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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Yiyuan Mai and Zhilong Gan

To study how entrepreneurial environments influence entrepreneurial opportunities and capacities in China.

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Abstract

Purpose

To study how entrepreneurial environments influence entrepreneurial opportunities and capacities in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs statistical models to test the relationship between environmental factors and entrepreneurial opportunities or capacities in 13 cities in China according to the conceptual model of GEM. Based on the data derived from GEM reports, the authors use principal component of factor analysis and lest square regression to study the impacts of entrepreneurial environments on entrepreneurial opportunities and capacities empirically.

Findings

This paper indicates that among 13 Chinese cities, if one city has more favorable conditions in terms of nine factors of entrepreneurial environments, it will have more entrepreneurial opportunities, and its entrepreneur will have higher capacities. Moreover, the authors find the extent of the impacts of the economic and cultural environments on entrepreneurial opportunities and capacities is higher than that of political and market environments.

Research limitations/implications

The quantity of sample statistics is relatively small, because it is difficult to develop the GEM project roundly in China.

Originality/value

This paper provides Chinese government with theoretical support so that the government can utilize limited resources to develop entrepreneurial activities. Meanwhile, it furthers foreign researchers and investors to understand the specific conditions in terms of Chinese entrepreneurial environments, opportunities, and capacities more clearly.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Cina van Zyl

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to launch a new venture in the tourism field. The main purpose of this chapter is to explain what the entrepreneurial process is, the steps/phases to transit from idea to enterprise and the risks involved.

Methodology/approach

General review was conducted on conceptual issues and managerial aspects of the entrepreneurial process and legal issues.

Findings

This chapter highlights that the entrepreneurial process undergone by entrepreneurs is dual in nature, both in terms of action and thinking process. Given that the failure rate of new ventures is high, there is a need to focus on the importance of understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurship, the action process of the prospective entrepreneur and the potential risk impact.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter is explorative in nature because the discussion is based on a general review.

Practical implications

Prospective entrepreneurs should follow specific steps, a rational process to establish their business venture and to protect its operations against any event. Thus, any new business should manage risks appropriately, as well as record insurance to cover for unforeseen events.

Originality/value

This chapter provides an overview of the entrepreneurial process and legal risk issues that may affect the success of a new venture. The hands-on approach is particularly useful in dealing with the entrepreneurial mind when exploring new business ventures in the tourism field.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-529-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2003

Jeffery S McMullen and Dean A Shepherd

Shane and Venkataraman (2000) suggest “the field [of entrepreneurship] involves the study of sources of opportunities; the processes of discovery, evaluation, and…

Abstract

Shane and Venkataraman (2000) suggest “the field [of entrepreneurship] involves the study of sources of opportunities; the processes of discovery, evaluation, and exploitation of opportunities; and the set of individuals who discover, evaluate, and exploit them” (p. 218). However, the study of the judgment required for opportunity evaluation has been greatly overshadowed by interest in opportunity recognition and to a lesser extent opportunity exploitation. This is surprising considering the number of economic theories of the entrepreneur that recognize sound judgment as a principal quality of entrepreneurship (Cantillon, 1755; Kirzner, 1973; Knight, 1921; Mises, 1949; Say, 1840; Schumpeter, 1934; Shackle, 1955). In fact, the first recognized theory of the entrepreneur defined the entrepreneur as someone who exercises business judgment in the face of uncertainty (Cantillon, 1755/1931, pp. 47–49). Similarly, Knight (1921, p. 271) suggests that the essence of entrepreneurship is judgment, born of uncertainty, and argues that it is this judgment that delineates the function of entrepreneur from that of manager. He goes on to point out that the function of manager does not in itself imply entrepreneurship but that a manager becomes an entrepreneur when he exercises judgment involving liability to error (Knight, 1921, p. 97). However, the judgment referred to by these theorists is not just any form of judgment, it is judgment exercised in the decision of whether to take action.

Details

Cognitive Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-236-8

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2003

Randall G Holcombe

Recognition of a profit opportunity requires a framework of knowledge to place information about a profit opportunity in a context where it can be recognized. The same…

Abstract

Recognition of a profit opportunity requires a framework of knowledge to place information about a profit opportunity in a context where it can be recognized. The same information about a profit opportunity could be revealed to many people, yet only a few with the appropriate knowledge will be able to place this information into a context that suggests to them a profit opportunity. This paper discusses how entrepreneurs gain knowledge to enable them to be more entrepreneurial, and shows how an economy generates information about entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurship adds to an economy’s knowledge base, making it easier to recognize profit opportunities when they arise.

