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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Julie Knight

The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations and dynamics of Polish small business owners who are living and working in the United Kingdom several years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations and dynamics of Polish small business owners who are living and working in the United Kingdom several years after Poland’s enlargement to the European Union.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 39 Polish migrants, residing in the Cardiff area, in 2008 and 2011. During the 2008 data collection period, 20 interviews were completed, and during the 2011 data collection period, 19 interviews were completed.

Findings

The findings highlight that migrants become entrepreneurs for a variety of reasons, blurring the lines between cultural and economic entrepreneurship as well as between necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. The findings also highlight the changing motivations of the ethnic entrepreneurs over time, particularly when the demand for their product is unsustainable.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisabilty of the research is limited because of the small sample size. In addition, the lack of Polish language skills of the interviewer may have influenced the sampling of the Polish community.

Practical implications

The findings from this article will have an impact on the wider ethnic entrepreneurship literature, migration-based policy and the cultural integration of migrants in the long-term.

Originality/value

This article contributes to the wider literature on ethnic entrepreneurship through considering the migrants’ motivations throughout their entire entrepreneurial period and how these motivations may evolve over time.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Margarida Fontes and Cristina Sousa

The purpose of this paper is to address the strategies adopted by science-based start-ups to gain access to knowledge resources at diverse spatial levels. It investigates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the strategies adopted by science-based start-ups to gain access to knowledge resources at diverse spatial levels. It investigates the presence and relative importance of ties endowed with different types of proximity in firms’ knowledge networks, and the role played by non-geographical proximity in gaining access to knowledge sources, both nearby and distant.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical framework is proposed that distinguishes between two dimensions of proximity – geographical and relational – leading to different forms of proximity, which are further linked with modes of knowledge interaction (formal or informal). A methodology for network reconstruction is developed and applied to Portuguese molecular biology firms, permitting to identify the origin, location and nature of the ties and to position them along forms of proximity.

Findings

The results show that the incidence and mix of the different forms of proximity vary in firms’ individual networks, being possible to identify several patterns. They also uncover the relevance of relational proximity, whether or not coexisting with geographical proximity and often compensating for its absence.

Research limitations/implications

This approach needs to be complemented with further research that refines the operationalization of relational proximity, by attempting to disentangle the influence of different types of non-geographical proximity. Further research will also explore in greater detail the factors that may explain variety in the proximity mix of firms’ networks.

Practical implications

The paper offers insights into the knowledge sourcing strategies adopted by science-based firms located outside the main concentrations of knowledge in their field.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on the role of proximity in knowledge access, by developing and empirically testing a taxonomy of forms of proximity, considering the characteristics of science-based firms. It uncovers the mechanisms through which relational proximity can contribute to span spatial boundaries, highlighting the role played by entrepreneurs’ personal networks.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Laetitia Gabay-Mariani and Jean-Pierre Boissin

In line with an emerging body of literature questioning student entrepreneurs’ practices, and recent calls to bridge the intention-action gap, this contribution aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

In line with an emerging body of literature questioning student entrepreneurs’ practices, and recent calls to bridge the intention-action gap, this contribution aims to identify profiles of commitment among nascent entrepreneurs, and their relationship with the performance of entrepreneurial behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on Meyer and Allen's multidimensional model, the authors build an empirical taxonomy regarding affective and instrumental forms of commitment experienced by nascent entrepreneurs (n = 328) operating within French higher education.

Findings

The authors identify three commitment profiles – weak, affective and total – associated with distinct levels of advancement and investment in the entrepreneurial process. This analysis leads them to map out the entrepreneurial process followed by nascent entrepreneurs with three main thresholds: the initial threshold, the resonance threshold and the irreversibility threshold.

Research limitations/implications

The work contributes to an emerging field of research dedicated to student entrepreneurship. It highlights the existence of different trajectories among nascent entrepreneurs, but also to different ways of being tied to them. It also enriches more broadly the understanding of the entrepreneurial process, especially its volitional phase.

Practical implications

The results are also important to guide public action, especially to design relevant support programs accounting for nascent entrepreneurs' diversity.

Originality/value

This is the first research to identify profiles of nascent student entrepreneurs based on the way they feel tied to their project, but also to the broader project of becoming entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Safiya Mukhtar Alshibani and Thierry Volery

Social support has been identified as a valuable resource that could help entrepreneurs maintain goal directness in their endeavours and increase their life satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

Social support has been identified as a valuable resource that could help entrepreneurs maintain goal directness in their endeavours and increase their life satisfaction. However, to date, scant research has examined the effect of perceived social support on life satisfaction during the transition from paid employment to self-employment. This paper uses the job demand resource model (JD–R) as a theoretical lens to investigate this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the household income and labour dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, we use latent growth curve modelling (LGCM) to investigate the trajectories of entrepreneurs' perceived social support and life satisfaction (n = 1,303) up to five years after their transition into self-employment.

