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Article

Fayçal Boukamcha

This paper aims to clarify the impact of the entrepreneurial training on a Tunisian trainee’s entrepreneurial cognitions and intention. An interactive cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the impact of the entrepreneurial training on a Tunisian trainee’s entrepreneurial cognitions and intention. An interactive cognitive perspective was adopted to test the interaction effect between the entrepreneurial cognitions: the perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy, the perceived entrepreneurial feasibility and entrepreneurial desirability. A research model was built showing several relationships between entrepreneurial training, cognitions and intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 240 participants in four business incubators. The maximum-likelihood test was used as a structural equation modeling method to test the model.

Findings

The results show the importance of the entrepreneurial training in the development of entrepreneurial cognitions. Further, the findings, to some extent, validate the interaction between the entrepreneurial cognitive patterns. However, entrepreneurial intention was only predicted through the entrepreneurial desirability. Several implications are discussed at the end of this paper.

Practical implications

The findings seem interesting insofar, as they show the importance of entrepreneurial trainings in the entrepreneurial intention development through the enhancement of desirability. This process can be triggered by a training program that contains case studies, success stories and conferences to make the youth enthusiastic about self-employment.

Originality/value

The significant impact of the entrepreneurial training on trainees’ cognitions should encourage governments and incubators to promote entrepreneurial training programs to enhance the youths’ willingness to create their own businesses. The findings in this paper seem interesting insofar as they show the importance of entrepreneurial trainings in the entrepreneurial intention development through the enhancement of desirability. This process can be triggered by a training program that contains case studies, success stories and conferences to make the youth enthusiastic about self-employment.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article

Allan A. Gibb

The relationship between education and training and the currently popular theme of “enterprise culture” is explored. The expression “enterprise culture”, is at present…

Abstract

The relationship between education and training and the currently popular theme of “enterprise culture” is explored. The expression “enterprise culture”, is at present ill‐defined, if defined at all. The confusions surrounding this expression relate in turn to the failure to make proper distinctions between entrepreneurship, enterprise and small business. These terms are defined in this context, as well as “intrapreneur”. Entrepreneurs are defined in terms of a set of attributes, some of which can be measured. Small business is defined in terms of ownership and task structure. Enterprise is seen to be something that means the exercise of entrepreneurial attributes in a wide range of different situations. Intrapreneurship is the exercise of entrepreneurial attributes within a large company or bureauracy. The relationship between these redefined concepts is explored and the issue of whether entrepreneurship can be socially engineered through education and training is addressed. A definition of what constitutes “enterprise culture” is then related to education and training. This link is discussed, both in general terms and particularly in respect of university and management education. It is argued that many of the values and structures pervading in university education and university business schools may be the antithesis of entrepreneurship. In this respect, the links between entrepreneurship as practised in small business and as fostered under the “intrapreneurship” banner in large companies is explored. Finally, policy objectives in fostering entrepreneurship, small business and intrapreneurship, particularly in respect of education and training, are reviewed.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article

Mohammed Abdul Imran Abdul Aziz Khan

Women entrepreneurship is the fundamental carter of economic development. This study aims to identify the dynamics that encourage entrepreneurial attitudes among women in…

Abstract

Purpose

Women entrepreneurship is the fundamental carter of economic development. This study aims to identify the dynamics that encourage entrepreneurial attitudes among women in MENA countries. More precisely, it required to scrutinize the role of the government, role models, the entrepreneurial training and women’s demographic characteristics in encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on primary data, where data were gathered from a sample of 300 women from MENA countries through a self-administered questionnaire and were subjected to one-way ANOVA tests. Different statistical tools were used to draw some valued conclusions from the gathered data. The study reveals that women entrepreneurs acknowledge the role played by the government, entrepreneurship training, role models and demographic variables in encouraging them to embrace entrepreneurship.