Details

Austrian Economics and Entrepreneurial Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-226-9

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Babak Ziyae and Majid Vagharmousavi

Strategic entrepreneurship (SE) is effective in the formation of business strategies that involve simultaneous opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking behaviors. SE…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic entrepreneurship (SE) is effective in the formation of business strategies that involve simultaneous opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking behaviors. SE revitalizes firms to achieve competitive advantage in the current turbulent markets. The purpose of this paper is to understand in more detail how SE influences business growth (BG) through the lens of dynamic capabilities (DC) theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative research method and structural equation modeling technique, the measurement and structural models were developed to test the research hypotheses. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 159 internet of thing (IoT)-based companies in Iran.

Findings

The findings show that DC theory provides the theoretical underpinning to describe the effect of SE and its dimensions on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition (EOR). Results also reveal that EOR mediates the relationship between SE and BG. Furthermore, this research empirically verifies that organizational entrepreneurship and value creation moderate the relationship between EOR and BG.

Originality/value

IoT identifies a pathway for continuous change that helps to improve firms’ competitiveness and innovation. This paper provides a new insight into how Iranian IoT-based companies can enhance their SE to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities and gain competitive advantage. Mainly, this study singles out and discusses the variegated features that characterize the implementation of SE by Iranian IoT-based companies having different characteristics.

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Dian Liu

This study chooses to look at early-stage entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities from the perspective of university graduates. More specially, this study takes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study chooses to look at early-stage entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities from the perspective of university graduates. More specially, this study takes the stance of integrated role of structure and agency, examining how university graduate entrepreneurs recognize, review and activate their entrepreneurial opportunities, and what implications can be drawn in response to the integration of the in-building of the Greater Bay Area (GBA).

Design/methodology/approach

This article is drawn upon 12 case studies of small-scaled (within five permanent personnel) graduate enterprises based in Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The fieldwork was conducted in 2019, including enterprise visits, analyzing the enterprises documents and interviewing the graduate entrepreneurs. Participants were accessed through snowball sampling, and personal privacy and ethnicity were guaranteed during data collection. All founders of the graduate enterprises are university graduates within five years, regardless of their last achieved academic degree.

Findings

In this study, the objectivity–opportunity is interpreted as external enablers that are recognized by graduate entrepreneurs. Due to lack of experience, graduate entrepreneurs are more dependent on existing external opportunities in the market, instead of creating new inspirations. However, lack of experience does not mean the subjectivity–agency is missing. Instead, the subjectivity–element of entrepreneurial opportunity identification is the continuous evaluation in activating the external enablers, which is interpreted as self-evaluated challenges during entrepreneurial opportunity identification. These challenges function as sources of hesitation, modification and termination during their decision-making, as well as reflections of the current graduate entrepreneurial environment.

Originality/value

By date, no sophisticated study in literature is found analyzing the entrepreneurial opportunity identification of university graduates. Additionally, regardless of the rising attention, no agreement is achieved in the literature on measurement of entrepreneurial opportunity, influential factors of entrepreneurial opportunity and sub-elements of the identification process. This implies that more research to be conducted in diverse contexts, sub-entrepreneurial groups and in-depth analysis of selected variables regarding entrepreneurial opportunity, as elaborated in this article.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Javier Monllor and Patrick J. Murphy

The purpose of this paper is to contribute a deeper understanding of how natural disasters influence entrepreneurial intentionality as an important antecedent of…

1739

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute a deeper understanding of how natural disasters influence entrepreneurial intentionality as an important antecedent of entrepreneurial intention. It reviews the conceptual and operational backgrounds of natural disaster research and entrepreneurship theories and formulates a distinctive conceptual approach to entrepreneurial intentions in natural disaster settings.

Design/methodology/approach

An exhaustive review of research articles published in peer-reviewed entrepreneurship journals is provided and focuses on entrepreneurship, natural disasters, and entrepreneurial opportunities.

Findings

Six propositions about the influence of natural disasters on entrepreneurial intentions in ways that are distinct to the specific circumstances of post-disaster environments.

Research limitations/implications

The paper’s findings serve as a useful foundation for future research of post-disaster entrepreneurial behavior. The propositions highlight the relationship between opportunities, self-efficacy, feasibility, desirability, fear of failure, and resilience that complement macro-level research with micro-level antecedents. Implications entail new methodological avenues for future studies of humanitarian and post-disaster entrepreneurial activities.

Practical implications

This paper suggests ways in which public policy and educational, state and community programs can be designed and executed so that entrepreneurial intentions are developed and entrepreneurial action is not hindered. Moreover, it clarifies several ways to achieve more effective action (or inaction) to serve those affected by natural disasters and minimize disaffection.