Findings

Results suggest that entrepreneurs experience a boost in life satisfaction in the transition phase, followed by a declining trend in the years that follow. We find that both the initial perception and the evolution of perceived social support are positively related to life satisfaction over time across gender groups. However, we find that females may benefit more from early social support soon after the transition into self-employment to forestall declines in life satisfaction over the long-term.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisability of the research findings beyond the Australian context is undefined. Future research needs to examine to what extent these results can generalize to other samples within different cultural and institutional frameworks.

Practical implications

Since perceived social support is a strong buffering mechanism that helps mitigate job demands, entrepreneurs need to be proactive in building a strong network. Individuals who switch to self-employment should carefully map and build a strong social network that can help them weather the challenges and setbacks in their new job.

Originality/value

This study extends the JD–R literature by examining the transition into self-employment, considered an “active job” characterised by high demands and high decision latitude. LGCM modelling captures how both initial levels and changes in social support affect life satisfaction during entrepreneurship entry and over time.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Pamela Meil and Hal Salzman

Is the rise of the Indian software industry simply another Asian state-dominated industrial growth story or is India distinctive, an economy where small technology…

Abstract

Purpose

Is the rise of the Indian software industry simply another Asian state-dominated industrial growth story or is India distinctive, an economy where small technology entrepreneurs also find niches for development and can be drivers of innovation? Research has focused on the large integrated Indian and international service providers. This study examines the opportunity for growth among smaller innovative technology entrepreneurial firms. Two areas of inquiry are: What factors have been responsible for spurring growth in the Indian IT industry? What type of work is being carried out at Indian firms and is this profile changing? This paper aims to examine the emergence of technology entrepreneurs, particularly in terms of their links to multinational firms and their role and position in global value chains. The paper takes a multi-level approach to understanding development trajectories in the IT sector in India: a global value chain approach to the extent that company processes are seen in their larger networked context across organizations and an institutional approach in terms of state policies that influence the creation of infrastructure that, in turn, shapes organizational development trajectories. Additionally, it examines the role of the various actors within IT sector organizations – the workers, the managers and, in the case of the small companies in our sample, the owners – on the outcome of growth trajectories in the Indian IT sector. We find that the various levels of change and policy all contribute to the outcome in company trajectories: the dominance of multinational enterprises on the market, the entrepreneurial vision and survival strategies of returned technology expatriates, and the changing policies of the government in promoting indigenous business.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research interviews; comparative case study; literature review; multi-tier analysis.

Findings

The technology entrepreneurial development in India appears to represent quite a distinctive path in terms of both firm development and broader economic development. It is focused on the IT sector, in which high skill “knowledge work” is carried out and which has been able to develop despite lack of basic infrastructure (roads and reliable electricity).

Research limitations/implications

After the opening up of the business environment to large Western multinational enterprises (MNEs), it was difficult for indigenous Indian entrepreneurs to compete in innovative product development markets. Developing such companies depended on individual risk taking, as no specific infrastructure existed for niche production. However, the knowledge base and innovation clusters did offer opportunities for obtaining contracts. The Indian entrepreneurs did have to make a lot of compromises about defining their business and the tasks they could undertake. More research is needed on the paths and development opportunities for these smaller Indian-owned firms.

Practical implications

Unique opportunities are emergent and defy easy policy prescriptions, other than precluding change that does not foreclose emergent possibilities (e.g. such as strong state controlled business development).

Social implications

Indian-owned innovative companies, although having difficulties competing with large Indian and Western MNEs, do put pressure on these MNEs to move work up the value chain, thereby providing more interesting and challenging opportunities for Indian knowledge workers.

Originality/value

This paper provides a unique company-level perspective about entrepreneurialism in the Indian software sector from the perspective of different actors in the process. It then links this company-level perspective to a larger context both in terms of trajectories of development at the macro level, as well as the role that the company’s place in multinational value chains has in its development perspectives. It gives a special insight into the motivations and obstacles facing entrepreneurs in India’s dynamic software sector.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Dag Håkon Haneberg and Lise Aaboen

The purpose of the present paper is to explore entrepreneurial learning at the centre of communities of practice.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present paper is to explore entrepreneurial learning at the centre of communities of practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Learning perspectives from the community of practice concept are applied to interpret and discuss results from an in-depth empirical investigation using a novel qualitative method, the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET), to study the entrepreneurial learning behaviour of ten coaches in a student venture incubator. The coaches are students with a certain level of entrepreneurial experience. Given their coaching roles and practices, the coaches are considered “community insiders”.

Findings

The findings show how the socially situated entrepreneurial learning of community insiders could be considered an adaptive process following multiple learning trajectories depending on with whom and about what the entrepreneur involves in social relationships.

Practical implications

Policy makers seeking to facilitate communities of practice should enable learning activities for community insiders and organic development in addition to networking events and support for the entire ecosystem in order to enable bridging of communities of practice.

