mitigate gender bias in entrepreneurial financing. The authors aim to unveil the role entrepreneurs’ gender played in formal and informal financing under Chinese context, as well as the moderating role corporate social responsibility (CSR) played in such relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts ANOVA test and multiple regression method to empirically examine the relationship of entrepreneurs’ gender, formal financing, informal financing and CSR with second hand data from The Eleventh Private Enterprise Survey covering a sample of firms across China.

Findings

The results demonstrate that comparing to start-ups led by men, start-ups led by women are less likely to get either formal or informal financing. The results also suggest that CSR negatively moderates the impact entrepreneurs’ gender has on formal financing but not on informal financing.

Originality/value

By focusing on both formal and informal financing, the research of gender’s effects on firms’ financing has been extended. Also, by proving that CSR can help to mitigate gender bias in formal financing, contribution has also been made to the research field of gender financing. This paper contributes to the CSR literature by sorting out another benefit CSR has in new venture financing. Overall, findings of this study deepen the existing understanding of gender issues in the context of entrepreneurial financing.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 21000