Findings

The government and the entrepreneurial training were found to be the greatest variables encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the low overall mean exhibited that most women do not believe that these bodies have played their role satisfactorily. Whereas the ANOVA results reveal that age and work experience were not important dynamics behind encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from a sample of 300 women entrepreneurs with a simple random sampling technique from the following MENA countries: Oman, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. It is too difficult to approach the women respondents and then collect data from them especially in MENA countries; hence the sample is small and limited.

Practical implications

However, such studies are still in the minority, and, with few exceptions, most have been published in the niche. The study finds imperative for policymakers to go beyond measures that aim to address the challenges that individual women entrepreneurs face and to study the institutional framework affecting women entrepreneurship in relationship to motivations and resources. Additional care is desired to compel the environment and context to eliminate barriers to women entrepreneurship at source. The government should play a significant role in encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship, especially in times of economic slowdown. World-wide, women are under-represented among the population of entrepreneurs, and they tend to have different motivations and intentions. The first, and most obvious, implication highlights governments need to create special funds for unlocking the potential by enhancing their levels of entrepreneurship skills using the traditional instruments such as training. The government should come up with new and specific training programmes, providing support for growth-oriented women entrepreneurs with dedicated business incubator and business accelerator programmes.

Social implications

Entrepreneurs are strongly influenced by role models and social context. It is therefore important to promote women entrepreneurs as role models and ensure that the education system is gender-neutral and does not discourage women from going into different fields. Finally, more targeted actions can be taken to ensure that family policies, social policies and tax policies do not discriminate against entrepreneurship by women.

Originality/value

The author believes that only few entrepreneurship researchers are interested in feminist epistemology, disappointingly the more advanced understanding of feminism witnessed in sociology and the political science literature is not reflected in the field of entrepreneurship. Hence, there is a need for investigate the dynamics like government role, entrepreneurial training, role models and demographic characteristics, to have a fuller understanding of how they affect, to ensure a more accurate assessment of the outcomes for the development of women entrepreneurs in MENA countries. This study is an attempt to investigate the dynamics such as government role, entrepreneurial training, role models and demographic characteristics that encourage women to embrace entrepreneurship in MENA countries.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article

Nimitha Aboobaker and Renjini D.

In the context of conflicting results in the existing literature on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial education and training, this study aims to examine the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

In the context of conflicting results in the existing literature on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial education and training, this study aims to examine the effect of entrepreneurial training on perceived human capital and entrepreneurial intention of students. A deeper understanding of the effectiveness of entrepreneurship programs assumes significance, given the substantial policy support and budgetary spending on entrepreneurship education across the world, especially in emerging economies like India. Furthermore, the authors seek to examine if human capital mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial training and entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 330 final-year students who had undergone a mandatory course on “entrepreneurship and new venture planning” in various disciplines in science, technology and management were randomly selected as sample respondents. A self-administered and structured questionnaire that measured the attitude toward perceived effectiveness of entrepreneurial education and training, perceived human capital and the entrepreneurial intention was used to elicit responses.

Findings

Results revealed that entrepreneurial training and education are effective in eliciting an important student-level outcome of entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, the study found that human capital significantly mediates the aforementioned relationship. Based on these findings, it is suggested to further the focus of entrepreneurial training programs conducted in universities and thus foster entrepreneurial outcomes among students.

Originality/value

This study adds to the body of knowledge, by examining if entrepreneurial education and training provided by universities indeed yield positive results in terms of higher intentions to engage in entrepreneurial activities, with emphasis on a large developing economy like India. Entrepreneurship development is widely recognized as an effective tool for the socio-economic development of societies in developing countries. This study, by establishing the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in creating entrepreneurial intention among young students, endorses the policy focus and resource spending on entrepreneurship training and education. Also, this study is pioneering in examining the mediating role of human capital in the aforementioned relationship.

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Article

Maryam Cheraghi and Thomas Schøtt

The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces reshaping gaps across career phases, from education to running a business. Such gaps may accumulate over one’s entrepreneurial career and widen or narrow due both to environmental forces that reconfigure the gap across career phases and to the gendering of competencies and benefits from education and training.