Originality/value

The present paper focuses on the entrepreneurial learning of community insiders using a novel qualitative method, ZMET. The paper empirically demonstrates that community insiders learn through an adaptive process and participation in multiple communities of practice. This is both in interaction with the nascent entrepreneurs whom they coach as well as when interacting with other community insiders.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Laura Ann Scheiber

The purpose of this article is to shed light on opportunities for social capital during the conceptualization and initial implementation of innovative social enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to shed light on opportunities for social capital during the conceptualization and initial implementation of innovative social enterprises dedicated to violence prevention and youth empowerment in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a two-tiered interview process over a nine-month period with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, attention is given to with whom, where and in what ways these innovators accessed and utilized the skills and knowledge necessary to develop and administer social entrepreneurial programs.

Findings

The findings reveal more than any other social actor the target population featured most frequently in interviews with social entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the small scale of the study and the specific focus of the social entrepreneurs, the implications of the study are not generalizable to social entrepreneurs across fields.

Practical implications

The findings are valuable because they can inform future social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention and youth empowerment about social relations they may wish to cultivate to access relevant social resources during the initial stages of social entrepreneurship.

Social implications

Among other benefits, investing in social relations with the target population could help minimize top-down models, which have been a common criticism among third-sector social enterprises.

Originality/value

The value of this study is that it adds insight into how the social entrepreneurs built trust among this critical group of actors as well as an analysis of the outcome of the social capital embedded in relations with the target population during the initial stages of social entrepreneurship.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Norbert Alter

Abstract

Details

The Strength of Difference: Itineraries of Atypical Bosses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-582-5

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Tatiane Andreza de Souza Silva, Victor Silva Corrêa, Gláucia Maria Vasconcellos Vale and Ernesto Michelangelo Giglio

The purpose of this article is to investigate if and how social capital offline – stemming from face-to-face interactions – and social capital online – stemming from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate if and how social capital offline – stemming from face-to-face interactions – and social capital online – stemming from social digital media – can influence early-stage entrepreneurs, i.e. ventures with up to 42 months of existence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used herein a qualitative research approach. The method used was the case study. The authors investigated three early-stage entrepreneurs in order to achieve the objective of the paper. These entrepreneurs are both the unit of analysis and the unit of observation.

Findings

The outcomes of this research indicate (1) the combined importance of social capital offline and online; (2) the different performance of the two different types of social capital (they seem to operate in relatively distinct ways) and (3) the existence of recursiveness between resources stemming from the two social spheres (offline and online).

Research limitations/implications

As research limitations, the authors point out the following: (1) the use of semistructured interviews as the only data collection instrument; (2) the limitation of the outcomes to entrepreneurs only (3) the absence of information on the performance of the business ventures; the focus of the paper was only on establishing causality between social capital offline and online and entrepreneurial performance.

Originality/value

This paper provides important research contributions. Initially, the paper presents a range of offline and online variables, which can be used in further research. At the same time, the paper emphasizes the combined impact of social capital offline and online, expanding the literature related to entrepreneurship. Moreover, this study proposes the creation of an integrative model. Finally, the authors point out the need for new theoretical and empirical studies on the subject, which still presents a gap in the literature.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Huriye Yeröz

While migrant women entrepreneurs (MWE) have been studied extensively through the lenses of gender and ethnicity, social class, as an axis of difference, received scant…

Abstract

Purpose

While migrant women entrepreneurs (MWE) have been studied extensively through the lenses of gender and ethnicity, social class, as an axis of difference, received scant attention in entrepreneurship and migrant enterprise literature. The purpose of this paper is to make an intersectional analysis on migrant women’s cultural capital development processes on the basis of not only gender and ethnicity, but also class relations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on empirical insights generated through listening to the life story narratives of 17 women entrepreneurs from Turkey. This is a small, yet diverse group consisting of women who followed their male kin who have migrated to Sweden in the late 1960s as a labour force, and of highly educated political refugee women who have migrated to Sweden following the military coup in Turkey in the 1980s.

Findings

By linking pre-migration and post-migration lives through Bourdieusian class analysis, the analysis yielded three distinct types of habitus of the women-intersectional identity constructed through interweaving of certain historical and cultural practices and conditions, labelled as women (immigrant) entrepreneurs, migrant (women) entrepreneurs and hybrid entrepreneurs. Life stories demonstrated the ways the MWE relationally defined, and in turn, contested being the right kind of entrepreneur drawing on their type of habitus and forms of cultural capital within the rules of the game in the specific context of entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This study shows how MWE generate diverse, yet at times similar, but historically and culturally conditioned responses in actively shaping the relationship between entrepreneurial resources and context-specific structural powers and aspects. This way, the study calls for enriching the extant debate on migrant women entrepreneurship in two ways. First, it suggests that the strategic fit between resources and opportunities does not entail an automatic and arbitrary process. Rather, it takes an effort and contestation carried out by the entrepreneurial actors, among whom the individual entrepreneur is the primary actor. In particular, it draws attention to the conditions of possibilities for agency as a result of struggle and intersectional power relations: social class, ethnicity and gender, which provide a differential degree of powers to the individual entrepreneur.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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