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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Benjamin Powers, Séverine Le Loarne-Lemaire, Adnane Maalaoui and Sascha Kraus

This article contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship for people with disabilities through a better understanding of the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy

Abstract

Purpose

This article contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship for people with disabilities through a better understanding of the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions on entrepreneurial intentions in populations with lower levels of self-esteem. It investigates the entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy of a population of students suffering from dyslexia, which is a learning disability.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the study of a data set of 796 male and female adolescents in the USA, aged 13–19 years, both with and without dyslexia. The sample is a convenient one. The whole sample replied to the questionnaire on their self-efficacy perception and their intention to create, one day, their own venture. They also self-declare their dyslexia. Regressions have been conducted to answer the research question.

Findings

Results show that having dyslexia has a negative impact on entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions. They also reveal that self-efficacy perceptions mediate the relationship between dyslexia and entrepreneurial intentions and their three antecedents (social norms, control behavior and perceived ability).

Research limitations/implications

The sample is composed of students from private schools and might socially be biased.

Practical implications

Our findings relaunch the debate on the necessity to develop education programs that consider the personal-level variables of students, specifically the development of entrepreneurial self-efficacy among adolescents with disabilities

Social implications

Such findings should help to better understand students who are suffering from dyslexia and help them find a place in society and economic life.

Originality/value

This is so far the first study that has been conducted on dyslexic adolescents.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Aamir Hassan, Imran Saleem, Imran Anwar and Syed Abid Hussain

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the entrepreneurial intention of Indian university…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the entrepreneurial intention of Indian university students. This paper also examines the moderating role of entrepreneurship education and gender on the opportunity recognition–intention and self-efficacy–intention relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through a comprehensive questionnaire from 334 students having business and management background. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to ensure the reliability and validity of all the constructs, and structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

This study unveils three important findings. First, opportunity recognition and self-efficacy both show a significant positive impact on the entrepreneurial intention of students. Second, education positively moderates “self-efficacy–intention relationship”, and third, gender negatively moderates “opportunity recognition–intention” and “self-efficacy–intention” relationships.

Research limitations/implications

This study has been carried out using a sample of students from only one university, and the study included only business and management background students. Similar studies can be conducted by adding more motivational and contextual factors with an increased sample size of students having different educational backgrounds.

Practical implications

This study provides pragmatic support to formulate new educational initiatives that can support students in their present or future entrepreneurial projects.

Originality/value

This study adds to the scarce literature on opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial intention and also highlights the moderating role of entrepreneurship education and gender on opportunity recognition–intention and entrepreneurial self-efficacy–intention relationships.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Carianne M. Hunt, Sandra Fielden and Helen M. Woolnough

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of coaching to develop female entrepreneurship by overcoming potential barriers. It sought to understand how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of coaching to develop female entrepreneurship by overcoming potential barriers. It sought to understand how entrepreneurial self-efficacy can be applied to development relationships, through on-line coaching, examining changes in the four key elements of entrepreneurial self-efficacy enactive mastery, vicarious experiences, social persuasion and psychological arousal. The study examines the impact of coaching relationships on female entrepreneurial self-efficacy compared to a control group. The participant group was matched with coaches and undertook a structured six months’ coaching programme.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a longitudinal study using a mixed methods approach. Questionnaires investigating entrepreneurial self-efficacy were collected at two time points for both the coaching and control group. After the first time point, the coaching group was supported through a six months coaching development programme. At the second time point, questionnaires were again completed by both groups and qualitative data gather via interviews with the coaching group.

Findings

The findings from this study showed that coaching relationships had a positive impact on coachees’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy, compared to the control group in terms of enactive mastery, vicarious experience, social persuasion and psychological arousal. This suggests that coaching is a development intervention which can be used to enhance self-efficacy beliefs of female entrepreneurs, thereby increasing their chances of engaging in successful business creation and operation.

Research limitations/implications

The group size was a problem, with four of the coaching group and ten of the control group dropping out. The coaching participants left the intervention due to personal reasons but no reason could be established for the control group participants leaving the study. The problem of ‘Type II’ was considered and in an attempt to overcome this problem, data were shown at below 10% (p < 0.10). It would also have been useful to collect more qualitative data from the control group.

Practical implications

An online coaching programme provided by women for women, which is tailored to the individual, can support female entrepreneurs through the difficult stages of start-up and development phases of business development. Creating more successful women owned businesses will not only provide financial benefits, but should help provide additional entrepreneurial networks for women, as well as more positive female role models. Exposure to positive role models has been found to have a direct effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. This circular affect should in theory keep on increasing, if female entrepreneurs have access to the tailored support provided by coaching programmes such as the one used here.