Originality/value

The study illustrates that natural disasters can and do create opportunities for entrepreneurial behavior even as they generate powerful and sweeping negative effects on socioeconomic systems. Its unique approach explores individual-level variables concerning intent and motivation that drive entrepreneurial decisions in disaster contexts.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Md Imtiaz Mostafiz, Murali Sambasivan and See Kwong Goh

The international entrepreneurial capability has achieved its legitimacy in international business literature. Leveraging capabilities to recognise opportunities is…

Abstract

Purpose

The international entrepreneurial capability has achieved its legitimacy in international business literature. Leveraging capabilities to recognise opportunities is considered a pivotal strategy to achieve success. Drawing on the entrepreneurship literature and opportunity perspective, this study aims to investigate the role of international entrepreneurial capability in enhancing the international opportunity recognition (IOR) process and the performance of export manufacturing firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modelling has been used to test the hypothesised relationship on 388 export manufacturing entrepreneurial firms operating in the apparel industry of Bangladesh.

Findings

The results signify that three international entrepreneurial capabilities, namely, international networking, learning and marketing capability, positively enhance the IOR process of export manufacturing firms. The IOR process positively mediates the relationships between these international entrepreneurial capabilities and firm performance.

Originality/value

Merely having the international entrepreneurial capability is not sufficient to escalate the firm performance. It must be amplified by various strategic actions such as the IOR process. Entrepreneurs need to capitalise on the international entrepreneurial capability to leverage the IOR process and generate non-financial performance success. Entrepreneurial firms that focus more on stimulating non-financial performance can secure better financial performance.

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Antonia Mercedes García-Cabrera, Ana Maria Lucía-Casademunt and Laura Padilla-Angulo

This paper examines how the institutional distance between immigrants' country of residence and country of origin, as well as the regulative and normative aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how the institutional distance between immigrants' country of residence and country of origin, as well as the regulative and normative aspects of institutions in immigrants' country of residence, social context variables and individual psycho-behavioural factors, condition immigrants' entrepreneurial motivation (i.e. mainly by necessity, by a combination of necessity and opportunity, or mainly by opportunity), which is in contrast to the previous literature on immigrant entrepreneurship that mainly focuses on micro-level factors.

Design/methodology/approach

By using hierarchical linear regression models to test our hypotheses, the authors analyse 468 first-generation immigrant entrepreneurs settled in 31 European countries using data from the European Working Conditions Survey (6th EWCS; Eurofound, 2015 database) combined with other datasets to derive the macro-level variables (i.e. the Doing Business Project; Hofstede et al., 2010).

Findings

The authors find that distance in the normative aspects of institutions harms entrepreneurial opportunity motivation. At the same time, however, opportunity motivation is likely to benefit from both the normative aspects of institutions that reduce locals' opportunity motivation and the distance in the regulative aspects of institutions.

Originality/value

This article analyses immigrant entrepreneurship in Europe, which has been under-examined in the extant literature, and takes into account the micro-, meso- and macro-level factors affecting the entrepreneurial motivation of immigrants in Europe. This analysis responds to the need already highlighted by previous research to include not only micro-level factors but also meso- and macro-level factors in the analysis of immigrant entrepreneurship (Aliaga-Isla and Rialp, 2013).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Shingairai Grace Masango and Paul Lassalle

There is a growing interest in exploring the interface between international marketing and entrepreneurial opportunities. This paper contributes by defining and…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing interest in exploring the interface between international marketing and entrepreneurial opportunities. This paper contributes by defining and elucidating entrepreneurial action in early internationalising software firms and the corresponding emergent international marketing activities. Entrepreneurial action in early internationalising software firms is explored through the operationalisation of a reconceptualised entrepreneurial opportunity construct and the associated entrepreneurial learning processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts an inductive approach, which traces the evolution of five early internationalising propriety software South African firms; from the new venture idea to the establishment of the international entrepreneurial opportunity.

Findings

The findings provide support for entrepreneurial action guided by: prior industry experience, entrepreneurial alertness, opportunity confidence and two levels of entrepreneurial learning; experiential and double-loop learning. Learning by doing allows for the continuous evaluation of the new venture idea leading to the international entrepreneurial opportunity. Market responsiveness and continuous product development resulting in the emergence of the firm's inward international marketing activities constitute the key outcomes of entrepreneurial action.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to a specific technology context, which is young software firms whose inward directed internationalisation activities coalesce around the development of their proprietary software technology.

Originality/value

Based on an original dataset of early internationalising software firms from South Africa, this paper inductively operationalises and conceptualises entrepreneurial action as the combined interaction of four key constructs: contingent effects, attitudes to opportunities, learning by doing and entrepreneurial activities leading to the firm's inward international marketing activities and a diversified international client and end-user base.

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