Design/methodology/approach

A representative sample of 110,689 adults around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Gender-related effects were ascertained by odds ratios estimated by hierarchical modelling, controlling for country and attributes of individuals.

Findings

Education and entrepreneurial training, both during and after formal schooling, are highly beneficial in developing competencies and during career phases – i.e. intending to start a business, starting a business, and running a business. Early gaps in human capital are reproduced as gaps in careers, and continuous disadvantages in the environment repeatedly widen gaps throughout a person’s entrepreneurial career. That said, gender gaps are reduced slightly over time as women gain greater benefit from training than men.

Research limitations/implications

The cumulative effects of early gender gaps in education and training call for research on gendered learning, and recurrent gender effects across career phases call for research on gendering in micro-level contexts such as networks and macro-level contexts such as institutions.

Practical implications

Understanding the gendering of human capital and careers has implications for policy and education aimed at developing human resources, especially for mobilising women. The finding that women gain greater benefit than men from training is informative for policies that foster gender equality and empower women pursuing careers.

Originality/value

Conceptualising the entrepreneurial career as a sequence of several stages enables the assessment of gender gaps owing to initial disadvantages in education and to recurrent disadvantages on the career path.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article

Jurie van Vuuren and Melodi Botha

This paper sets out to apply practically the constructs of the entrepreneurial performance training model to three different training interventions, known as the business…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to apply practically the constructs of the entrepreneurial performance training model to three different training interventions, known as the business start‐up, basic entrepreneurship, and advanced entrepreneurship programmes. Furthermore, the paper aims to measure the business performance indicators and skills transfer that took place after the training interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research was conducted, using three validated research questionnaires. The research design consists of a pre‐test, post‐test and post‐post test (ten weeks after the training interventions took place). Factor analysis was done, descriptive statistics arising from opinions and expressions are presented and statistical tests such as the Chi‐square test and ANOVA provide inferential statistics.

Findings

The business performance indicators improved for all three training groups after they attended the training interventions. Furthermore, it was proved that skills transfer took place after the respondents attended the training interventions.

Research limitations/implications

The training groups can be measured again after 18 months of three years to really determine the impact of the training interventions. The results of the three training programmes can be compared to see whether the basic entrepreneurship groups gained more skills and their business performance indicators increased more than the business start‐up or advanced entrepreneurship programmes.

Practical implications

The outcomes and implications of this research paper emphasise that it is imperative to design training programmes based on training models that have been tested. This paper highlights some aspects of how constructs used within the training models can be tested.

Originality/value

The entrepreneurial performance‐training model was practically applied and provides a set of expectations for other entrepreneurship models as well as presenting a benchmark against which programme performance can be measured. A unique teaching methodology is portrayed that contributes to the overall effectiveness of the training model.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Andres Barrios, Ezequiel Reficco and Rodrigo Taborda

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which hope and perceived goal attainment can be developed in subsistence entrepreneurs through the right training tools.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which hope and perceived goal attainment can be developed in subsistence entrepreneurs through the right training tools.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal study of a subsistence entrepreneurship training program in three Central American countries was carried out. Participants were divided on the basis of their exposure to training (yes, no), and of the type of training received (none, business plan, business model). The authors carried out three assessments (just before the program, six months and one year after the program) of participants’ business goals and their hope of attaining them. Information was analyzed using linear regression.

Findings

Participants exposed to training reported significant increases in perceived goal attainment and in their hope levels. Training based on the business plan affected hope agency in the short term, as predicted by the logic of causation theory. Training based on the business canvas affected hope pathways, as predicted by the logic of effectuation theory.

Research limitations/implications

Given the data collection process (a non-random sample and selection of participants), the findings are not generalizable without stringent procedures and further replication.