Social implications

Considering the current global economic climate, it is increasingly important for women to be supported in small business ownership (Denis, 2012). Countries which actively promote women entering into business ownership will ultimately share the gains in terms of wider issues, i.e. improving education and health, and economic growth (Harding, 2007). If female entrepreneurship is to be encouraged and supported, provision needs to be designed and developed based on female entrepreneurs’ needs and requirements, rather than simply conforming to traditional business support models.

Originality/value

This study contributes to learning and theoretical debates by providing an understanding of female entrepreneurs' needs with regard to business support and how this can be related to and supported by coaching. It also adds to the literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, coaching and learning by providing empirical evidence to illustrate how coaching interventions, including the use of online methods, can have a positive impact on female entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Yi-Shun Wang, Timmy H. Tseng, Yu-Min Wang and Chun-Wei Chu

Understanding people’s intentions to be an internet entrepreneur is an important issue for educators, academics and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to develop…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding people’s intentions to be an internet entrepreneur is an important issue for educators, academics and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a scale to measure internet entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an analysis of 356 responses, a scale of internet entrepreneurial self-efficacy is validated in accordance with established scale development procedures.

Findings

The internet entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale has 16 items under three factors (i.e. leadership, technology utilization and internet marketing and e-commerce). The scale demonstrated adequate convergent validity, discriminant validity and criterion-related validity. Nomological validity was established by the positive correlation between the scale and, respectively, internet entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial intention.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to develop and validate a scale to measure internet entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The results of this study are helpful to researchers in building internet entrepreneurship theories and to educators in assessing and promoting individuals’ internet entrepreneurial self-efficacy and behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Donata Sobakinova, Yan Zhou and Dilawar Khan Durrani

Despite the existence of a vast body of research on entrepreneurship, little is known about why some entrepreneurs are able to generate and realize more business ideas…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the existence of a vast body of research on entrepreneurship, little is known about why some entrepreneurs are able to generate and realize more business ideas than others. This study aims to present a prospective answer to this question by empirically examining the relationships among human capital outcomes (entrepreneurial knowledge and skills) and the number of business ideas generated and implemented. Additionally, the authors examined the moderating effect of the entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the proposed relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A statistical analysis on a sample of 340 Russian entrepreneurs was conducted.

Findings

The results from the analysis indicated that human capital outcomes (entrepreneurial knowledge and skills) are positively related to the number of generated and implemented ideas. Furthermore, it was seen that entrepreneurial self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between human capital outcomes and the number of implemented ideas. However, self-efficacy has no significant moderating effect on the relationships among human capital outcomes and the number of generated ideas. Finally, the results showed that the number of ideas generated mediates the relationships among human capital outcomes and the number of ideas implemented.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous study has investigated the combination of such variables as entrepreneurial human capital outcomes, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the number of new business ideas. This paper investigates this gap in the literature with an empirical analysis of the relations between the mentioned variables based on data collected from Russian entrepreneurs.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Jill Kickul and Robert S. D'Intino

We examine the various components of entrepreneurial self-efficacy within the entrepreneurship literature from a measurement perspective. Two published entrepreneurial

Abstract

We examine the various components of entrepreneurial self-efficacy within the entrepreneurship literature from a measurement perspective. Two published entrepreneurial self-efficacy instruments are tested and compared. Additionally, we study how self-efficacy relates with many of the tasks and roles identified within the entrepreneurial new venture life-cycle. Our study suggests relationships between self-efficacy, perceived skills, and abilities to manage a new venture, and entrepreneurial intentions to start a new venture. We discuss relationships between entrepreneurship research and university teaching and make specific suggestions on how further work on improving measurement in entrepreneurship will benefit both research and teaching effectiveness.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Susana C. Santos and Eric W. Liguori

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 1,026 students from US public and private universities retrieved from the Entrepreneurship Education Project, this study tests a first-stage moderated mediation model in a two-step process.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is positively related to entrepreneurial intentions through the partial mediating effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations, and that this relationship is consistently significant and positive for individuals with lower, average and higher subjective norms towards entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the literature on entrepreneurial intentions by providing a comprehensive overlook on the mechanisms and boundary conditions relevant for intentions.

Practical implications

These results reinforce the need for educators and policy makers to ensure programs manage outcome expectations and recognize the role of peer, parent and mentor role models on the construction of these expectations and, consequently, on entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

Exploring the combined effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations as a mechanism and subjective norms as boundary conditions on the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions is an unexplored issue to date, and helps to understand how and why entrepreneurial intentions emerge.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Eric Michael Laviolette, Miruna Radu Lefebvre and Olivier Brunel

The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of positive and negative same‐gender fictional role models on students’ self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intention.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of positive and negative same‐gender fictional role models on students’ self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an experimental research on 276 French students. Structural equation modeling techniques were employed to measure role model identification, attitude toward the role model, emotional arousal, entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intention.

Findings

Exposure to fictional role models favorably impacts self‐efficacy and behavioral intentions if students identify with role models, hold favorable attitudes toward the message, and experience positive emotional arousal. Successful role models reinforce role model identification and generate favorable attitudes toward the message, thus enhancing self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. Unsuccessful entrepreneurial role models also favorably reinforce the relationship between self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. Message framing and role models’ gender exert a moderating effect on these results.

Practical implications

Several implications for entrepreneurship education are discussed. The predominance of masculine models in entrepreneurship discourse should be inverted in the agenda of entrepreneurship education. The authors question the overall predominance of positive models in entrepreneurial education and more deeply explore the learning value of negative models.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurial literature mainly focuses on mastery experience and positive real‐life role models as antecedents of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy. Negative role models are rarely examined as potential favorable sources of self‐efficacy beliefs, and little is known about the impact of emotional arousal, another source of self‐efficacy beliefs, as theorized by Bandura.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Jill Kickul, Fiona Wilson, Deborah Marlino and Saulo D. Barbosa

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind the significant gender gaps observed in entrepreneurial interest among adolescents. Specifically, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind the significant gender gaps observed in entrepreneurial interest among adolescents. Specifically, the authors aim to test multiple models that analyze direct and indirect relationships between work and leadership experience, presence of a parental role model, self‐efficacy, and interest by teens in becoming entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of over 5,000 middle and high school students participated in the larger study from which the data were drawn. Participants completed measures of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, work and leadership experience, and parental entrepreneurial role model. The authors analyzed the data using structural equation modeling.

Findings

While the study confirmed previous empirical findings regarding the antecedents of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, significant differences across gender emerged. First, while boys and girls hold jobs outside of school in comparable numbers, this work experience is much more powerful in generating self‐efficacy among boys. Additionally, the findings indicated that self‐efficacy seemed to have a stronger effect on entrepreneurial interest for girls than for boys, and that having an entrepreneurial mother or father had a significant and positive effect on girls' (but not boys') levels of the entrepreneurial interest.

Research limitations/implications

Common method variance and other typical limitations of cross‐sectional self‐report surveys are acknowledged. Future research should use longitudinal and multi‐method approaches to overcome such limitations.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that feeling like they are able to succeed as entrepreneurs might count more for girls than for boys when considering career options, and demonstrate the value of entrepreneurial role models for young girls, especially those who already have the confidence and perceived skills to launch their own future ventures.

Originality/value

The paper documents research that represents one of the few large‐scale studies of US teens examining entrepreneurial intentions and antecedents across gender.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Mateja Drnovšek, Joakim Wincent and Melissa S. Cardon

The aims of this paper are to: critically review and identify gaps in current literature on entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, provide a definition of entrepreneurial

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are to: critically review and identify gaps in current literature on entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, provide a definition of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy that addresses some of those gaps, and explore the role of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy during the phases of a business start‐up process. The research seeks to define entrepreneurial self‐efficacy using three sources of dimensionality. The first includes the particular aspect of entrepreneurship to which self‐efficacy is applied, whether to business start‐up or business growth activities. The second sources of dimensionality refers to the content of self‐efficacy beliefs (task or outcome goal beliefs), and the third source to the valence of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy beliefs (positive or negative control beliefs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build from the origins and mechanisms of the self‐efficacy construct in social cognitive theory and a synthesis of that work with prior use of self‐efficacy in entrepreneurship to propose a definition of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy that is context specific and empirically testable.

Findings

Entrepreneurial self‐efficacy is best seen as a multidimensional construct made up of goal and control beliefs, and propositions for how these two different dimensions will play a role during phases in the process of starting‐up a new business are developed.

Research limitations/implications

A well‐defined entrepreneurial self‐efficacy construct has significant pedagogical payoffs given that entrepreneurship education should also focus on social‐cognitive, psycho‐cognitive and ethical perspectives of entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The proposed multidimensional nature of self‐efficacy is original and unique in its contribution, and provides a conceptual foundation to understand how capabilities along different dimensions of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy are created and nurtured. This knowledge is useful for potential entrepreneurs as well as those who support them in the process.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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