Practical implications

If hope is a reliable predictor of goal attainment, it should be promoted and measured. Given the limited means of gathering data and making reliable projections that most entrepreneurs endure, the business canvas’ contribution to entrepreneurs’ “emotional equipment” ceteris paribus should be more valuable for subsistence entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This is the first study comparing the short- and long-term effects of two entrepreneurial learning devices on entrepreneurs’ hope and business goal attainment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Eugenia Petridou and Niki Glaveli

The purpose of this paper is to appraise rural women entrepreneurs, running co‐operatives in Greece. The paper seeks to examine the effects of training support on their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to appraise rural women entrepreneurs, running co‐operatives in Greece. The paper seeks to examine the effects of training support on their entrepreneurial skills and attitudes, co‐operatives' viability and growth prospects, and work‐family balance.

Design/methodology/approach

An evaluation research was conducted in which 104 rural women members of co‐operatives, who had participated in a specific training program contributed. Anonymous questionnaires were used to collect data on participants' perceptions of the effects of the training intervention. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and intercorellations were employed in analysing the data.

Findings

The data illustrate that participants perceived benefits in terms of skill improvements, i.e. identification and capturing of business opportunities, effective co‐operation and flexibility in decision making and more positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship. In addition, perceptions related to the development and growth prospects of the co‐operative and to work‐family balance have also been positively affected.

Practical implications

The effectiveness of an entrepreneurship program can be enhanced when it is designed to meet the real needs of the organization and thus is more focused. Training needs analysis prior to intervention is a prerequisite. Moreover, achieving work‐family balance can also be seen as an aspect of a co‐operative's performance that can be improved through training.

Originality/value

This paper enriches research on the effect of entrepreneurship training programs for rural women co‐operative members.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Muhammad Azam Roomi and Pegram Harrison

The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and to assess the impact of capacity‐building programs on the establishment and performance of the women's enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins with a review of various theoretical contexts through which to understand women's entrepreneurship in an Islamic socio‐cultural context. From this, the paper derived two working propositions: women in Islamic Pakistan face particular barriers to becoming entrepreneurs; these barriers can be reduced by women‐only training in entrepreneurial competences. These propositions are examined in a three‐part longitudinal process: a field survey to gather information about the training needs of current and potential women entrepreneurs, the design and delivery of a women‐only training module, a follow‐up survey with participants, 18 months later. Subjects and participants were randomly selected, and segmented according to entrepreneurial factors and characteristics.

Findings

Results confirm that the barriers perceived by women entrepreneurs in Islamic Pakistan can be alleviated through women‐only training that allows participants to develop capital and competences. Greater clarity about learning outcomes desired and achieved by women entrepreneurs in an Islamic socio‐cultural context can be a basis for designing improved training and education programmes, with a view to women's economic empowerment.

Practical implications

For women entrepreneurs living in an Islamic society, this analysis has implications for understanding the importance and effectiveness of entrepreneurial training especially in a women‐only setting. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for creating an environment conducive to female entrepreneurship consistent with socio‐cultural structures and gender asymmetries.

Originality/value

There are no comparable previous data on the learning preferences and outcomes of this particular demographic group.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article

Asif Yaseen, Simon Somogyi and Kim Bryceson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how farmers perceive and exploit business opportunities to foster entrepreneurship in developing country agriculture.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how farmers perceive and exploit business opportunities to foster entrepreneurship in developing country agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 174 milk producers completed a face-to-face survey within a posttest- pretest research design. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results revealed that intentions, channelled through desirability, feasibility and optimism, become a strong predictor to recognise the opportunity to be entrepreneurial; however, the presence of a munificent environment and participation in apprenticeship and training programmes are the main and direct source of exploiting farming business opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the study is that cross-sectional data collected only from milk producers in Pakistan, signifying a need to include other agricultural sectors across different developing countries for further contextualising the results.

Originality/value

Research on entrepreneurial behaviour among farmers is scant. This study emphasises how cognitive heuristics guide intentions influencing the process of opportunity formation, and a munificent environment and entrepreneurial skills trainings are necessary for starting dairy farming business with modern practices.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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